Skip to main content

Full text of "Proceedings of the Geological Society of London"

See other formats


; 


LIBRARY  OF 


R.  D.  L  A  C  O  E  ■ 

For  the  Promotion  of  Research  in 
PALEOBOTANY  and  PALEOZOOLOGY 


RETURN  TO 


SMITHSONIAN  INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON,  D.  C. 


•y  <P 

.0>  --O      ^^^      _V  v 


>>     c/ 


cP 

/ 

i- 


o 


i  \ 


■    :       ■';■/':■-■ 


*^ 


ar 


X 


^       ~=~        ^  I.       *"& 


^  jff: 


i 


PROCEEDINGS 


THE  GEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY 


OF  LONDON. 


NOVEMBER  1826  to  JUNE  1833. 


VOL.  I. 


LONDON: 

PRINTED  BY  RICHARD  TAYLOR,   RED  LION  COURT,   FLEET  STREET; 

AND  SOLD  AT  THE  APARTMENTS  OF  THE  SOCIETY, 
SOMERSET  HOUSE. 

1834. 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE  GEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OP  LONDON. 

1826—1827.  No.  1. 

The  Council  of  the  Geological  Society,  being  desirous  of  commu- 
nicating to  the  Fellows  as  promptly  as  may  be,  an  account  of  the 
Proceedings  of  the  Society,  during  the  intervals  which  must  necessa- 
rily elapse  between  the  appearance  of  the  several  Parts  of  the  Trans- 
actions, has  made  arrangements  for  distributing,  to  the  Fellows  who 
reside  in  London  and  its  vicinity,  the  abstracts  of  the  papers  read  at 
the  ordinary  meetings,  with  such  official  documents  as  it  may  be 
thought  expedient  to  publish ; — which  if  preserved,  will  furnish  a 
connected  history  of  the  Society  .^-Such  of  the  non-resident  Fel- 
lows as  may  be  desirous  of  obtaining  copies,  may  have  them  sent 
according  to  any  address  in  town,  notified  by  letter  to  the  Secre- 
traies. 

The  present  Number  contains  an  account  of  the  Proceedings  of 
the  Geological  Society,  from  the  commencement  of  the  Session  in 
November  last,  to  the  annual  meeting  on  the  16th  of  February,  in- 
clusive ;  and  the  Numbers  will  in  future  be  continued,  from  time  to 
time,  according  to  the  space  occupied  by  the  abstracts  of  the  papers. 

The  Council  has  the  satisfaction  to  inform  the  Fellows,  that  the 
Second  Part  of  Volume  II.  of  the  second  series  of  the  Transactions, 
which  has  been  for  some  time  in  the  press,  will  be  ready  for  pub- 
lication in  a  few  weeks. 

9th  April  1827. 

PROCEEDINGS  DURING  THE  SESSION  OF  1826 — 1827- 

Nov.  3. — Colonel  Charles  Silvertop,  of  Minster  Acres,  Northum- 
berland, was  elected  a  Fellow  of  this  Society. 

A  paper  was  read  entitled  "  Additional  remarks  on  the  nature 
and  character  of  the  limestone  and  slate  principally  composing  the 
rocks  and  hills  round  Plymouth,"  by  the  Rev.  Richard  Hennah, 
F.G.S. 

The  author  refers  to  a  former  paper  on  this  subject,  in  which 
he  confined  his  field  of  observation  to  the  narrow  tract  between  the 
Plym  and  the  Tamar; — he  now  extends  its  limits  to  Mount  Batten 
and  Statten  Heights,  in  a  southerly  direction.     In  this  tract  which 


forms  the  east  side  of  Plymouth  Sound,  as  well  as  the  western  side 
from  Mount  Edgcombe  to  Pudding  Point,  animal  remains  are  im- 
bedded in  the  slate.  On  the  eastern  side  the  superior  beds  are  occa- 
sionally of  an  ochreous  clay-slate  containing  thin  veins  of  iron  with 
trochites  and  stems  of  encrinites :  these  are  associated  with  some 
peculiar  fossil  remains,  resembling  the  head  of  some  plant  or  animal. 
The  lower  beds  consist  of  compact  white  or  light  gray  slate  inclo- 
sing remains  like  those  found  in  the  limestone  and  slate.  An  iron- 
stone bed  occurs  here  which  is  used  for  pavements,  and  fragments 
of  the  same  animal  relics  are  discoverable  in  it :  a  great  fissure  in 
the  cliff  develops  fossils  of  a  new  character,  the  nature  of  which 
has  not  been  determined. 

From  the  above  facts  the  author  infers,  that  the  slate  which  is 
prolonged  beyond  the  Plymouth  limestone,  even  as  far  southward 
as  Whitesand  Bay,  is  not  primitive:  but  he  remarks  that  he  has 
never  perceived  animal  remains  in  the  slate  north  of  that  limestone. 

Extracts  were  read  from  letters  from  Captain  Franklin,  R.N.  and 
Dr.  Richardson,  to  Dr.  Fitton,  V.P.G.S.  dated  5th  of  November, 
1825,  at  Fort  Franklin,  on  the  Great  Bear  Lake,  North  America. 
Lat.  65°  12'  N. ;  long.  123°  5'  W. 

Capt.  Franklin  states,  that  the  expedition  under  his  command 
had  been  so  much  favoured  by  the  season  of  1825,  as  to  have  ac- 
complished some  objects  which  he  scarcely  hoped  to  have  attained 
within  that  time.  Of  these  the  most  important  were  his  having 
reached  the  sea  in  latitude  69°  29',  and  longitude  135°  40';  and 
having  been  enabled  to  see  the  direction  of  the  coast,  both  east  and 
west  from  the  mouth  of  the  Mackenzie  River : — and  while  he  was 
thus  engaged  on  the  Mackenzie,  Dr.  Richardson  went  round  the 
northern  shore  of  the  Great  Bear  Lake,  for  the  purpose  of  becoming 
acquainted  with  that  part  of  it  to  which  his  course  is  to  be  directed 
in  returning  from  the  mouth  of  the  Copper  Mine  River. — Capt. 
Franklin  gives  a  general  account  of  the  structure  of  the  tract  on  the 
course  of  the  Mackenzie,  through  which  he  had  passed ;  and  Dr. 
Richardson  describes  the  principal  physical  and  geological  features 
of  the  country  traversed  by  the  expedition, — the  total  distance  being 
about  5100  miles. — The  party,  at  the  date  of  the  letters,  were  es- 
tablished in  their  winter  quarters. 

Nov.  17. — A  notice  was  read  "  On  some  beds  associated  with  the 
magnesian  limestone,  and  on  some  fossil  fish  found  in  them,"  by  the 
Rev.  Adam  Sedgwick,  Woodwardian  Professor,  F.G.S. 

This  notice  professes  to  be  an  abstract  of  a  longer  paper  hereafter 
to  be  presented  to  the  Society.  (1.)  It  first  describes  a  deposit 
which  extends  through  Yorkshire  and  Durham,  and  separates  the 
magnesian  limestone  from  the  coal  measures.  This  is  principally 
composed  of  sand  and  sandstone:  but  in  one  or  two  instances  red 
marl  and  gypsum  have  been  found  associated  with  it.  Its  general 
character  in  Yorkshire  is  intermediate  between  the  gritstone  of  the 
carboniferous  order,  and  the  harder  beds  of  the  new-red-sandstone. 
In  the  county  of  Durham  it  is  said  to  appear  in  the  form  of  a  yel- 
low incoherent  sand  of  very  variable  thickness,  which  throws  very 


great  difficulties  in  the  way  of  all  mining  operations  within  the  limits 
of  the  magnesian  limestone.  On  a  great  scale  it  is  considered  as  un- 
conformable to  the  coal  strata,  and  nearly  co-extensive  with  the 
magnesian  limestone;  on  which  account  it  is  classed  with  the  latter 
formation.  (2.)  Next  described  is  a  deposit  consisting  in  some  places 
of  shell-limestone,  alternating  with  variously  coloured  marl, — and 
in  other  places  of  thin-bedded,  nearly  compact  limestone  alternating 
with  bituminous  marls.  In  the  county  of  Durham  this  deposit  is 
associated  with  an  extensive  formation  of  marl-slate.  In  this  marl, 
slate  many  specimens  of  fish  have  been  discovered ;  some  of  which 
appear  to  be  identical  in  species  with  the  fish  in  the  marl-slate  of 
Thuringia.  In  the  same  deposit  have  also  been  found  many  vege- 
table impressions.  (3.)  The  great  deposit  of  yellow  magnesian 
limestone  is  briefly  noticed ;  and  it  is  stated  not  uncommonly  to 
exhibit  traces  of  the  muriates  of  lime  and  magnesia,  a  fact  which 
is  supposed  to  connect  it  with  the  new-red-sandstone.  (4.)  The 
deposit  of  red  marl  and  gypsum  imbedded  in  the  formation  of  the 
magnesian  limestone  is  briefly  described.  (5.)  Lastly  is  noticed  the 
deposit  of  thin-bedded  limestone  which  surmounts  the  gypsum,  and 
in  which  magnesia  is  not  so  uniformly  diffused  as  in  the  inferior  mem- 
ber of  the  formation.  Traces  of  this  deposit  are  said  to  have  been 
discovered  in  the  county  of  Durham.  And  in  Yorkshire  beds  of  ga- 
lena have  been  found  subordinate  to  it,  and  worked  with  advantage. 
(6.)  Over  all  these  deposits  comes  the  great  formation  of  red  marl 
and  new-red-sandstone,  which  appears  to  be  so  intimately  interlaced 
with  the  preceding  subdivisions  of  the  magnesian  limestone,  that 
the  two  formations  cannot  in  any  natural  classification  be  separated 
from  each  other.  The  fossils  found  in  various  parts  of  the  magne- 
sian limestone  are  noticed,  and  are  supposed  to  form  a  suite  which 
more  nearly  resembles  that  of  the  carboniferous  limestone  than  has 
generally  been  imagined. 

A  paper  was  read  entitled  "  Observations  on  the  bones  of  hyaenas 
and  other  animals  in  the  cavern  of  Lunel  near  Montpelier,  and  in 
the  adjacent  strata  of  marine  formation,"  by  the  Rev.  W.  Buckland, 
D.D.  Professor  of  Mineralogy  and  Geology  in  the  University  of 
Oxford. 

In  a  journey  through  France  in  the  month  of  March  1826,  the 
author  visited  the  cave  of  Lunel  near  Montpelier,  (to  which  his 
attention  had  been  drawn  by  the  description  of  M.  Marcel  de  Ser- 
res,)  for  the  purpose  of  instituting  a  comparison  between  it  and  the 
caves  in  England  previously  described  by  himself;  and  the  result 
has  established  nearly  a  perfect  identity  in  the  animal  and  mineral 
contents  of  the  caverns,  as  well  as  in  the  history  of  their  introduc- 
tion. 

The  cave  of  Lunel  is  situated  in  compact  calcaire  grassier?  with 
subordinate  beds  of  globular  calcareous  concretions;  the  whole 
of  the  rock  having  something  of  an  oolitic  structure.  In  working  a 
free-stone  quarry  of  this  calcaire  grassier,  the  side  of  the  present 
cavern  was  accidentally  laid  open;  and  considerable  excavations 
have  since  been  made  in  it,  at  the  expense  of  the  French  Govern- 
ment, for  the  purpose  of  extracting  its  animal  remains  that  lie  bu- 


ried  in  mud  and  gravel,  and  of  searching  for  the  aperture  through 
which  all  these  extraneous  substances  have  been  introduced.  These 
operations  have  exposed  a  long  rectilinear  vault  of  nearly  100  yards 
in  length  and  of  from  ten  to  twelve  feet  in  width  and  height-  The 
floor  is  covered  with  a  thick  bed  of  diluvial  mud  and  pebbles,  occa- 
sionally reaching  almost  to  the  roof,  and  composed  at  one  extremity 
chiefly  of  mud,  whilst  at  the  other  end,  pebbles  predominate. 

In  another  quarry  of  calcaire  grossier  a  few  miles  distant,  some 
vertical  fissures  are  filled  with  similar  materials  to  those  within  the 
cavern,  and  containing  occasionally  a  few  bones,  sometimes  cemented 
by  calcareous  infiltrations  into  a  breccia  like  that  of  Gibraltar,  Cette, 
and  Nice.  These  materials  are  similar  in  substance  to,  and  are 
uninterruptedly  connected  with,  a  superficial  bed  of  diluvium  that 
covers  the  surface  of  these  quarries,  and  are  identical  with  the  ge- 
neral mass  of  diluvial  detritus  of  the  neighbourhood. 

Stalactite  and  stalagmite  are  of  rare  occurrence  in  the  cavern  of 
Lunel ;  hence  neither  its  bones  nor  earthy  contents  are  cemented 
into  a  breccia. 

On  examining  the  bones  collected  in  the  cavern  by  M.  Marcel  de 
Serres  and  his  associate  M.  Cristol,  Dr.  Buckland  found  many  of 
them  to  bear  the  marks  of  gnawing  by  the  teeth  of  ossivorous  ani- 
mals :  he  also  discovered  in  the  cave  an  extraordinary  abundance 
of  balls  of  album  graecum  in  the  highest  state  of  preservation.  Both 
these  circumstances,  so  important  to  establish  the  fact  of  the  cave 
of  Lunel  having  been  inhabited,  like  that  of  Kirkdale,  as  a  den  of 
hyaenas,  had  been  overlooked  by  the  gentlemen  above  mentioned. 
The  more  scanty  occurrence  of  stalactite,  and  the  greater  supply 
of  album  graecum  in  this  cavern  than  in  those  of  England,  (see 
Reliquice  Diluviance ,  vol.  i.)  are  referred  to  one  and  the  same  cause, 
viz.  the  introduction  of  less  rain  water  by  infiltration  into  this  cave, 
than  into  that  of  Kirkdale: — in  the  latter  case  a  large  proportion  of 
the  fecal  balls  of  the  hyaenas  appear  to  have  been  trod  upon  and 
crushed  at  the  bottom  of  a  wet  and  narrow  cave,  whilst  at  Lunel 
they  have  been  preserved  in  consequence  of  the  greater  size  and 
dryness  of  the  chamber  in  which  they  were  deposited. 

M.  Marcel  de  Serres  has  published  a  list  of  the  animal  remains 
contained  in  this  cavern,  which  differ  but  little  from  those  of  Kirk- 
dale: the  most  remarkable  addition  is  that  of  the  Beaver  and  the 
Badger,  together  with  the  smaller  striped,  or  Abyssinian,  Hyaena. 
For  these  discoveries  we  are  indebted  to  the  exertions  of  M.  Cristol, 
a  young  naturalist  of  Montpelier,  whose  observations  on  the  geology 
of  that  district  the  author  found  to  be  in  perfect  accordance  with 
his  own. 

With  respect  to  the  bones  of  Camels  said  to  have  been  discovered 
in  this  cavern,  Dr.  Buckland  found  on  comparing  rigidly  the  only 
bone  which  was  supposed  to  be  of  that  animal  with  the  proportions 
given  in  Cuvier,  that  it  certainly  does  not  belong  to  the  Camel.  In 
some  few  parts  of  the  diluvial  mud  there  occur  the  bones  of  Rabbits 
and  Rats;  and  M.  Cristol  has  also  discovered  the  leg  of  a  Domestic 
Cock.  All  these  Dr.  B.  found  on  examination  to  be  of  recent  origin 
(not  adhering  to  the  tongue  when  dry,  as  do  the  antediluvian  bones). 


The  Rats  and  Rabbits  are  supposed  to  have  entered  the  cave  spon- 
taneously, and  died  in  the  holes  which  they  had  burrowed  in  the 
soft  diluvial  mud,  and  the  Cock's  bone  to  have  been  introduced  by 
a  Fox  through  a  small  hole  in  the  side  of  the  cavern,  which  had  been 
long  known  as  a  retreat  of  Foxes,  in  the  bottom  of  an  ancient 
quarry. 

Land  shells,  similar  to  those  which  hybernate  in  the  soil,  or  in  fis- 
sures of  the  neighbouring  rocks,  are  also  found  in  the  mud  that  filled 
the  cave.  The  author  considers  that  these  may  either  be  the  shells 
of  animals  that  in  modern  times  have  entered  some  small  crevices 
in  the  side  of  the  cavern  to  hybernate  there,  and  have  buried  them- 
selves in  the  mud ;  or  that  they  entered  in  more  ancient  times,  and 
died  whilst  the  cave  was  inhabited  by  hyaenas,  and  lay  mixed  with 
the  bones  before  the  introduction  of  the  mud  and  pebbles; — or  that 
they  were  washed  in  by  the  same  diluvial  water  which  imported  the 
diluvial  detritus  in  which  they  are  now  imbedded. 

Dr.  Buckland  draws  a  strong  line  of  distinction  between  the  mud 
and  gravel  of  the  caves  and  fissures,  which  he  considers  to  be  part 
of  the  general  diluvium  so  widely  spread  over  the  adjacent  country, 
and  the  local  freshwater  formations  occurring  also  in  the  same 
neighbourhood  of  Montpelier ;  and  which  differ  as  decidedly  from 
them,  and  bear  to  them  the  same  relation  as  the  gravel  on  the  sum- 
mit of  Headen  Hill  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  bears  to  the  strata  of  fresh- 
water limestone  that  lie  beneath  it. 

The  author  next  proceeds  to  consider  the  epoch  of  the  deposi- 
tion of  the  remains  of  quadrupeds  that  have  been  found  in  some 
extensive  quarries  of  stone  and  sand  in  the  Fauxbourg  St.  Domi- 
nique at  Montpelier,  imbedded  in  a  very  recent  marine  formation 
which  has  been  described  by  M.  Marcel  de  Serres,  in  the  4th  vo- 
lume of  the  Linnean  Transactions  of  Paris. 

In  the  central  beds  of  this  deposit,  the  remains  of  the  Elephant, 
Rhinoceros,  Hippopotamus,  Mastodon,  Ox  and  of  the  Stag,  are 
found  intermingled  with  those  of  Cetacea,  (the  Dugong,  or  La- 
mantin);  they  are  more  or  less  rolled,  and  are  occasionally  covered 
with  marine  shells.  Beds  of  oysters  also  (the  Ostrea  crassissima  of 
Lamarck)  and  barnacles,  occur  in  horizontal  and  nearly  parallel 
strata  amid  the  marine  sand,  and  show  this  deposition  to  have  ta- 
ken place  gradually  and  at  successive  though  perhaps  short  inter- 
vals, rather  than  to  have  resulted  from  a  sudden  marine  irruption. 
The  period  of  this  deposition  is  supposed  by  the  author  to  have  been 
that  which  immediately  preceded,  and  was  terminated  by  the  last 
grand  aqueous  revolution  which  formed  the  diluvium. 

To  a  similar  and  contemporaneous  period  with  this  upper  marine 
formation  of  Montpelier,  he  refers  the  bones  of  the  Elephant,  Rhi- 
noceros, &c.  with  marine  shells,  (oysters  and  barnacles,)  adhering 
to  them,  that  have  been  found  in  certain  parts  of  the  Sub-apennine 
hills ;  and  also  the  bones  of  similar  quadrupeds  and  shells  that  occur 
in  the  Crag  of  Norfolk  and  Suffolk. 

To  the  same  period  also  he  assigns  the  bones  of  the  osseous  brec- 
cia of  Gibraltar,  Cette,  and  other  fissures  and  caves  along  the  north 
coast  of  the  Mediterranean  ;  and  the  accumulation  of  the  remains 


of  bears,  hyaenas,  &c.  in  the  caves  of  Germany,  England  and  France. 
He  attributes  the  same  date  also  to  the  bones  of  similar  animals 
that  are  found  buried  in  the  sediments  of  the  antediluvian  fresh-wa- 
ter lake  of  the  Upper  Val  d'Arno. 

Dec.  1 . — Henry  Peile,  Esq.,  of  Hyde  Park  Place,  West ;  and 
Henry  Witham,  Esq.,  of  Lartington  Hall,  Yorkshire,  were  elected 
Fellows  of  the  Society. 

An  extract  of  a  letter  from  B.  de  Basterot,  Esq.  to  Dr.  Fitton, 
V.P.G.S.  was  read. 

The  author  gives  a  short  account  of  the  succession  of  the  strata 
in  the  vicinity  of  Folkstone,  about  which  there  had  existed  some 
uncertainty ;  from  whence  it  appears  that  the  Folkstone  marl  (or 
Gault)  is  separated  from  the  lowest  beds  of  the  chalk  by  a  stratum 
of  green-sand,  and  is  itself  succeeded  by  sand  and  stone  also  abound- 
ing in  green  particles.  The  order  being  as  follows :  1  st,  white  chalk ; 
2nd,  gray  chalk  ;  3rd,  (a.)  sand  containing  green  particles,  and  indi- 
stinct organic  remains,  (b.)  marl  of  a  dirty  white  colour  mixed  with 
the  sand,  and  containing  compact  nodules ;  4th,  the  blue  marl  of 
Folkstone  (Gault)  with  Hamites,  Inocerami,  Ammonites  and  a 
small  Belemnite ;  5th,  thick  beds  of  sand  and  sandstone  full  of  green 
particles,  but  void  of  organic  remains. 

The  reading  of  a  paper  was  commenced,  entitled  "  Additional 
notes  on  part  of  the  opposite  coasts  of  France  and  England,  inclu- 
ding some  account  of  the  Lower  Boulonnois,  by  W.  H.  Fitton, 
M.D.  V.P.G.S." 

Dec.  15. — Sir  Henry  Calvert,  Baronet,  was  elected  a  Fellow  of 
the  Society. 

The  reading  of  Dr.  Fitton's  paper,  begun  at  the  last  meeting,  was 
concluded. — Since  the  reading  of  a  former  communication  of  the 
author,  the  correct  identification  of  the  beds  beneath  the  chalk  sug- 
gested by  Mr.  Lyell,  and  an  examination  of  the  strata  in  the  vicinity 
of  Weymouth,  have  enabled  him  to  compare  some  portions  of  the 
country  on  the  opposite  sides  of  the  English  Channel  more  accu- 
rately than  before  was  practicable :  and  he  now,  1  st,  describes  in 
detail  the  strata  which  succeed  the  chalk  in  the  vicinity  of  Folk- 
stone ;  and  2ndly,  gives  a  general  description  of  the  Lower  Bou- 
lonnois. 


The  following  table  exhibits  the  series  of  beds  within  the  tracts 
just  mentioned. 

Names,  chiefly  Places  of  Occurrence, 

derived  from  lo- 
cality inEngland. 


Chalk. 


Merstham   Stone 
(Greensand 
Fire-stone.  ■ — 
Upper-green- 
sand. —  Tufau 
of  the  French.) 

Gault , 

(Folkstone- 
marl.  —  Dieve 
oftheFrench.) 

Shanklin  Sands 
(lower  Green 
sand- —  Tour- 
tia      of      the 
French.) 

Weald  Clay ... 


In  England. 


Cliffs  from  Dover  to  Folk- 
stone-hill — Beachy-head 
to  Brighton — I.  of  Wight 
— I.  of  Purbeck,  Dorset- 
shire, &c. 

Merstham,  Reygate,  and 
Godstone  Firestone-pits 
— Western  Sussex  (Malm 
Rock)— I.ofWight— Swa- 
nageBay,I.ofPurbeck,&c 


Coast  from  Sangatte  to  Blanc- 
nez,— and  thence  on  the 
boundary  of  the  Lower 
Boulonnois,  to  Mont  St. 
Frieux,  &c.  W.  of  Neuf- 
chatel. 

Coast  between  Blanc-nez  and 
Wissant. 


Hastings  Sands. 


[Purbeck  Stone?} 


[Portland  Stone?] 


Kimmcridge,  and 
Weymouthbeds 


Pisolitesmd  Coral- 
rag. 

Oxford  Clay 


Bath-oolite 


In  the  Lower  Boulonnois. 


Copt-Point,  N.ofFolkstone. 
— Valleybeneaththechalk 
in  Kent,  Surrey,  and  Sus- 
sex. 

Coast  Folkstone  to  Hythe. — 
vicinity  of  Maidstone, 
Kent. — Western  Sussex. 
— Shanklin  and  Black 
gang-chines,  I.  of  Wight. 

Wealds  of  Kent  and  Sussex 
— Cowleaze-chine,  I.  of 

|  Wight.  —  N.  of  Swan 
age  Bay,  I.  of  Purbeck. 

Hastings,  Sussex. — S.  coast 
of  th  e  I.  of  Wight — Swan- 
age  Bay. 

I.  of  Purbeck — Summit  of 
the  I.  of  Portland  ? 

Shotover  Hill,  and  Garsing- 
ton,  Oxfordshire—  Brill- 
hill,  Bucks. 

Coast  near  Weymouth,  — 
Hedington-quarries,  Ox 
fordshire. 

Coast  near  Weymouth,  — 
Hedington-quarries,  &c, 
Oxfordshire. 

Coast  near  Weymouth.  - 
vicinity  of  Oxford. 


Coast  on  the  N.  of  Wissant. 
— vicinity  of  Hardinghen. 
— Lottinghen. — Vicinity  of 
Samer. 

Coast  N.  of  Wissant : — vici- 
nity of  Wissant. — Wooded 
hills  parallel  to  the  chalk, 
from  Desvresto  Samer,  &c. 
&c. 


I  Not     ascertained 
*      Boulonnois. 


— (unc 
Coal-formation. 

Mountain-Lime- 
stove. 


Vicinity  of  Bath, 
onformable) — 


Derby  shire .— Dev  on  .—Vici- 
nity of  Bristol. -Dublin, 


in     the 


Qu.  traces  in  the  upper  part 
of  the  cliff's  from  Gris-nez 
to  Equihen. 

Upper  part  of  the  cliffs  from 
Gris-nez  to  Equihen.  — 
Mont-Lambert  quarries. 

Coast  from  Gris-nez  to  Equi- 
hen.— Mont-Lambert  quar- 
ries.— Vicinity  of  Desvres. 
—of  Samer,  &c.  &c. 

Basinghen,  Hautenbert,  A- 
linctun  ; — Hesdin  L'Abbe, 
&c. ;  Vicinity  of  Samer. 

Vicinity  of  Wast — Houlfort. 
— Between  Basinghen  and 
Marquise. 

Vicinity  of  Marquise — Quar- 

I  ries  at  Leubringhen  —  Ar- 
dentun — Rety,  &c. 

Vicinity  of  Hardinghen,  — 
Lochinghen, — Cedur,  &c. 

Leulinghen.  —  Quarries  at 
Ferques,  Haut-banc,  &c. 


8 

I.  On  the  N.E.  of  Folkstone,  the  chalk  is  succeeded  by  the  equi- 
valent of  the  Merstham  Firestone,  (or  green  sand,)  which  is  there 
however  not  more  than  fifteen  or  sixteen  feet  in  thickness  ;  and  this 
is  followed  immediately  by  Gault.  The  Shanklin  Sands,  (or  lower 
green  sand,)  which  come  next  in  succession,  are  composed  of  three 
groups,which  may  be  recognized  also  in  the  interior  of  the  country. 
The  first  and  uppermost  consists  of  sand,  abounding  in  irregular 
concretions  of  limestone  and  chert,  sometimes  disposed  in  courses 
oblique  to  the  general  direction  of  the  strata :  and  the  top  of  this 
sand,  in  the  vicinity  of  Folkstone  and  Hythe,  forms  an  exten- 
sive plateau  i-esembling  that  of  the  Blackdown  range  of  hills  in  De- 
vonshire.— The  second  group  of  this  formation  likewise  consists 
chiefly  of  sand,  but  in  some  places  so  much  mixed  with  clay,  or 
with  oxide  of  iron,  as  to  retain  water  ;  and  it  is  remarkable  for  the 
great  variation  of  its  colour  and  consistency,— from  the  state  of 
loose  bright  yellow  or  ferruginous  sand,  to  that  of  a  dark  greenish 
tough  mass,  like  that  of  the  cliffs  of  Shanklin  and  Black  Gang- 
chines,  which  correspond  to  it  in  geological  situation.— The  third 
and  lowest  group  of  the  Shanklin  Sands  abounds,  near  Folkstone, 
much  more  in  stone;  the  concretional  beds  being  closer  together 
and  more  nearly  continuous.  The  fossils  of  this  group,  which 
are  very  numerous,  agree  with  those  of  the  corresponding  beds  in 
Sussex,  the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  Devonshire;  and  some  of  them  are 
found  also  in  the  limestone  of  the  Isle  of  Portland.  The  sections  of 
the  Weald  Clay,  and  Hastings  Sands,  being  imperfectly  displayed  on 
the  coasts  of  Kent  and  Sussex,  the  author  gives  detailed  lists  of  the 
beds  at  Cowleaze-chine,  &c,  on  the  south  coast  of  the  Isle  of  Wight, 
and  on  the  shore  of  Swanage  Bay  in  the  Isle  of  Purbeck,  where 
these  formations  are  fully  disclosed;  referring  for  an  account  of  the 
geological  relations  of  those  tracts,  to  a  paper  published  by  himself 
in  the  Annals  of  Philosophy  for  November  1824*. 

II.  The  Lower  Boulonnois  may  be  described  as  constituting  a 
flattened  dome  of  unequal  curvature,  surrounded  on  thx*ee  sides  by 
an  amphitheatre  of  chalk,  which  has  been  removed  by  denudation 
from  the  whole  of  the  interior  •  the  lower  strata  having  a  very 
gentle  inclination  where  they  emerge  from  beneath  the  chalk,  but 
rising  from  the  sea  at  a  much  more  considerable  angle.  From  the 
chalk  down  to  the  Shanklin  (or  lower  green)  sands,  the  strata  of  the 
opposite  coasts  near  Calais  and  Folkstone,  precisely  correspond; 
and  the  same  beds  may  be  traced  beneath  the  chalk,  almost  without 
interruption,  around  the  whole  of  the  denudation  ;  the  gaidt  espe- 
cially, being  very  distinctly  disclosed  in  the  vicinity  of  Hardinghen 
where  it  is  succeeded  by  the  Bath-oolite,  and  by  the  coal  formation. 
The  next  succeeding  beds  of  the  English  coast,  Weald-clay  and 
Hastings  sands,  (which  it  is  remarkable,  have  not  yet  been  found 
in  the  interior  of  England,)  appear  to  be  wanting  also  in  the  Bou- 
lonnois ;  or,  if  they  do  exist  there,  to  occupy  a  very  small  space. 
But  some  traces  of  the  lowest  members  of  the  group  to  which  these 
two  strata  belong,  and  which  is  remarkable  from  its  containing 

*  New  Scries,  vol.  viii.  p.  365,  &c. 


9 

throughout  the  remains  of  freshwater  shells,  are  visible  on  the  sum- 
mit of  the  cliffs  between  Gris-nez  and  Equihen  :  where  a  thin  bed  oc- 
curs of  somewhat  bituminous  clay,  abounding  in  silicified  wood,  the 
cavities  of  which  are  coated  with  minute  crystals  of  quartz.  This 
bed  corresponds  precisely  to  that  which  exists  on  the  top  of  the  Isle 
of  Portland,  bearing  there  the  name  of'  Dirt,'  and  abounding  in  si- 
milar wood ;  and  on  the  French  coast  it  is  associated  with  beds  of 
limestone,  different  from  the  stone  beneath,  and  containing  shells 
in  great  numbers,  apparently  of  the  genera  Cyclas  and  Ampullaria. 
The  next  stratum  of  the  Boulonnois  is  the  same  with  that  which 
occurs  at  Garsington  and  Shotover-Hill  in  Oxfordshire,  and  at  Brill 
and  other  places  in  the  vicinity  of  Aylesbury  in  Buckinghamshire, — 
and  which  has  hitherto  been  regarded  as  the  representative  of  the 
Portland  limestone. — Respecting  its  geological  relations,  however, 
some  doubts  still  remain  to  be  cleared  up  ;  since,  although  several 
of  the  fossils  are  the  same  with  those  of  the  Isle  of  Portland,  the 
aspect  of  some  of  the  beds,  differs  a  good  deal  from  that  of  the 
Portland  stone;  and  the  characters  agree  in  many  respects  with 
those  of  the  lowest  beds  of  the  Shanklin-sands  in  the  vicinity  of 
Hythe.  The  formation  in  the  Boulonnois  consists,  as  in  Oxford- 
shire, of  calcareous  concretions  of  great  size,  abounding  in  petrifac- 
tions, and  imbedded  in  yellowish  somewhat  ferruginous  sand :  and 
the  appearance  of  the  stratum,  especially  between  Gris-nez  and  Au- 
dreselles,  where  the  shore  is  covered  with  these  enormous  masses 
fallen  from  the  sands  above,  is  exceedingly  striking  and  remarkable. 
To  this  formation  a  series  of  beds  succeeds,  the  equivalent  of  the 
strata  between  the  Portland  limestone  and  the  coral  rag : — corres- 
ponding precisely  to  those  of  the  shore  near  Weymouth,  and  con- 
sisting of  alternations  of  sand,  limestone  and  clay  ,in  some  instances 
bituminous  and  abounding  in  fossils. — These  occupy  the  whole  of 
the  lower  part  of  the  cliffs  from  Gris-nez  to  Equihen,  and  are  visible 
in  several  places  in  the  interior.  The  pisolite  and  coral  rag  are  not 
seen  upon  the  coast,  but  come  up  at  a  short  distance  within  it ;  and 
their  outcrop  is  conspicuous  at  Basinghen,  and  along  a  line  extend- 
ing from  that  place,  by  Wierre  and  Hautenbert,  to  Alinctun.  On 
the  north  of  that  line  this  formation  is  succeeded  by  a  valley  con- 
stituting a  very  remarkable  feature  of  the  country,  and  occupied  by 
beds  of  clay  containing  fossils  identical  with  those  of  the  Oxford 
clay,  and  including,  especially  at  the  lower  part,  subordinate  beds  of 
sand  and  calcareous  grit.  These  are  followed  on  the  north,  near 
Marquise,  by  the  equivalent  of  the  Bath-oolite,  (the  Cornbrash  and 
Forest-marble,  which  precede  the  oolitic  beds  near  Bath,  being  in- 
distinct or  wanting) : — and  this  formation  seems  to  come  in  without 
any  intervention,  immediately  after  the  gault  or  subjacent  sand,  on 
the  north  of  the  denudation  ;  where  it  occupies  the  surface,  in  nearlv 
horizontal  strata  placed  unconformably  over  beds  of  the  coal  forma- 
tion, or  of  mountain-limestone. — The  former  of  these  is  disclosed  in 
a  small  space  only,  in  the  vicinity  of  Hardinghen :  and  the  author 
refers  for  an  account  of  it  to  a  Memoir  now  preparing  for  publication 
by  M.  Gamier  of  Arras. — The  mountain  limestone,  which  is  the 
lowest  formation  of  the  Boulonnois,  in  some  places  comes  in  imme- 


10 

diately  after  the  lower  green  sand,  or  the  gault,  without  the  inter- 
vention even  of  the  oolite :  and  near  Landrethun  the  distance  from 
the  chalk  to  the  limestone  beds  is  not  more  than  a  quarter  of  a  mile. 
In  some  cases,  when  the  incumbent  mass  of  oolite  is  removed,  the 
surface  of  the  limestone  beneath  is  found  to  be  smooth,  or  slightly 
waved  like  the  sands  of  the  shore  after  the  tide  has  retired ;  and  the 
rock  is  pierced  by  tubular  perforations  evidently  the  work  of  marine 
animals ;  a  proof  that  the  surface  must  have  been  exposed  to  their 
activity  for  some  time  before  the  oolite  was  deposited.  The  beds  of 
mountain  limestone  of  the  ordinary  character,  in  some  places  alter- 
nate with  dolomite,  precisely  resembling  that  which  is  found  in  the 
same  geological  situation  near  Dublin.  And  the  fossils  of  this  for- 
mation in  the  Boulonnois  are  the  same  with  those  of  Derbyshire, 
Gloucestershire,  and  Dublin. 

On  comparing  in  a  general  view  the  strata  of  the  opposite  coasts, 
it  will  be  seen  that  those  of  the  Boulonnois  do  not  occur  upon  the 
English  shore,  except  in  the  vicinity  of  Weymouth :  and  if  the  line 
of  elevated  strata  which  extends  from  that  part  of  the  coast  of  Dor- 
setshire, through  the  Isle  of  Purbeck  and  the  Isle  of  Wight,  were 
continued  to  the  eastward,  it  would  reach  the  French  coast  near 
Gris-nez ; — just  at  the  place  where  the  same  beds  arise,  and  where 
it  is  remarkable  their  position  is  likewise  very  highly  inclined. 

Jan.  5. — A  notice  was  read,  accompanying  some  specimens  from 
the  Hastings-Sand  Formation,  with  a  copy  of  a  work  on  the  fossils 
of  Tilgate  Forest ;  by  G.  Mantell,  Esq.  F.R.,  L.  and  G.S.,— in  a 
letter  to  R.  I.  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S. 

The  author  states  that  his  principal  object  in  the  present  volume, 
is  to  give  a  correct  and  extended  view  of  that  division  of  the  Has- 
tings Sands,  distinguished  by  him  in  the  strata  of  Tilgate  Forest, 
the  relations  of  which  he  illustrates  by  the  section  of  a  quarry  at 
Pounceford,  where  the  Ashburnham  limestone  with  bivalves,  &c.  is 
seen  overlying  sandstone  and  calciferous  grit  (Tilgate  stone). 

A  recapitulation  of  the  animal  and  vegetable  remains  (in  which 
the  author  particularly  notices  that  gigantic  Saurian  the  Iguanodon) 
shows  the  vast  preponderance  of  land  and  freshwater  exuviae  in  the 
Hastings  strata  over  those  of  marine  origin  -}  a  circumstance  in  strict 
accordance  with  what  is  now  constantly  occurring  in  all  deltas  and 
estuaries  of  great  rivers. — A  description  is  given  in  the  concluding 
chapter  of  the  work,  of  the  probable  condition  of  the  country  ante- 
rior to  the  epoch  of  this  deposit. 

The  reading  of  a  paper  was  commenced,  entitled  "  On  the 
coal-field  of  Brora,  in  Sutherlandshire,  and  some  other  stratified 
deposits  of  the  North  of  Scotland ;"  by  R.  I.  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec. 
G.S.  F.R.S. 

Jan.  19. — The  Meeting  intended  for  this  evening  was  postponed 
in  consequence  of  the  decease  of  his  Royal  Highness  the  Duke  of 
York. 

Feb.  2.— Lord  Ribblesdale,  of  Ribblesdale  Park,  Yorkshire,  and 


11 

John  Hoptown  Forbes,  Esq.  of  Ely  Place,  were  elected  Fellows  of 
this  Society. 

The  reading  of  a  paper  was  concluded,  "  On  the  coal-field  of 
Brora  in  Sutherlandshire,  and  some  other  stratified  deposits  in  the 
north  of  Scotland;"  by  R.  I.  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S. 

The  Brora  coal-field  forms  a  part  of  the  deposits,  which  on  the 
S.E.  coast  of  Sutherlandshire  occupy  a  tract  of  about  twenty  miles 
in  length,  from  Golspie  to  the  Ord  of  Caithness ;  and  three  miles  in 
its  greatest  breadth: — divided  into  the  valleys  of  Brora,  Loth,  and 
Navidale,  by  the  successive  advance  to  the  coast  of  portions  of  the 
adjoining  mountain  range  which  bounds  them  on  the  W.  and  N.W. 
The  first  of  these  valleys  is  flanked  on  the  S.W.  by  hills  of  red-con- 
glomerate ;  which  pass  inland  on  the  N.E.  of  Loch  Brora,  and  give 
place  to  an  unstratified  granitic  rock  that  forms  the  remainder  of 
the  mountainous  boundary. 

With  a  view  to  the  comparison  of  the  strata  at  Brora  with  those 
of  England,  the  author  had  previously  examined  the  N.E.  coast  of 
Yorkshire,  from  Filey-Bridge  to  Whitby,  comprising  the  coal-field 
of  the  Eastern  Moorlands  above  the  lias. 

The  highest  beds  at  Brora  consist  of  a  white  quartzose  sandstone, 
partially  overlaid  by  a  fissile  limestone,  containing  many  fossils, — 
the  greater  number  of  which  have  been  identified  with  those  of  the 
calcareous  grit  beneath  the  coral  rag; — and  along  with  these  Mr. 
Sowerby  has  discovered  several  new  species.  The  next  beds,  in  a 
descending  order,  are  obscured,  in  the  interior,  by  the  diluvium  which 
is  generally  spread  over  the  surface  of  these  valleys,  but  are  ex- 
posed on  other  places  on  the  coast ;  and  they  consist  of  shale  with 
the  fossils  of  the  Oxford  clay,  overlying  a  limestone  resembling 
Cornbrash  and  Forest  Marble,  the  latter  associated  with  calciferous 
grit.  To  these  succeed  sandstone,  and  shale  containing  belemnites 
and  ammonites,  through  which  the  shaft  of  the  present  coal-pit  is 
sunk,  to  the  depth  of  near  80  yards  below  the  level  of  the  river  Brora. 
The  principal  bed  of  coal  is  3  feet  5  inches  in  thickness,  and  the  roof 
is  a  sandy  calcareous  mixture,  of  fossil  shells  and  a  compressed  as- 
semblage of  leaves  and  stems  of  plants,  passing  into  the  coal  itself. 
The  fossils  of  this  and  the  superior  beds  are  identical  for  the  greater 
part,  with  those  which  occur  in  the  strata  above  the  coal  in  the  E.  of 
Yorkshire :  and  of  the  whole  number  of  species  collected  by  the  au- 
thor, amounting  nearly  to  fifty,  two-thirds  are  well  known  fossils  of 
the  oolite ; — the  remainder  belonging  to  new  species  represented  in 
the  last  numbers  of  the  Mineral  Conchology.  The  plant  of  which 
the  Brora  coal  appears  to  have  been  formed,  is  identical  with  one  of 
the  most  characteristic  vegetables  of  the  Yorkshire  coast,  but  differs 
essentially  from  any  of  the  plants  found  in  the  coal  measures  be- 
neath the  new-red-sandstone : — It  has  been  formed  into  a  new  genus 
by  Mr  Konig,  and  is  described  by  him  in  the  present  memoir,  under 
the  name  of  Oncylogonatum. 

The  author,  therefore,  considers  the  Brora  coal,  from  its  asso- 
ciated shells  and  plants,  as  the  equivalent  of  that  of  the  Eastern 
Moorlands  of  Yorkshire. 

At  Loth,  Helmsdale,  and  Navidale?  shale  and  sandstone  overlie 


12 

calcareous  strata  resembling  the  Cornbrash  and  Forest  marble,  and 
these  are  in  many  cases  dislocated  where  they  are  in  contact  with 
the  granitic  rock,  and  distorted  where  they  approach  it. 

The  base  of  the  entire  series  above  mentioned  is  seen  at  low  water 
on  the  coast  near  the  north  and  south  Sutors  of  Cromarty,  where  the 
lias  with  some  of  its  characteristic  fossils  is  observable  resting  upon 
the  sandstone  of  the  red  conglomerate, —  the  latter  in  contact  with 
granitic  rock. 

On  the  N.W.  coast  of  Scotland,  several  members  of  the  oolitic  se- 
ries with  their  peculiar  organic  remains  were  recognized  by  the  au- 
thor in  the  isles  of  Skye,  Pabba,  Scalpa,  Mull,  &c. ;  where  their 
occurrence  was  first  noticed  generally  by  Dr.  MacCulloch. 

A  short  sketch  is  given  of  the  geognostic  relations  of  the  schists 
and  sandstones  of  Caithness,  which  are  probably  referrible  to  the 
new-red-sandstone; — some  of  these  beds  resembling  the  copperslate 
of  Thuringia,  and  its  associates:  whilst  the  fossil  fish  recently  dis- 
covered at  Banniskirk,  though  the  species  is  new,  appear  to  belong 
to  the  same  family  with  those  of  Mansfelt,  in  Germany. 

The  paper  concludes  by  adverting  to  the  support  given  by  the 
preceding  facts  to  the  great  importance  of  zoological  evidence  in 
the  identification  of  distant  deposits : — since  the  existence  in  the  N. 
of  Scotland,  of  a  large  portion  of  the  oolitic  series  of  England,  has 
been  demonstrated  from  the  agreement  of  organic  remains,  although 
the  mineralogical  characters  of  the  beds  containing  these  fossils  are 
perfectly  distinct  at  the  extremes  of  the  tract  through  which  the 
strata  are  distributed. 


Annual  General  Meeting  of  the  Fellows,  16th  February  1827. 

A  Report  from  the  Council  was  read,  of  which  the  following  is  an 
abstract. 

Comparative  Statement  of  the  number  of  Fellows  and  Foreign 
Members,  at  the  last  and  present  Anniversaries. 

Fellows.  17th  Feb.  1826.  16th  Feb.  1827- 

Having  compounded 41  42 

Contributing   134  133 

Non-resident 193  200 

Total  368  375 

Foreign  Members 47  47 


CO 


s 


s 

S3 


CD 

nj 

*-> 

CO 

bD 

s 

'£ 

o 


T3 

3 

< 
,3. 


O 

o 


CO 

r^j    ■#    CM    CM 

.  CO  CD  •* 


•  H6  |—  —<  rH 
3  CM  i—l 


X  10  O  O  O  CD 

oo^OOOO 


fflOOOOO) 
OXOCIMN 

Tfl  I— (  I— ( 


K] 


co    »- 
O    3 

CO     co 

c  s 

0)  l-H 

3--« 
*  s    . 

cS    co 

co  ,'"Z 
CD    CS 

°    CS    CD 

KHCh 


o 


CS     i- 

CO  S 


o 


C-2    co 

■  2^.2 
&Jb2  o  gjs 

.-.    >~>  CD    co  'q3 

c  «-2  ■£  cj 

t,  ^   o   «u  • - 
OnCOOtf  S 


"«  o 


o  o  o 


rrt  CO 


CM 


o  o 


O  CM 

-*   r-l 


^ 


CO 


^S  o  o 

£  CM  © 


,■>  "*  w 


in 


s 

CD 


.2  o 

3* 

.-2  » 

£   cd 

3  e*_l 

°  c 

CJ  J 

■—i  °co 

eS     CO 


CD  S 

es  c 

£  s 

.2  © 


O  O  ©      i-H     C7;  O 

l-H   r— I 

>0  CM  ©     CO      CO  O 


,-CO-^O      tP      ■*  CO 
«rt  fi  ■*  CO      W5      G5  l> 

H1T.H       CM       r-1   i— I 


Sj 


^        ,3 


•S< 


cq 


3  s       *-> 


o 

-o 

CO 

CS 
> 

s 
o 

0) 

CJ 

T3 

a 

cu 

-s 

c 

> 

o 

Si 
— i 

O 

CD 

o 

00 

■* 

CM 

"T 

*e"  o  co  o 

<« 

'  o 

:« 

r-^-> 

4  10  CO  o 

■     CO 

i— <  i— 1 1— i 

•  .2 

»0    cS 

CO       " 

s    • 
.2    " 

QJ   CO   >-H   ^H 

^  ^  tJ.  CO 

S'S 

o     • 

'     •     • 

2co 

CS        • 
CO        . 

• 

c*-  a? 

s     . 

O     "3 

es      . 

•     CO     CO 

3 

Si       . 

.-•'3  *& 

CD    o 

H    . 

-3    =    2 

JJK 

«4H         " 
O 

"    a    es   « 
•«D   cs-^-^ 

CJ 

2^ 

§  CM  ^ 

cc 

CM     r-     co     W 

00    »  's-  "s- 

i-H  -         CD     O 

tstanding  at  tl 
xpenditure  18 
d    

33°HcSrrFC3  s   cu  =3 

3    <U 

3  5       —  2  " 

°-3 

to    it 

-w     CD 

«  a       o  co  a 

.O    S 

a           «  a  s 

0)    cu 

cd  s       .-£  >  -3 

QOPhO     Q^cq 

-^^OOOOOOOCO     o 
Oi^O^CMcOO-^CO     >0 


«rt 


co  >o 

t-CM 


S  S  CD  ^  t-C3  CM 

CM  OS  Oi  i>  -h  ifj  i-i 

CO  CM  CM 


.T3 
.  3 
.    <S 

co    co 
*3  V. 


-g  y 


£  « 


Q 
o 

3 


SC 


2  «» 

CS  _r! 

■  b  a 


^•2 
'£  3 

o  o 


<< 


:  s 

'5 


a. 

3 

CS 
CD 
CM 
CO 


■     •  O     . 

•  -w      . 

>r3      . 

•  <u     . 

'     •  c>     . 

•  «     . 

•  a.  - 

!  v;t'  " 

.     CO         " 

.    Si 

•  PS 

.  u     • 

•  o 

.  J3      * 

.  > 

•  s  : 

•  "S 

•  <u  . 

•    CD      . 

:S   • 

.    S-. 

•  wj  ; 

.    S 

•  >»  • 

.    CD 

•  _Q      • 

•rt 

•  3    • 

"  «*-  2 

•  "S    • 

*  o  2 

•  a-   . 

•  ,«  o 

Si 

4-> 

o 

CJ    > 

s  s  a 

•3  Ohjo 

2  S  3 

"3  o   o 


SCO 

2  a 
H  ° 


O    CD 


co  3i   s- 


»-    *5    JS 


CQmO 


«rt 


o 
U 

T3 

C 
CS 


3 


3 


co 


i?j 


* 


03 


hq 


000 
o  o  o 


^00 

o    <-i    05 


i?5 


^   co  © 


Ci>    ■*     O 
^     -fr     <X> 


s 

^  .2  fi  *" 


o  o 
o  o 


o  o 

05    — ■ 


T3    -3 
o    o 


«      S 


0      c- 


.    o 
<U    02 


PQ    a> 


U 


s 


0)         :«      t.      t(« 


«  o  o     .g  * 


Ol 

crt 

k. 

CO 

H 

c« 

Cm 

ru 

O 

c 

-J 

O 

(XH 

m 

(J 

> 

*■* 

T3 

cu 

CB 

JA 

p 

U 

0 

"ir1 

50 

CO 


CO 


« 


50 

CO 


«rt 


£Q   <* 


G  cS 


m  £3 


15 

The  Council  has  to  report  to  the  General  Meeting  that  they  have 
prepared  a  draft  of  the  Bye-laws  under  the  charter,  which  they  pro- 
pose to  submit  to  the  Society  at  an  early  period. 

The  Museum  has  received  many  valuable  donations  since  the  last 
Anniversary,  of  which  the  following  are  the  most  important. 

British. — Fossil  bones  from  Kent's  hole  near  Torquay  ;  presented 
by  Mrs.  Cazalet. 

Specimens  of  Crinoidea  from  Lancaster ;  presented  by  Mr.  Gil- 
berston. 

Specimens  of  Rocks  and  of  organic  remains,  to  illustrate  his  memoir 
on  certain  stratified  deposits  in  the  North  of  Scotland ;  present- 
ed by  R.  I.  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S. 

Specimens  from  Cader  Idris  N.  Wales,  in  illustration  of  his  me- 
moir; presented  by  A.  Aikin,  Esq.,  F.G.S. 

Specimens  chiefly  of  primitive  rocks,  from  Sutherland  N.  Britain ; 
presented  by  Matthew  Culley,  Esq.,  F.G.S. 

Foreign. — Organic  remains  from  N.  America ;  presented  by  Lieut. 
Bayfield,  and  Henry  Warburton,  Esq.  F.G.S. 

Fossils  from  Volhynia,  the  Volga,  and  Jamaica  ;  presented  by  Sir 
A.  Crichton,  V.P.G.S. 

Rocks  and  simple  minerals  from  N.  America :  presented  by  Dr. 
Hossack. 

By  the  plan  adopted  last  year  for  the  disposal  of  the  duplicates, 
space  has  been  obtained  for  the  reception  of  several  thousand  new 
specimens;  and  the  Council  hopes  that  the  collection  will  be  still 
further  condensed  and  improved,  in  the  course  of  the  ensuing  year. 

The  Library  has  been  increased,  by  the  donation  of  45  volumes; 
and  among  the  maps  l'eceived,  the  Council  has  particularly  to  men- 
tion those  of  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Rhine  and  Low  Countries, 
accompanied  by  Sections  ;  presented  by  the  authors  Messrs.  Oeyn- 
hausen  and  Dechen. 

The  first  Part  of  a  Second  Volume  of  the  Second  Series  of  Trans- 
actions has  been  published,  since  the  last  Anniversary;  and  another 
Part  is  now  in  the  press. 

Papers  read  at  the  Meetings  of  the  Society  since  the  last  Anniversary. 

On  the  strata  of  the  Plastic  clay  formation  exhibited  in  the  cliffs 
between  Christchurch  Head,  Hampshire,  and  Studland  Bay,  Dor- 
setshire; by  Charles  Lyell,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 

On  the  Geology  of  the  valley  of  St.  Lawrence  ;  by  Dr.  Bigsby. 

On  the  Geological  position  of  some  of  the  rocks  of  the  N.  E.  of  Ire- 
land; by  Lieut.  Portlock,  R.E.  F.G.S. 

On  the  Freshwater  strata  of  Hordwell,  Beacon,  and  Barton  Cliffs, 
Hants  ;  by  Charles  Lyell,  Esq.,  F.G.S. 

On  the  Geological  structure  of  Cader  Idris;  by  Arthur  Aikin,  Esq. 
F.G.S, 


16 

On  the  nature  and  character  of  the  limestone  and  slate  composing 
principally  the  rocks  and  hills  round  Plymouth;  by  the  Rev. 
Richard  Hennah,  F.G.S. 

On  some  beds  associated  with  the  Magnesian  limestone  and  on  some 
Fossil  fish  found  in  them ;  by  the  Rev.  Adam  Sedgwick,  Wood- 
wardian  Professor,  University  of  Cambridge,  F.G.S. 

Observations  on  the  bones  of  hyaenas  and  other  animals  in  the  ca- 
vern of  Lunel  near  Montpelier,  and  in  the  adjacent  strata  of  ma- 
rine formation ;  by  the  Rev.  W.  Buckland,  D.D.  &c. 

Additional  notes  on  part  of  the  opposite  coasts  of  France  and  En- 
gland, including  some  account  of  the  Lower  Boulonnois;  by 
William  Henry  Fitton,  M.D.  V.P.R.S. 

On  the  Coal  Field  of  Brora  in  Sutherlandshire  N.  B.,  and  some 
other  stratified  deposits  of  the  North  of  Scotland ;  by  R.  I.  Mux*- 
chison,  Esq.,  Sec.  G.S. 

The  Reports  having  been  read — it  was  Resolved, 

1.  That  these  Reports  be  approved  of,  and  that  such  parts  of  them 
as  the  Council  shall  think  fit,  be  printed  and  distributed  among 
the  Fellows  of  the  Society. 

2.  That  the  thanks  of  the  Society  be  given  to  John  Bostock,  M.D. 
retiring  from  the  office  of  President. 

3.  That  the  thanks  of  the  Society  be  given  to  Sir  Alexander 
Crichton,  Charles  Stokes,  Esq.,  and  William  Henry  Fitton,  M.D. 
retiring  from  the  office  of  Vice-presidents. 


The  Meeting  then  proceeded  to  the  election  of  officers  for  the 
ensuing  year,  when  the  following  list  was  delivered  in  by  the  scru- 
tineers,— viz.: 

President :  William  Henry  Fitton,  M.D.  F.R.S. —  Vice-Presidents .' 
Arthur  Aikin,  Esq.  F.L.S. ;  John  Bostock,  M.D.  F.R.S. ;  Rev.  W. 
D.  Conybeare,  F.R.S.;  Rev.  Adam  Sedgwick,  F.R.S.  Woodward- 
ian  Professor,  Cambridge. — Secretaries:  W.  J.  Broderip,  Esq. 
F.L.S. ;  R.  I.  Murchison,  Esq.  F.R.S. — Foreign  Secretary  ;  Henry 
Heuland,  Esq. —  Treasurer:  John  Taylor,  Esq.  F.R.S. — Council. 
Henry  Thomas  De  la  Beche,  Esq.  F.R.  &  L.S. ;  J.  E.  Bicheno, 
Esq.  Sec.  L.S. ;  Davies  Gilbert,  Esq.  M.P.  V.P.R.S. ;  George  Bel- 
las Greenough,  Esq.  F.R.  &  L.S.;  John  Frederick  William  Her- 
schel,  Esq.  Sec.  R.S. ;  Armand  Levy,  Esq.;  Charles  Lyell,  Esq. 
F.R.S. ;  William  Hasledine  Pepys,  Esq.  F.R.S. ;  Rev.  John  Ho- 
neywood  Randolph;  Charles  Stokes,  Esq.  F.R.S.  &  L.S. ;  J.  F. 
Vandercom,  Esq. ;  Henry  Warburton,  Esq.  M.P.  F.R.S. ;  Thomas 
Webster,  Esq. ;  Thomas  Young,  Esq. 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE  GEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  LONDON. 

1827.  No.  2. 


March  2. — Henry  Blanshard,  Esq.  of  Great  Ormond  Street,  Lon- 
don ;  Richard  Cowling  Taylor,  Esq.  of  Wilmington  Square,  London  ; 
and  John  Watson  Pringle,  Esq.,  Captain  in  the  Royal  Engineers, — 
were  elected  Fellows  of  the  Society. 

A  paper  was  read,  "  On  the  volcanic  district  of  Naples;"  by  G. 
Poulett  Scrope,  Esq.  F.G.S.  F.R.S. 

In  this  paper  the  author  purposes  to  confine  himself  to  a  general  view 
of  the  volcanic  formation  of  this  district,  and  to  such  observations  as 
have  hitherto  escaped  notice,  or  on  which  he  differs  from  other  writers. 

At  one  extremity  of  the  tract  in  question  lies  the  habitually  erup- 
tive volcano  of  Somma;  at  the  other  the  once  active  vent  of  Ischia  ; 
the  intermediate  space  is  studded  with  hills,  evidently  thrown  up  by 
numerous  eruptions,  succeeding  one  another  at  distant  intervals, 
and  from  separate  though  neighbouring  orifices.  These  are  arranged 
in  one  general  band,  which  is  remarkable  from  its  parallelism  to  the 
elevated  limestone  range  forming  the  opposite  side  of  the  Bay  of 
Naples,  and  separating  it  from  that  of  Salerno. 

Sorama  is  a  very  regular,  volcanic  mountain,  created  by  the  accu- 
mulation of  repeated  streams  of  basaltic  lava  and  beds  of  ejected 
ashes,  sand  and  scoria,  round  a  central  and  habitual  vent. 

The  author  dissents  from  the  theory  of  Von  Buch,  that  such 
mountains  were  produced  by  the  forcible  elevation  of  horizontal 
beds  round  an  aperture  of  eruption ; — though  he  allows  that  beds 
originally  inclined,  may  often  suffer  a  certain  degree  of  elevation, 
during  the  shocks  occasioned  by  the  forcible  protrusion  of  lavas 
from  below,  into  the  fissures  through  which  they  are  emitted. 

The  great  crater  of  Somma  is  attributed  to  the  explosions  of  the 
"paroxysmal  eruption"  of  A.  D.  79  j  and  the  whole  cone  of  Ve- 
suvius which  occupies  the  centre  of  that  crater,  is  stated  to  have 
been  created  by  repeated,  subsequent  eruptions.  This  cone  is  si- 
milar in  structure  to  that  of  Somma,  as  is  seen  in  the  walls  of  its 
actual  crater,  compared  with  those  of  the  Atrio  del  Cavallo. 

Ischia  is  a  less  regular,  volcanic  mountain ;  has  produced  no  leu- 
cite,  and  none  but  trachytic,  or  rather,  according  to  the  author's 
nomenclature,  gray-stone  lavas, — a  class  intermediate  between  tra- 
chyte and  basalt,  and  consisting  of  felspar  and  augite.  The  great 
mass  of  the  island  is  composed  of  the  conglomerates  belonging  to 
this  class  of  lavas,  forming  an  indurated  tufa  of  a  light  green  colour. 
There  are  traces  of  a  vast  central  crater  on  the  west  of  the  Monte 


18 

Epomeo.  Some  of  the  lavas  of  Ischia  are  remarkably  brecciated 
and  zoned,1 — with  varieties  of  grain,  texture,  and  mineral  composi- 
tion. 

The  intermediate  district  between  Somma  and  Ischia,  properly 
called  the  Campi  Phlegrei,  including  the  islands  of  Procida  and  Ni- 
cida,  exhibits  the  traces  of  between  twenty  and  thirty  crateriform 
basins,  many  of  very  large  diameter,  but  in  general  much  degraded, 
and  sometimes  almost  obliterated,  by  the  erosive  action  of  the  sea 
and  of  rains  on  the  loose  conglomerates  of  which  they  are  partly 
composed,  and  by  the  ejections  of  later,  neighbouring  eruptions. 
Ten  at  least  of  these  cones,  with  their  included  craters,  are  however 
very  nearly  entire ;  such  are  the  Monte  Nuovo,  produced  in  the 
year  1538;  Capo  Mazza,  a  hill  entirely  composed  of  silky  pumice 
and  its  detritus  ;  the  Monte  Gauro,  which  incloses  a  deep  circular 
crater  a  mile  in  diameter ;  Astroni,  which  is  nearly  equal  to  the 
last  in  size,  and  precisely  similar  in  figure ;  the  basins  of  the  lakes 
Averno  and  Agnano  ;  the  island  of  Nicida ;  the  southern  extremity 
of  the  island  of  Procida ;  the  Capo  di  Miseno;  and  the  Solfatara  of 
Pozzuoli. 

The  author  disputes  the  existence  of  any  large  vaulted  cavity 
under  the  floor  of  the  last-mentioned  crater;  and  attributes  the  rever- 
beration produced  when  it  is  struck  sharply,  to  the  cellular  nature  of 
the  beds  of  indurated  clay  which  form  this  floor,  and  have  been  de- 
posited from  the  washings  of  the  surrounding  slopes,  and  hardened 
by  the  influence  of  heat  and  moisture. 

The  author  accounts  for  the  production  of  two  varieties  of  Piso- 
lite, which  occur  in  the  tufa  and  decomposed  lava  of  the  Solfatara. 
This  hill  is  recorded  to  have  been  in  eruption  in  A.  D.  1180;  and 
the  present  crater  may  have  been  formed  at  that  late  epoch.  The 
hill  which  supports  the  Camaldoli,  1  643  feet  above  the  sea,  is  a  re- 
markable mass  of  indurated  tufa  ;  from  beneath  which,  on  the  N.  E. 
side,  crops  out  a  bed  of  gray-stone,  in  which  a  singular,  concretion- 
ary separation  has  taken  place,  of  the  augitic  from  the  felspathose 
parts  ;  the  former  appearing  as  lenticular  patches  in  a  base  consist- 
ing of  the  latter.  This  and  other  somewhat  similar  lavas  in  the 
same  neighbourhood,  give  rise  to  important  inferences  as  to  the 
condition  of  such  substances  at  the  period  of  their  emission  from  the 
earth.  The  solid  tufa  of  Capo  di  Monte  and  other  hills  envelops 
shells  of  the  same  species  with  those  which  at  present  inhabit  the 
Bay  of  Naples.  It  is  likewise  in  some  points  traversed  by  vertical 
veins  of  a  finer  and  harder  matter,  seeming  to  have  exuded  from 
the  sides  of  a  fissure  formed  in  the  rock,  before  it  was  completely 
desiccated. 

The  author  attributes  the  formation  of  all  these  volcanic  hills  to 
vsuccessive  eruptions  from  below  the  surface  of  the  sea,  though  on 
a  shallow  shore  :  and,  from  the  existence  of  loose  tufa  over  the 
whole  plane  of  the  Campagna,  and  even  to  some  distance  up  its  prin- 
cipal valleys,  he  infers  that  the  sea  once  washed  the  foot  of  the 
Apennines  behind  Capua;  and  that  this  plain  has  since  suffered  an 
elevation  of  200  feet  at  least, — an  elevation  in  which  the  whole 
western  coast  of  Italy  and  the  Apennines  probably  shared  ;    as  ap- 


19 

pears  from  the  traces  of  lithophagi  in  the  cliffs  between  Rome  and 
Palermo,  much  above  the  present  sea-level,  and  from  other  colla- 
teral testimony. 

March  16. — W.  P.  Brigstock,  Esq.  of  Stokes  Hill,  near  Guildford, 
in  Surrey  ;  Robert  Ingham,  Esq.  of  the  Inner  Temple,  London  ; 
James  Overbury  Anstie,  Esq.  of  Devizes,  Wilts ;  and  James  Back- 
well,  Esq.  of  Charlotte  Street,  Blackfriars,  London, — were  elected 
Fellows  of  the  Society. 

A  paper  was  read,  "On  the  Geology  of  the  vicinity  of  Pulborough, 
Sussex  5  "  by  P.  J.  Martin,  Esq. 

The  author's  object  is  to  give  a  detailed  account  of  the  district 
on  the  north  of  the  South  Downs,  extending  from  about  Petworth 
on  the  west,  to  Steyning  and  the  Adur  on  the  east,  and  inter- 
vening between  the  portions  of  Sussex  described  by  Mr.  Mantell 
and  Mr.  Murchison.  The  structure  of  this  tract  agrees,  in  general, 
with  part  of  the  adjoining  district  on  the  west ;  but  two  of  the  for- 
mations are  here  subdivided  into  natural  groups,  which  the  author 
conceives  ought  to  be  distinguished ;  the  following  being  the  series  in 
a  descending  order,  which  has  come  under  his  observation : — 1.  Chalk. 
2.  Firestone, — including  upper  greensand,  and  Malm-rock.  3.  Gault. 
4.  Shanklin  sand, — including,  as  subdivisions,  ferruginous  sand,  and 
lower  greensand  and  sandstone.     5.  Weald  clay. 

The  portion  of  the  Firestone,  which  the  author  denominates  Up- 
per Greensand,  may  be  traced  distinctly  as  a  thin  bed  at  the  foot  of 
the  chalk  hills  from  Sutton  to  Washington,  and  is  best  exposed  at 
the  entrance  of  the  Arundel  defile,  resting  upon  the  Malm-rock, — an 
argillaceous  limestone  which  extends  into  terraces  in  some  places 
50  feet  thick  and  half  a  mile  in  breadth.  The  Gault  is  probably 
not  more  than  60  feet  in  its  greatest  thickness :  it  is  widest  on  the 
E.  of  Sutton,  and  thence  eastward  varies  in  width  from  a  few  hun- 
dred yards  to  a  quarter  of  a  mile.  The  upper,  or  ferruginous,  por- 
tion of  the  Shanklin  sand,  occupies  the  broadest  space  between  the 
chalk  and  the  weald,  and  is  from  one  to  three  miles  in  width,  its 
northern  boundary  forming  a  very  distinct  escarpment.  The  sur- 
face of  these  sands  is  distinguished  by  its  barrenness;  they  vary 
much  in  consistency  and  colour,  and  the  lower  beds  especially,  are 
pervaded  by  seams  of  clay,  and  abound  in  a  stone  consisting  of 
coarse,  siliceous  sand  cemented  by  oxyd  of  iron.  The  lower  divi- 
sion of  this  formation  (green  sandstone)  has  in  some  portions 
a  strong  external  resemblance  to  the  stratum  immediately  be- 
neath the  chalk.  It  constitutes  a  fertile  arable  country,  and  affords 
pure  and  copious  springs.  The  upper  part  contains  thick  layers 
and  nodules  of  limestone,  chert,  and  clay  resembling  fuller's  earth. 
The  lower  affords  a  compact  building-stone,  which  has  long  been 
quarried  at  Pulborough :  but  further  west,  these  beds  pass  into 
chert.  This  stratum  has  obviously  suffered  great  disturbance ;  and 
one  of  its  natural  chasms,  forming  the  valley  of  Greenhurst,  and 
about  4  miles  in  length,  points  towards  the  outlet  of  the  Arun,  and 
might  probably  be  taken  advantage  of  to  connect  that  river  with 
the  Adur.    The  demarcation  between  the  lower  part  of  the  Weald 


20 

clay  and  the  subjacent  Hastings'  sands,  is  not  well  defined  in  the 
tract  which  the  author  describes.  A  considerable  bed  of  sand  oc- 
curs within  the  clay  at  its  upper  part ;  after  this  comes  in  a  bed  of 
Sussex  marble  ;  and,  lower  down  in  the  clay,  a  second  layer  of 
sand  containing  siliceous  grit  in  thin  beds, — beneath  which,  the  prin- 
cipal beds  of  Sussex  marble  (about  18  inches  in  thickness)  occur; 
and  these  are  finally  succeeded  by  blue,  brown,  and  red  clay,  and 
micaceous  sand,  the  commencement  of  the  forest  ridge. 

The  author  gives  a  particular  description  of  the  defile  of  the 
Arun,  the  principal  outlet  of  the  Weald  in  the  south  of  Sussex. 
This  river  traverses  about  15  miles  of  a  country  almost  mountain- 
ous, cutting  across  the  ridges  of  the  sand  and  the  chalk  escarp- 
ment nearly  at  right  angles  to  the  valley  of  the  Weald.  The  gorge, 
where  it  enters  the  green  sandstone,  is  more  than  400  or  500 
yards  in  width  at  the  bottom  ;  the  banks  rise  quickly  to  the 
height  of  about  200  feet  on  the  east,  and  on  the  west  to  about  400 
or  500  feet.  At  Bury  and  Amberly,  where  the  river  penetrates  the 
chalk,  the  hills  are  600  or  700  feet  high ;  the  ravine  having  all  the 
characters  of  a  fissure.  And,  as  the  strata,  in  several  cases  of  this 
description,  rise  on  both  sides  towards  the  crack,  the  author  sup- 
poses that  the  channels  now  existing  on  the  surface,  have  been 
produced  by  the  operation  of  some  internal  forces  by  which  the  beds 
were  broken  up  and  elevated ;  and  that  the  drainage  of  the  country 
by  the  present  outlets,  can  be  thus  explained,  without  having  re- 
course to  a  debacle,  or  to  denuding  operations :  and  he  supports 
this  hypothesis  by  reference  to  the  local  features  of  the  country, 
illustrated  by  sections. 

April.  6. — William  Carpenter  Row,  Esq.  of  Baliol  College,  Ox- 
ford ;  W.  A.  Mackinnon,  Esq.  of  Hyde  Park  Place,  London  ;  John 
Lindley,  Esq.  of  Chiswick,  F.L.S. ;  Neil  Malcolm,  Jun.  Esq.  M.P.  of 
Duntroun  Castle,  Ayrshire  ;  and  The  Rev.  J.  Mc  Enery,  of  Torquay, 
Devon, — were  elected  Fellows  of  the  Society. 

M.  C.  Von  Oeynhausen,  of  Berlin  ;  and  M.  C.  Von  Dechen,  of 
Berlin, — were  elected  Foreign  Members  of  the  Society. 

The  reading  of  a  paper  "  On  the  magnesian  limestone  of  the 
northern  counties;"  by  the  Rev.  Adam  Sedgwick,  Woodwardian 
Professor  in  the  University  of  Cambridge,  was  begun. 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE  GEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  LONDON. 

1827.  No.  3. 

April  20. — Lieut.-Gen.  Sir  Rufane  Donkin,  K.C.B.  &c.  of  Park 
Street,  Grosvenor  Square  ;  Major  T.  L.  Mitchell,  of  the  Quarter 
Master  General's  department,  Assistant  Surveyor  General  of  New 
South  Wales ;  and  the  Rev.  W.  Whewell,  M.A.  F.R.S.,  Fellow  of 
Trinity  College,  Cambridge, — were  elected  Fellows  of  the  Society. 
The  reading  of  Professor  Sedgwick's  paper,  on  the  Magnesian 
Limestone,  was  continued. 

A  paper  was  read  giving  an  account  of  the  discovery  of  a  num- 
ber of  fossil  bones  of  bears,  in  the  Grotto  of  Osselles,  or  Quingey, 
near  Besancon  in  France,  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Buckland,  Professor  of 
Geology  in  the  University  of  Oxford. 

The  author  visited  this  cave  in  October  1826,  for  the  purpose  of 
applying  to  it  the  method  of  investigation,  which  his  experience  in 
other  caverns  had  taught  him  to  adopt  with  success  in  the  pursuit 
of  fossil  bones. 

The  Grotto  of  Osselles  is  of  vast  extent,  nearly  a  quarter  of  a 
mile  in  length,  and  made  up  of  a  succession  of  more  than  thirty 
vaults,  or  chambers,  connected  together  by  narrow  passages,  and 
running  almost  horizontally  into  the  body  of  a  mountain  of  Jura 
limestone,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Doubs  near  Besancon. 

The  only  entrance  to  the  grotto  is  by  an  irregular  aperture  about 
the  size  of  a  common  door,  in  the  slope  of  the  hill  about  60  feet 
from  the  river.  The  abundance  and  beauty  of  the  stalactite  in 
many  parts  of  this  cavern,  have  rendered  it  one  of  the  most  cele- 
brated and  most  frequented  of  any  in  France  ;  but  before  Dr.  Buck- 
land,  no  one  had  ever  sought  for  bones  beneath  the  crust  of  sta- 
lagmite, which  in  most  of  the  chambers  covers  the  floor. 

On  breaking  for  the  first  time  through  the  stalagmite,  the  guides 
were  much  surprised  to  find  the  author's  prediction  verified,  as  to 
the  existence  of  a  thick  bed  of  mud  and  pebbles,  beneath  what 
they  had  considered  to  be  the  impenetrable  pavement  of  the  cave, 
and  still  more  so,  to  see  that  in  every  one  of  the  only  four  places 
which  he  selected  for  investigation,  this  diluvium  was  abundantly 
loaded  with  the  teeth  and  bones  of  fossil  bears.  These  lie  scat- 
tered through  the  mud  and  gravel,  in  the  same  irregular  manner  as 
the  bones  of  bears  lie  in  the  caves  of  Franconia  and  the  Hartz ;  and 
like  them,  are  the  remains  of  animals  that  appear  to  have  lived  and 
died  in  these  caverns  before  the  introduction  of  the  diluvium.  The 
bones  were  found  no  where  in  entire  skeletons,  but  dispersed  con- 
fusedly through  the  mud  :  They  were  from  bears  of  all  ages,  and  none 
bore  marks  of  either  having  been  rolled  by  water,  or  gnawed  by  the 


teeth  of  hyenas,  of  which  last-named  animal  Dr.  Buckland  found  no 
traces  in  this  cave,  in  the  few  spots  which  he  examined. 

Insulated  teeth,  ribs,  and  vertebrae,  separate  fragments  of  skulls, 
and  epiphyses  detached  from  bones,  lay  scattered  through  the  mud 
and  pebbles. 

In  one  extensive  grotto  called  the  "  Salle  a,  danser,"  which  from 
its  size  and  dryness  is  selected  by  visitors  to  eat  and  dance  in,  there 
is  neither  stalactite  on  the  roof,  nor  stalagmite  on  the  floor,  but 
simply  a  thick  deposit  of  diluvial  mud,  containing  the  same  bones 
as  in  the  other  chambers  ;  this  mud  being  very  dry  is  intersected  by 
narrow  crevices  descending  from  its  surface  ;  and  the  shells  of  eggs 
and  nuts,  and  the  bones  of  chickens,  &c.  that  are  carelessly  thrown 
aside  by  visitors,  have  sometimes  fallen  into  these  fissures,  where 
they  lie  in  juxtaposition  with  the  antediluvian  bones.  Some  of  these 
modern  remains  are  also  dragged  by  rats  into  holes  made  in  the  mud 
by  themselves,  or  by  rabbits,  badgers,  and  foxes. 

The  author  concludes  by  stating  that  the  best  rule  to  follow  in 
pursuit  of  antediluvian  remains  in  caverns,  is  to  select  the  lowest 
parts  in  which  any  diluvium  can  have  been  accumulated,  and  there 
dig  through  the  stalagmitic  crust,  and  seek  for  teeth  and  bones  in 
the  mud  and  pebbles  that  lie  below.  He  also  proposes,  as  a  test  for 
distinguishing  bones  of  this  antiquity,  their  property  of  adhering 
to  the  tongue  if  applied  to  them  after  they  are  dry  ; — a  property 
apparently  derived  from  the  loss  of  animal  gelatine,  without  the 
substitution  of  any  mineral  substance,  such  as  we  find  in  bones  im- 
bedded in  the  regular  strata.  This  test  extends  equally  to  the 
bones  of  the  osseous  breccia  of  caverns  and  fissures,  and  to  those 
in  all  superficial  deposits  of  diluvium,  excepting  such  as  are  too  ar- 
gillaceous to  have  admitted  the  percolation  of  water  ;  but  the  pro- 
perty of  adhesion  is  rarely  found  in  bones  from  recent  alluvium, 
or  from  peat  bogs,  nor  does  it  exist  in  human  bones,  which  the 
author  has  examined  from  Roman  graves  in  England,  and  from  the 
druidical  tombs  of  the  ancient  Britons,  nor  in  any  of  the  human 
bones  which  he  has  discovered  in  the  caves  of  Paviland  and  Wokey 
Hole. 

Dr.  Buckland  proposes  to  apply  this  test  to  the  much  disputed 
case  of  human  bones,  said  by  M.  Schlotheim  to  have  been  discovered 
in  the  cave  of  Kostriz  in  contact  with  those  of  the  rhinoceros  and 
other  extinct  animals. 

Dr.  Buckland  also  found,  in  the  collection  of  Professor  Fargeaud 
of  Besancon,  some  teeth  of  fossil  bears  from  a  mine  of  Pea-iron- 
ore  in  that  neighbourhood ;  but  could  not  visit  the  spot  to  ascertain 
whether  this  ore  was  extracted  from  a  bed  of  superficial  diluvium, 
or  from  a  fissure.  Such  iron-ore  abounds  in  the  diluvium  of  the 
east  of  France  ;  and  in  fissures  at  Plymouth,  and  near  Spa. 

May  4. — Thomas  Bell,  Esq.  of  New  Broad  Street,  was  elected 
a  Fellow  of  the  Society. 

The  reading  of  Professor  Sedgwick's  paper  on  the  Magnesian 
Limestone  was  continued. 


May  18.— G.  J.  Roupell,  Esq.  M.D.  of  Caroline  Street,  Bedford 
Square  ;  and  Isaac  Lyon  Goldsmid,  Esq.,  of  Dulwich  Hill  House, 
Camberwell, — were  elected  Fellows  of  the  Society. 

A  notice  was  read  "  On  a  Whin  dyke  in  Cooper  Colliery,  near 
Blythe,  Northumberland,"  drawn  up  from  the  information  of  Mr. 
Bryham,  agent  at  the  Cooper  Coal  Works,  by  W.  C.  Trevelyan, 
Esq.  F.G.S.  &c. 

The  total  length  to  which  this  dyke  has  been  traced  is  1577  yards. 
It  increases  in  breadth  from  S.  to  N.  ;  being  4-f-  yards  wide  near  the 
most  southern  point,  where  it  has  been  cut  through,  and  21 -J-  yards 
wide  at  the  most  northern  spot  hitherto  observed.  It  is  formed  of 
two  walls  of  greenstone,  each  from  two  to  four  feet  in  thickness  ; 
and  these  walls  contain  between  them  a  breccia,  composed  of  frag- 
ments of  shale  and  whin,  cemented  by  calcareous  and  argillaceous 
matter.  Carburetted  hydrogen  and  pure  water  issue  from  a  narrow 
fissure  in  the  broadest  part  of  the  dyke.  The  coal  of  the  beds  through 
which  the  dyke  passes  is  charred,  and  deteriorated  in  quality,  to  the 
distance  of  about  forty  yards  on  each  side. 

The  reading  of  a  paper  was  begun,  "  On  the  fixed  rocks  of  the 
Valley  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  in  North  America,"  by  John  J.  Bigsby, 
Esq.  M.D.  F.G.S.  &c. 

June  1. — Henry  Campbell  White,  Esq.  of  Comer-Hall,  Hemel 
Hempstead  ;  and  Samuel  Sharpe,  Esq.  of  New  Ormond  Street, 
London, — were  elected  Fellows  of  the  Society. 

The  reading  of  Dr.  Bigsby's  paper,  begun  at  the  last  meeting, 
was  concluded. 

The  observations  of  the  author  in  person  were  made  principally 
in  the  Canadas,  and  on  the  northern  shores  of  the  great  Lakes  ;  and 
he  connects  with  them  a  sketch  from  various  authorities,  of  the  re- 
gions which  border  the  Valley  of  the  St.  Lawrence  upon  the  S.W. 
and  the  lakes  on  the  south  and  west  of  Upper  Canada. 

The  north-western  side  of  the  St.  Lawrence  Valley  consists 
principally  of  an  arm  of  the  primitive  ranges  which  extend  from 
Labrador  and  Hudson's  Bay  to  the  sources  of  the  Mississippi:  and 
from  this,  at  the  outlet  of  Lake  Ontario,  a  band  is  sent  out  across  the 
Valley  of  the  St.  Lawrence  to  join  the  primitive  formations  of  the 
United  States.  Numerous  boulders  of  a  limestone  resembling  the 
mountain  limestone  of  England,  are  found  on  the  north  shore  of  Lake 
Erie ;  and  this  with  other  rocks  in  horizontal  strata  appears  in  situ 
at  Lake  Huron  :  the  line  of  junction  with  the  primitive  rocks  ex- 
tending from  Penitanguishene  to  Kingston,  thence  up  the  Ottawa  to 
the  Falls  of  the  Chat,  and  the  Longsault  Rapids,  from  whence  it 
stretches  north-easterly  to  Cape  Tourment  in  the  north  bank  of  the 
St.  Lawrence  30  miles  below  Quebec. 

The  strata  which  overlie  the  transition  rocks,  in  the  St.  Lawrence 
Valley,  are,  in  a  descending  order,  the  following : — 

1 .  Dark  shale  resting  upon  limestone,  and  containing  terebratulae, 
favosites,  turbinolia,  milleporites,  trilobites,  &c. ;  this  extends  for 
many  miles,  along  the  south  of  Lake  Ontario  and  the  south-eastern, 
shore  of  Lake  Erie. 


24 

2.  Cherty  limestone,  beneath  which  is  blue  limestone  with  copper 
pyrites,  and  foliated  strontian  ; — this  last  containing  producti,  and 
corallines,  in  addition  to  the  fossils  above  enumerated.  The  brown 
limestone  of  Niagara  contains  cellular  madrepores,  pentameree,  tro- 
chi,  trilobites,  &c.  ;  and  the  junction  of  this  limestone  with  the  shale 
is  well  seen  beneath  the  table  rock  of  the  Niagara  Falls.  The  shale 
on  the  south  of  Lake  Ontario  is  from  120  to  250  feet  in  thickness. 
Its  place  is  superior  to  that  of  the  muriatiferous  sandstone :  and  in 
this  respect  the  author  conceives  the  order  of  stratification  here  to 
be  distinguished  from  that  which  obtains  in  Europe  ;  since  the  same 
fossil  remains  have  not  yet  been  found  in  Europe  above  the  salife- 
rous  sandstone. 

3.  Arenaceous  rocks,  in  the  lower  beds  of  which  are  brine  springs. 
The  stratum  which  forms  the  floor  of  the  salt  springs  on  the  south 
borders  of  Ontario,  varies  from  a  red  or  greenish  sandstone  to  a 
greenish  or  red  clayey  slate ;  and  is  occasionally  80  feet  in  thick- 
ness. 

4.  Another  group  consists  of  a  quartzose.  aggregate,  from  40  to 
60  feet  thick,  resting  on  grauwacke,  either  fine-grained  or  slaty ; 
the  finer  varieties  containing  the  asaphus  latocaudatus,  bellerophon, 
and  a  bivalve  resembling  a  sanguinolaria.  No  coal  has  been  found 
in  this  vicinity. 

5.  Another  portion  of  the  stratified  rocks  is  ranked  by  the  author 
with  the  intermediary  limestone  of  Daubuisson ;  the  higher  beds 
containing  organic  remains  resembling  those  of  the  transition  lime- 
stone of  Germany  and  Wales  ;  while  none  of  the  organic  remains 
of  the  superior  deposits  are  found  in  it.  It  occurs  in  many  parts  of 
Lower  Canada,  on  the  northern  shore  of  Lake  Ontario,  Lake  Simcoe, 
Lake  Huron,  and  Lake  Superior. 

Near  the  outlet  of  Lake  Ontario,  cliffs  upwards  of  100  feet  in  height 
are  formed  of  sandstone,  grauwacke,  and  conglomerate  ;  and  for 
many  miles  down  the  St.  Lawrence  these  rocks  underlie  the  inter- 
mediary limestone.  At  the  Falls  of  Montmorency  near  Quebec,  the 
conglomerate  rests  upon  gneiss  and  other  primitive  rocks ;  but  at 
Malbay  it  is  interstratified  with  brown  limestone,  and  contains  spiral 
univalves  and  various  bivalves*.  The  author  is  inclined  to  refer 
the  formation  to  the  old  red  sandstone. 

The  porphyries  of  Gros  Cap  and  Nipigeon  on  Lake  Superior,  contain 
agate,  chalcedony,  fiuor,  green  earth,  and  vitreous  felspar  :  they  are 
unstratified,  and  form  serrated  precipices.  Near  Gravel  Point  they 
much  resemble  some  of  the  porphyries  of  Arran  in  Scotland. 

The  rocks  of  the  St.  Lawrence  Valley,  beneath  the  series  above 
mentioned,  consist,  in  a  descending  order,  of  grauwacke,  interme- 
diary limestone,  quartz-rock,  primitive  limestone,  and  various  slaty 
rocks, — including  gneiss,  mica  slate,  actinolite  slate,  with  syenite, 
greenstone,  and  ophicalcic  rock.  The  prevailing  direction  of  the 
strata,  for  more  than  1000  miles,  from  the  River  Saguenai,  on  the 
north  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  to  the  northern  shore  of  Lake  Huron,  is 
to  the  N.E.  ;  and  the  rocks  are  regarded  by  the  author  as  the  most 

*  Some  of  the  fossils  of  this  formation  have  been  figured  in  the  Geolo- 
gical Transactions,  2nd  Series,  Vol.  I. 


25 

recent  of  the  primitive  class.  Quartz-rock  prevails  on  the  north  of 
Lake  Huron  for  more  than  70  miles  ;  and  the  islands  in  that  part  of 
the  lake  consist  of  fine-grained  red  and  gray  granite,  with  quartz-rock 
and  trap  :  and  vast  masses  of  granite  alternate  with  greenstone  for  a 
space  of  300  miles  on  the  north  shore  of  Lake  Superior.  Of  the 
slaty  primitive  rocks,  the  most  abundant  is  gneiss  ;  which  constitutes 
some  of  theprincipal  heights,  and  forms  the  mountains  N.E.  of  Que- 
bec, and  lines  the  northern  shore  of  the  St.  Lawrence.  Cape  Tour- 
ment,  1800  feet  in  height,  consists  of  this  rock  ;  so  also  the  outlet  of 
Lake  Ontario,  and  it  skirts  the  north  shore  of  Lake  Simcoe  and 
Huron,  and  occupies  a  considerable  tract  on  the  north  of  Lake 
Nipissing,  and  at  the  upper  part  of  the  river  Ottawa. 

The  author  supposes  that  the  numerous  boulders  of  Labrador  fel- 
spar on  the  shores  of  Lake  Huron,  on  the  S.W.  of  Lake  Simcoe,  and 
even  so  far  eastward  as  the  outlet  of  Lake  Ontario,  have  been  de- 
rived from  a  tract  about  60  miles  west  of  Penetanegeneshene,  where 
the  gneiss  passes  into  Labrador  felspar,  traversed  by  veins  of  pyroxene 
and  garnet ;  and  this  he  supposes  to  be  the  southern  verge  of  a  vast 
tract  of  the  same  composition.  Magnetic  iron  ore  is  associated  with 
syenite  on  the  north  of  Ontario.  Greenstone  occurs  in  veins  in  Lower 
Canada  :  near  Lake  Huron  it  supports  intermediary  limestone  ;  and 
it  is  found  at  Gros  Cap  in  Lake  Superior,  and  forms  numerous  dykes 
of  great  size  in  the  north  shore  of  that  lake.  A  mass  composed  of 
a  mixture  of  augite  and  hornblende  occurs  near  Montreal,  constitu- 
ting Montreal  Hill,  650  feet  high,  from  which  numerous  dykes  cut 
through  the  shelly  deposits  at  the  base  of  the  hill. 

The  primitive  limestone  appears  in  every  part  of  the  St.  Lawrence 
Valley  to  belong  to  one  and  the  same  epoch,  and  occupies  a  conside- 
rable space  on  the  south-western  frontier  of  Lower  Canada,  near  Lake 
Champlain.  In  Upper  Canada,  the  upper  part  of  the  river  Ottawa 
has  its  course  through  this  rock,  and  considerable  masses  of  it  oc- 
cur in  Crew  Lake  :  the  same  white  marble  is  seen  at  Lake  Chat,  and 
on  the  left  of  Lake  Chaucliere,  on  the  river  Calumet  and  on  the  river 
Gauanoque,  about  18  miles  below  Kingston;  it  is  blended  with  ser- 
pentine. 

June  15. — The  Hon.  William  Francis  Spencer  Ponsonby,  of  St. 
James's  Square,  London  ;  William  Terry,  Esq.  of  High  Wycombe, 
and  Duke  Street,  St.  James's  Square ;  the  Rev.  Richard  Gwatkin, 
B.D.  Fellow  and  Tutor  of  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge  ;  the  Rev. 
George  Peacock,  M.A.  F.R.S.  Fellow  and  Tutor  of  Trinity  College, 
Cambridge  ;  the  Rev.  Julius  Charles  Hare,  M.A.  Fellow  of  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge  ;  the  Rev.  John  Hutton  Fisher,  M.A.  Fellow  of 
Trinity  College,  Cambridge;  the  Rev.  Richard  Sheepshanks,  M.A. 
Member  of  the  Astronomical  Society,  and  Fellow  of  Trinity  College, 
Cambridge  ;  and  Major  General  Sir  John  Malcolm,  G.C.B.  F.R.S. 
&c, — were  elected  Fellows  of  the  Society. 

A  notice  was  read,  "  On  some  fossil  bones  of  the  elephant  and 
other  animals,  found  near  Salisbury :" — by  Charles  Lyell,  Esq. 
F.R.S.  F.G.S.  &c. 

Bones  and  teeth  of  the  elephant,  rhinoceros,  and  ox,  have  been 


2G 

found  for  many  years  past  in  the  brick-earth  at  the  village  of  Fish- 
erton  Anger,  at  the  distance  of  about  4  of  a  mile  from  Salisbury 
Cathedral.  Several  pits  sunk  in  this  brick-earth  show  that  it  varies 
in  thickness  in  different  places  from  about  10  to  20  feet.  It  bears 
every  mark  of  a  tranquil  sedimentary  deposit  from  water  ;  but  the 
laminae  are  sometimes  divided  by  thin  layers  of  fine  sand,  or  occa- 
sionally, but  rarely,  by  a  layer  of  small  flint  pebbles.  There  are  no 
marine  remains  ;  but  land-shells  are  said  to  occur  sometimes  in  this 
deposit.  The  brick-earth  rests  upon  a  bed  of  chalk  flints,  the 
greater  part  of  which  are  not  water-worn:  and  beneath  these  is 
chalk,  which  is  loose  and  rubbly  in  the  upper  part. 

This  brick-earth  is  not  connected  with  the  alluvial  soil  of  the  pre- 
sent valley,  but  appears  to  have  been  deposited  when  the  valley  was 
at  a  higher  level ;  for  it  forms  a  low  terrace,  along  the  side  of  the 
river  Wily,  between  Salisbury  and  Wilton,  rising  30  or  40  feet  above 
the  present  water-meadows.  It  is  necessary  at  least  to  suppose  that 
when  these  beds  were  accumulated,  the  water  rose  much  higher  than 
it  now  does. 

The  bones  are  in  a  very  decomposed  state,  but  have  no  appear- 
ance of  having  been  rolled  ;  they  are  found  in  the  lower  part  of  the 
brick-earth,  and  not  in  the  subjacent  flint  gravel.  And  in  one  spot 
there  is  reason  to  believe  that  the  remains  of  an  entire  skeleton  of 
an  elephant  might  have  been  procured. 

A  paper  was  read,  entitled  "  Remarks  on  some  of  the  strata  be- 
tween the  chalk  and  the  Kimmeridge  clay,  in  the  south-east  of  En- 
gland :" — in  a  letter  to  Charles  Lyell,  Esq.,  from  Wm.  Henry  Fitton, 
M.D.  P.G.S.  &c. — The  objects  of  the  author  were  ;  first,  to  ascertain 
in  the  interior,  the  existence  of  that  remarkable  group  of  strata, 
which  on  the  coast  has  been  found  to  include  the  remains  of  orga- 
nized bodies  supposed  to  belong  to  freshwater  ;  and  secondly,  to  trace 
along  the  western  boundary  of  the  chalk  the  strata  which  imme- 
diately succeed  it.  For  the  latter  purpose,  he  gives  a  series  of  sections 
at  right  angles  to  the  outcrop  of  the  chalk,  on  the  boundary  of  that 
formation  passing  from  the  coast  of  Dorsetshire,  round  the  Black- 
down  hills  in  Devonshire,  and  thence  by  the  vales  of  Wardour, 
Warminster  and  Pewsey,  through  Oxfordshire,  Buckinghamshire, 
Bedfordshire,  &c.  to  Hunstanton  Cliff  on  the  coast  of  Norfolk,  where 
the  course  of  the  chalk  range  is  interrupted  by  the  sea.  These  sec- 
tions prove  that  the  order  of  the  strata  is  throughout  the  same  as  in 
the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  in  Kent,  Surrey  and  Sussex  ; — and  the  paper 
describes  the  principal  variations  in  the  proportions  and  characters 
of  the  beds,  at  the  site  of  the  several  sections. 

In  proceeding  westward  from  the  Isle  of  Wight,  the  beds  which 
intervene  between  the  chalk  and  the  Purbeck  limestone  appear  to 
run  together ;  and  cannot  well  be  distinguished  further  west  than 
Lulworth  Cove.  Beyond  that  point  no  trace  has  yet  been  detected  of 
any  of  the  freshwater  beds  beneath  the  lower  green-sand  ;  nor  is  the 
separation  of  the  upper  from  the  lower  of  these  sands  by  a  stratum 
of  clay  (Gault)  any  longer  discernible.  Some  fossils,  however,  of 
the  gault  occur  in  the  sands  on  the  coast  near  Lyme  Regis,  and  at 
the  well-known  quarries  of  Blackdown  ;  and  the  presence  of  the 


27 

gault  itself  beneath  the  upper  green-sand  is  again  distinct  in  the 
Vale  of  Wardour,  and  throughout  the  entire  range  from  thence  to 
Norfolk. 

The  only  places  in  which  the  author  has  detected  the  presence 
of  the  freshwater  beds  succeeding  the  lower  green-sand,  are  in  the 
Vale  of  Wardour,  and  in  the  vicinity  of  Aylesbury  :  and  it  would 
appear  that  the  great  extent  of  the  sands  immediately  beneath 
the  chalk,  shooting  out  beyond  the  subjacent  strata,  and  concealing 
their  outcrop,  may  be  one  cause  why  the  group  next  in  succession 
is  but  rarely  visible  in  the  interior  ; — though  it  is  also  probable  that 
strata  produced  at  the  bottom  of  freshwater-lakes,  or  of  sestuaries, 
were  originally  deposited  in  detached  portions,  comparatively  of  no 
great  extent. 

In  the  Vale  of  Wardour,  the  series  consists  of, — 1.  Chalk;  2. 
Upper  green-sand ;  3.  Gault ;  4.  Traces  of  the  lower  green-sand 
(Shanklin  sands)  ;  5.  Traces  of  the  Hastings  sands  ;  6.  the  Purbeck 
strata, — containing  in  great  abundance  freshwater  shells,  principally 
of  the  genus  Cyclas,  and  in  the  upper  part  the  Cypris  faba :  which 
remarkable  fossil  therefore  pervades  the  whole  group  between  the 
lower  green-sand  and  the  Portland  stone  ;  7.  Calcareous  strata,  con- 
taining the  fossils  of  the  Portland  stone,  and  of  the  same  mineralo- 
gical  character  with  the  beds  of  that  formation  in  the  Isle  of  Pur- 
beck ;   8.  Clay,  like  that  of  Kimmeridge,  &c. 

The  succession  in  the  vicinity  of  Aylesbury  is  nearly  the  same 
with  that  of  the  Vale  of  Wardour  ;  the  Portland  stone  being  covered 
at  Whitchurch  by  beds  of  whiteish  fissile  limestone,  containing 
freshwater  shells,  among  which  are  Cyclades,  and  a  species  of  Cypris. 
The  Portland  strata  occur  also  at  Brill  Hill  in  Buckinghamshire,  and 
at  Garsington  in  Oxfordshire  ;  and  the  remarkable  nodules  of  Shot- 
over-hill,  though  differing  considerably  in  appearance  from  the  lime- 
stone of  Portland  itself,  must  probably  be  referred  either  to  that 
formation,  or  to  a  group  of  strata  which,  from  their  abounding  in 
green  particles,  might  be  confounded  with  some  of  the  calcareous 
beds  of  the  lower  green-sand,  but  which,  both  in  Buckinghamshire 
and  on  the  coast  of  the  Lower  Boulonnois,  occur  beneath  the  equi- 
valent of  the  Portland  stone. 


At  the  close  of  this  meeting,  which  terminated  the  session,  the 
Society  adjourned  till  Friday  evening,  the  2nd  of  November. 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE  GEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  LONDON. 

1827—1828.  No.  4. 


November  2. — The  Society  having  assembled  this  evening  for  the 
session  : — 

An  extract  was  read,  of" A  letter  from  Captain  P.P.  King,  R.N., 
to  Dr.  Fitton,  P.G.S.,  dated  at  Rio  de  Janeiro,  10th  June,  1827  : — 
with  some  observations  on  the  specimens  sent  home  by  Captain  King  ; 
by  the  President." 

The  expedition  under  Capt.  King,  for  the  purpose  of  surveying  the 
Straits  of  Magellan,  left  Monte  Video  on  the  1 9th  of  November,  1826  ; 
and  after  putting  into  Port  St.  Elena,  about  lat.  45°  south,  and  remain- 
ing for  a  day  or  two  in  the  vicinity  of  Cape  Fairweather,  continued  for 
ninety  days  within  the  Strait ;  during  which  time,  its  shores,  to  the 
east  of  Cape  Froward,  were  surveyed  under  the  superintendence  of 
Capt.  King  himself ;  while  his  consort,  under  Capt.  Stokes,  examined 
the  western  entrance.  The  map  and  specimens  sent  to  England, 
contain  the  results  of  these  operations  ;  and  Capt.  King  intended  to 
sail  within  a  short  time  after  the  date  of  his  letter,  for  the  purpose  of 
continuing  the  survey. 

The  coast  at  Port  St.  Elena  is  described  by  Capt.  King  as  consist- 
ing of  porphyritic  claystone  ;  of  which  the  hills,  from  300  to  400  feet 
high,  are  entirely  composed.  The  specimens  from  thence  consist 
of  claystone,  compact  felspar,  and  hyperstene  rock ;  and  the  beach 
affords  a  conglomerate,  consisting  of  rounded  fragments  of  these 
substances,  cemented  by  carbonate  of  lime  containing  portions  of 
shells,  and  resembling  the  recent  calcareous  conglomerates  which 
abound  on  the  shores  of  Asia  Minor,  Australia,  and  several  other 
parts  of  the  world. 

Cape  Fairweather  is  near  the  southern  extremity  of  a  range  of 
coast,  occupying  between  two  and  three  degrees  on  the  east  of  Pata- 
gonia •  a  great  part  of  which  is  described  in  the  Admiralty  Chart,  as 
being  "like  the  coast  of  Kent,  and  consisting  of  steep  chalk  hills,-" 
— one  of  the  prominences  being  named,  from  a  supposed  resemblance, 
"  Beachy  Head."  This,  however,  from  Capt.  King's  statement, 
would  appear  to  be  erroneous  : — the  whole  coast  examined  by 
him,  was  found  to  be  composed  of  horizontal  strata  of  clay,  which 
may  be  traced  for  several  miles  in  unbroken  continuity ;  the  cliffs 
being  from  300  to  400  feet  in  height,  and  entirely  bare  of  vegetation. 
Some  of  the  specimens,  however,  from  this  quarter,  consist  of  a  white 
marl,  not  unlike  certain  varieties  of  the  lower  chalk  j  and  with  these, 


30 

are  portions  of  a  greenish  sand-rock,  much  resembling  that  of  the 
upper  green-sand  formation,  and  of  a  clay  having  many  of  the  pro- 
perties of  fuller's  earth.  The  pebbles  of  the  shore  consist  of  quartz, 
red  jasper,  hornstone,  and  flinty  slate  ;  but  do  not  contain  any  stone 
resembling  chalk  flint. 

Cape  Virgins  at  the  north-eastern  entrance  of  the  Straits  of  Ma- 
gellan, consists  of  clay  cliffs,  like  those  of  Cape  Fairweather ;  and 
between  these  two  Capes  the  coast  is  of  the  same  character. 

What  may  be  called  the  eastern  branch  of  the  Straits,  from  Cape 
Virgins  to  Cape  Froward,  though  its  general  course  is  from  north-east 
to  south-west,  varies  considerably  in  width  and  direction  ;  but  from 
thence  to  the  western  entrance,  the  direction  is  nearly  straight,  from 
south-east  to  north-west, — and  the  width  much  more  uniform  :  and  one 
of  the  principal  points  already  determined  by  Capt.  King's  survey,  is 
that  the  fissure  constituting  this  portion  of  the  Strait  is  continued  in 
the  same  direction,  for  about  a  hundred  miles  towards  the  south-east 
from  Cape  Froward  j  through  St.  Gabriel's  Channel,  and  a  deep  inlet, 
discovered  by  Capt.  King  and  named  "  Admiralty  Sound,"  which  runs 
nearly  fifty  miles  into  the  interior  of  Terra  del  Fuego.  This  separation 
of  the  land,  by  a  narrow  rectilinear  channel  of  such  great  length, 
appears  to  be  analogous  to  the  division  of  Scotland,  by  the  chain  of 
Lochs  on  the  line  of  the  Caledonian  Canal. 

In  proceeding  westward  from  the  eastern  entrance,  the  coast  gra- 
dually changes  its  character ;  and  primitive  rocks  appear  about  Cape 
Negro  near  Elizabeth  Island,  where  mountains  of  slate  rise  to  the 
height  of  from  2000  to  3000  feet.  Capt.  King  remarks  that  the  direc- 
tion of  all  the  ranges,  commencing  at  Port  Famine  about  thirty  miles 
from  Cape  Froward,  is  towards  the  S.E.  •  and  that  all  the  sounds 
and  openings  of  the  land  in  Terra  del  Fuego  trend  in  the  same  direc- 
tion ;  this  being  also  the  direction  of  the  strata,  which  dip  towards 
the  south.  This  coincidence  in  the  direction  of  the  mountain  ranges, 
has  been  carefully  expressed  on  Capt.  King's  map  ;  and  he  supposes 
that  a  similar  structure  holds  good  throughout  the  western  branch 
of  the  Strait,  from  Cape  Froward  to  the  entrance  on  that  side. 

The  specimens  from  Freshwater  Bay,  about  120  miles  from  Cape 
Virgins,  on  the  Patagonian  side  of  the  Strait,  consist  of  highly  crystal- 
line greenstone  and  hyperstene  rock,  resembling  those  of  Scotland  ; 
and  the  pebbles  and  boulders  on  the  shore,  are  of  granite,  hornstone, 
sienitic  rock,  quartz  and  flinty  slate. 

The  vicinity  of  Mount  Tarn  and  Eagle  Bay,  about  midway  between 
Port  Famine  and  Cape  Froward,  affords  also  porphyritic  and  crystal- 
line rocks,  abounding  in  hornblende,  or  hyperstene  5  with  grauwacke, 
siliceous  slate,  and  gray  splintery  limestone. — The  slate  of  Mount 
Tarn  contains  traces  of  organic  remains.  The  specimens  from  the 
south  side  of  this  eastern  branch  of  the  Strait  consist  of  mica-slate 
approaching  to  gneiss,  found  at  the  entrance  of  St.  Magdalen's  Sound, 
and  at  Card  Point  on  the  south-west  of  St.  Gabriel's  Channel.  The 
rocks  at  Cape  Waterfall  near  Card  Point,  are  of  clay-slate  3  and  the 
shores  of  Admiralty  Sound  afford  granite,  and  various  porphyritic  rocks, 
including  clinkstone-porphyry,  and  greenish  compact  felspar.     Capt. 


31 

King  also  mentions  his  having  observed  here  reddish  quartzose-sand- 
stone,  like  that  of  the  old  red-sandstone  formation  of  Europe  :  and  he 
remarks,  that  the  soil  over  this  rock  is  barren,  while  that  above  the  slate 
produces  luxuriant  vegetation  ;  beeches  of  great  size  growing  there 
within  a  few  feet  of  the  water-side.  In  general,  the  hills  in  this  part 
of  Terra  del  Fuego  appear  to  be  of  slate  :  they  rise  to  the  height  of 
3000  feet,  and  are  covered  with  snow  and  ice.  Mount  Sarmiento, 
however,  which  is  more  than  5000  feet  high,  appears,  from  the  shape 
of  its  summit,  to  be  volcanic  ;  and  was  called  by  the  navigator, 
after  whom  it  was  named,  "The  Snowy  Volcano." 

The  specimens  from  the  western  branch  of  the  Straits  of  Magellan, 
collected  by  Capt.  Stokes,  all  consist  of  primitive  rocks  :  Cape  Notch, 
Cape  Tamar,  and  the  Scilly  Islands  affording  granite ;  Port  Gallant, 
and  Cape  Victory,  gneiss  and  mica-slate  ;  and  Valentine's  Bay,  clay- 
slate  much  resembling  that  of  Port  Famine.  These  places  are  all  on 
the  north  of  the  Strait.  On  the  southern  side,  in  Terra  del  Fuego,  Cape 
Upright  affords  granite  and  gneiss  ;  and  the  latter  rock  is  found  also  at 
Tuesday  Harbour,  and  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Cape  Pillar :  the  co- 
lumnar mass,  from  which  that  remarkable  point  was  named,  is  com- 
posed of  mica-slate. 

Of  the  specimens  sent  home  by  Capt.  King  from  this  remote  quarter 
of  the  globe,  it  may  be  remarked,  in  general,  that  they  agree  perfectly 
with  the  rocks  of  Europe  and  other  parts  of  the  world ; — the  resem- 
blance amounting,  in  several  cases,  to  almost  complete  identity. 

The  reading  was  begun  of  a,  paper  "  On  the  Geology  of  Tor  and 
Babbacombe  Bays,  Devon  3"  by  H.  T.  De  la  Beche,  Esq.  F.R.S.  &c. 

Nov.  16. — The  reading  of  Mr.  De  la  Beche's  paper,  begun  at  the 
last  Meeting,  was  concluded. 

The  coasts  of  Babbacombe  and  Tor  Bays  are  composed  of  new  red- 
sandstone,  carboniferous  limestone,  old  red-sandstone,  and  trap- 
rocks  :  and  the  sections  presented  by  the  cliffs  exhibit  various  marks  of 
disturbance,  which  the  author  conceives  to  have  been  caused  by  the 
intrusion  of  trap  among  the  strata,  subsequently  to  their  deposition. 

1.  The  new  red-sandstone  here  consists  of  red  conglomerate  re- 
sembling that  of  Heavitree  and  Exeter,  being  made  up  of  portions  of 
old  red-sandstone,  carboniferous  limestone,  shale,  quartz,  grauwacke, 
and  porphyry,  with  small  crystals  of  felspar  : — the  whole  cemented  by 
a  red  paste,  and  occasionally  interstratified  with  red-sandstone  and 
marl.  The  conglomerate  is  regarded  by  the  author  as  the  lowest 
part  of  the  new  red-sandstone  formation,  and  as  the  equivalent  of 
the  rbthe-todte-liegende  of  Germany  :  and  the  fragments  of  porphyry 
included  in  it,  are  supposed  to  be  the  remains  of  pre-existing  trap- 
rocks  5  both  from  their  rounded  form,  and  their  admixture  with  the 
detritus  of  other  formations  inferior  to  the  new  red-sandstone. 

This  red  conglomerate  occupies  three  small  districts  :  1.  That  of 
St.  Mary  Church  and  Watcombe.  2.  Tor-Moham.  3.  Paington. — 
The  first  extending  along  the  coast  from  the  Ness  Point  (Teignmouth) 
to  Oddicombe  Sands ;  with  the  exception  of  an  insulated  mass  of  car- 


32 

boniferous  limestone  at  Petit  Tor,  which  is  bounded  by  the  conglo- 
merate, and  partially  overlaid  by  it. 

The  conglomerate  of  Tor-Moham,  connected  with  that  of  St.  Mary 
Church  by  an  isthmus,  is  of  similar  composition,  and  rests  upon  car- 
boniferous limestone  and  old  red-sandstone. 

Near  Paington,  the  conglomerate  abuts  against  the  old  red-sand- 
stone ;  and  having  fallen  from  the  cliff  in  considerable  quantity,  near 
Livermeed  and  Preston  Sands,  has  the  appearance  of  underlying  the 
latter. 

2.  Carboniferous  Limestone. — The  rocks  of  this  formation  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Torquay,  have  hitherto  been  regarded  as  belonging 
to  the  transition  series  ;  but  the  author  supposes  them  to  be  identified 
with  the  carboniferous  or  mountain  limestone,  by  their  mineralogical 
characters  and  organic  remains.  The  limestone  is  of  a  gray  colour, 
traversed  by  numerous  veins  of  carbonate  of  lime,  is  occasionally  in- 
terstratified  with  marl,  and  generally  reposes  upon  argillaceous  shale, 
— the  lower  limestone  shale  of  the  carboniferous  series.  In  the  vici- 
nity of  trap,  however,  it  assumes  a  semi -crystalline  structure,  and 
thus  affords  the  numerous  varieties  of  the  well-known  Babbacombe 
marble. 

Very  remarkable  curves  and  contortions  in  the  limestone  strata 
are  visible  near  Torquay ;  the  disturbed  beds  in  general  dipping  away 
from  the  old  red-sandstone.  And  on  the  west  of  Babbacombe,  the 
coast  exhibits  the  limestone  and  shale  in  great  confusion  ;  particularly 
where  it  is  in  contact  with  the  trap  of  the  promontory  called  Black 
Head. 

At  Saltern-Cove,  near  Goodrington,  the  limestone  is  intermixed 
with,  and  disturbed  by,  trap, — which  appears  to  have  assumed  the 
character  of  serpentine,  and  to  have  so  altered  the  calcareous  rock 
that  it  does  not  effervesce  with  acids. 

The  author  gives  a  general  list  of  the  organic  remains  in  this  de- 
posit :  including  trilobites,  encrinites,  corals,  nautili,  orthocerse,  and 
several  species  of  testaceous  mollusca  characteristic  of  the  carboni- 
ferous limestone.  A  very  singular  fossil  also  is  figured,  which  appears 
to  have  been  attached  in  the  manner  of  the  Alcyonia  ;  but  whether 
it  is  to  be  classed  with  the  corals,  or  considered  as  intermediate  be- 
tween thecrinoidea  and  echinodermata,  has  not  yet  been  determined. 

The  cavern  called  Kent's  Hole,  near  Torquay  on  the  N.E.,  lately- 
celebrated  from  its  containing  Ihe  remains  of  various  antediluvian 
animals,  is  in  this  carboniferous  limestone. 

3.  Old  Red-sandstone. — This  formation,  which  occupies  a  con- 
siderable space  in  this  country,  is  well  exposed  at  Cockington,  where 
the  sandstone  is  compact,  micaceous  and  siliceous,  and  associated 
with  a  slaty  rock.  Near  Ockham,  and  N.N.W.  of  Paington,  the 
lowest  beds  lose  their  red  colour,  becoming  more  schistose ;  and 
these,  as  well  as  the  grit  and  slate  of  Meedfoot  Sands,  seem  to  pass 
into  grauwacke.  The  old  red-sandstone  is  extensively  overlaid  by 
unconformable  beds  of  the  new  red  conglomerate  at  Chelston  near 
Cockington,  and  in  other  places. 

4.  Grauwacke.— At  Westerland,  there  is  a  schistose  and  micaceous 


33 

variety  of  grauwacke,  containing  stems  of  encrinites,  corals,  and  bivalve 
shells. 

5.  Trap  Rocks. — The  connection  of  these  rocks  with  the  disturbed 
state  of  the  stratified  deposits,  constitutes  the  chief  interest  of  the 
tract  described  in  this  paper.  A  small  headland,  east  of  Babbacombe, 
consists  of  greenstone  containing  much  iron  pyrites,  and  traversed 
by  veins  of  quartz,  jasper,  &c. ;  the  contiguous  limestones  being 
semi-crystalline.  On  the  west  of  the  same  place,  another  headland 
is  composed  of  porphyritic  greenstone,  occasionally  amygdaloidal : 
— and  here  the  trap  is  protruded  upwards,  into  the  overlying  argilla- 
ceous slate  of  the  carboniferous  limestone  ;  the  adjacent  beds  of  shale 
being  broken,  much  contorted,  and  some  portions  of  them  even  in- 
cluded in  the  mass  of  trap  ;  whilst  the  limestone  in  the  upper  part  of 
the  cliff  also  is  much  dislocated.  In  the  inaccessible  cliffs  near  Oddi- 
combe  Sands,  the  trap  has  intruded  itself  among  the  limestone  and 
shale,  the  beds  of  which  are  much  altered  in  character,  and  so  broken 
up  near  the  summit,  that  they  are  with  difficulty  distinguished  from 
each  other.  The  largest  mass  of  trap  on  this  part  of  the  coast  is  at 
Black  Head  ;  and  is  remarkable  as  inclosing  a  large  detached  portion 
of  the  contorted  limestone. 

Near  to  a  great  fault  at  Oddicombe  Sands,  the  argillaceous  slate  is 
elevated  to  the  top  of  the  cliff,  and  the  adjoining  new  red  conglome- 
rate also  rises,  as  if  forced  up  by  the  same  movement  which  had 
affected  the  slate. 

The  author  conceives  that  the  appearances  of  the  coast  which  he 
has  described,  point  out  two  distinct  geological  epochs  : — 1st.  That 
of  the  formation  of  the  new  red  conglomerate,  after  the  limestone 
and  shale  had  been  partially  broken  up.  2ndly.  The  intrusion  of  the 
trap,  at  a  period  subsequent  to  the  deposition  of  the  conglomerate 
and  new  red-sandstone.  And  besides  attributing  the  disturbed  state 
of  this  region  to  the  operation  of  trap,  the  author  is  disposed  to  refer 
to  the  same  period  and  agency,  the  great  dislocations  in  the  oolitic 
series  on  the  east  of  the  tract  which  he  has  described  ;  and  to  con- 
nect with  the  convulsion  by  which  he  supposes  that  disturbance  to 
have  been  produced,  the  greater  catastrophe  which  elevated  the 
chalk  of  the  Isle  of  Wight, — and  even,  possibly,  that  which  threw  up 
the  main  ridge  of  the  Alps. 

A  paper  was  read,  entitled,  "  Supplementary  Remarks  on  the 
Strata  of  the  Oolitic  series,  and  the  Rocks  associated  with  them,  in 
Sutherland,  Ross,  and  the  Hebrides ;"  bv  Roderick  Impey  Murchison, 
Esq.,  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S.,  &c. 

The  author,  in  company  with  Professor  Sedgwick,  having  visited, 
during  the  last  summer,  the  districts  which  he  described  in  a  former 
memoir  (Geol.  Trans.  2nd  series,  vol.  ii.  part  2.),  has  been  enabled  to 
make  some  additional  observations,  and  to  collect  further  specimens 
illustrative  of  the  strata  of  the  oolitic  series,  and  their  associated  rocks 
in  the  north  of  Scotland. 

1.  On  the  connexion  of  the  primary  rocks  with  the  secondary 
deposits,  on  the  east  coasts  of  Sutherland  and  Ross. — The  Ord  of 
Caithness,  and  the  mountainous  ridge  connected  with  it,  which  had 


34- 

been  described  as  consisting  of  a  rock  made  up  of  felspar,  quartz,  and 
a  decomposing  green  substance,  is  now  ascertained  to  contain  well- 
crystallized  mica.  This  granite,  on  its  northern  flank,  supports  the 
old  red  conglomerate  ;  whilst  to  the  south  it  occupies  a  cliff,  on  and 
near  the  shore,  the  verge  of  which  affords  a  remarkable  breccia,  com- 
pounded from  all  the  beds  of  the  oolitic  series  that  occur  upon  this 
coast.  These  appearances  were  cursorily  noticed  in  the  author's  paper 
above  referred  to  ;  thev  are  now  described  more  in  detail :  and  it  is 
shown,  that  this  breccia  of  sandstone  shale,  fossils  and  limestone,  is 
tilted  off  from  the  granite,  wherever  that  rock  protrudes  upon  the 
shore ;  whilst  the  strata  are  regularly  developed  when  the  granite 
recedes  into  the  interior.  And  since  the  amount  of  disturbance  is  in 
every  case  proportioned  to  the  greater  or  less  proximity  of  the  granite, 
the  author  infers,  that  this  rock  was  elevated  subsequently  to  the  de- 
position of  the  oolitic  strata.  Thin  beds  of  primary  slaty  rocks  have 
been  observed  in  several  places,  interposed  between  the  secondary 
beds  and  the  granite :  and  the  greater  portion  of  the  Sutors  of  Cro- 
marty consist  of  felspathose  gneiss  ;  which  rock,  however,  is  in  some 
situations  so  much  charged  with  veins  of  granite,  that  the  whole  has  a 
granitiform  aspect,  whilst  in  other  places  the  mass  when  decomposed 
strongly  resembles  the  rock  of  the  Ord  of  Caithness  above  mentioned. 

That  the  granite  of  this  coast  has  been  elevated,  is  further  rendered 
probable,  by  the  position  of  the  red  conglomerate  on  the  tops  of  the 
granitic  mountains  ;  thus  giving  to  that  deposit  the  appearance  of 
overlying  the  more  recent  formations  of  the  oolitic  series,  to  which 
they  are  in  fact  superior  in  point  of  height  above  the  sea. 

Without  dissenting  from  the  opinions  of  other  geologists,  as  to  the 
formation  of  veins  in  gneiss  by  the  injection  of  granite  in  a  state  of 
softness,  the  author  states  that  Mr.  Sedgwick  and  himself  were  led 
to  a  different  hypothesis,  in  order  to  account  for  the  appearance  of 
the'brecciated  secondary  beds  in  contact  with  the  granite  of  this  coast : 
and  they  suppose  that  the  latter  rock  must  have  been  upheaved,  not 
in  a  liquid  form,  but  in  a  state  of  solidity,  since  no  veins  or  portions 
of  the  granite  are  to  be  met  with  in  or  above  the  breccia. 

2.  Denudation  of  Braambury ,  and  Hare  Hills. — These  hills,  the 
highest  in  geological  position  of  the  Brora  district,  and  celebrated  for 
their  quarries  of  white  siliceous  sandstone  abounding  in  fossils,  afford, 
upon  their  sides  and  summits,  distinct  traces  of  a  strong  diluvial  cur- 
rent; which  has  swept,  them  free  of  covering  matter,  and  deposited  in 
the  plain  of  Clyne  Milltown,  a  mass  composed  of  the  debris  of  the  de- 
nuded hills,  mixed  with  boulders  of  the  coarse  red  conglomerate.  A 
large  portion  of  the  turf  having  recently  been  removed,  the  surface  of 
the  rock  is  now  seen  to  be  scored  with  parallel  lines,  precisely  similar 
to  those  observed  in  other  places,  and  described  by  Sir  James  Hall, 
Dr.Buckland,&c.  And  in  this  case,  although  the  surface  of  the  ground 
is  very  unequal,  and  the  dip  and  bearings  of  the  denuded  strata  vary 
considerably,  the  direction  of  the  markings  is  uniformly  from  N.N.W. 
to  E.S.E. 

3.  Hebrides,  and  Mainland  of  the  West  Coast. — Pitchstone,  a 
mineral  not  previously  found  in  Scotland  in  association  with  the  more 


35 

recent  stratified  rocks,  has  been  discovered  by  Professor  Sedgwick 
and  Mr.  Murchison  in  two  places  ;  forming  portions  of  trap  dykes, — 
one  of  which  cuts  through  the  lias  and  inferior  oolite  at  Carsaig  Mull ; 
the  other  traverses  the  cornbrash  and  forest-marble,  at  Beal  near 
Portree  in  Skye. 

The  identity  of  the  various  secondary  strata  in  the  Isles  of  Mull, 
Skye,  Pabba,  Scalpa,  Rasay,  &c,  is  now  established  by  the  numerous 
organic  remains  which  they  have  been  found  to  contain;  many  of  which 
belong  to  new  species,  but  the  greater  number  are  well  known  as  cha- 
racteristic fossils  of  the  oolitic  formations  in  England. 

The  former  vast,  and  perhaps  continuous,  extent  of  these  deposits 
on  the  western  coast,  is  further  rendered  probable,  by  their  having 
been  observed  by  Professor  Sedgwick  and  the  author,  on  the  N.E. 
coast  of  Mull,  at  and  near  Tobermory  ;  and  at  Applecross  on  the  west 
coast  of  Ross-shire.  In  the  latter  place,  lias-limestone,  similar  to  that 
on  the  opposite  shores  of  Skye  and  Rasay,  rests  conformably  upon  the 
new  red  conglomerate  ;  and  as  the  same  fact  had  been  previously 
remarked  on  the  east  coast,  near  Cromarty,  evidence  is  thus  af- 
forded that  the  members  of  the  oolitic  series  of  Scotland,  generally, 
were  of  subsequent  formation  to  that  great  mechanical  deposit ;  being 
lodged,  apparently,in  the  basins  or  undulations  presented  by  its  surface. 

A  letter  was  read  from  G.  W.  Featherstonhaugh,  Esq.  to  W.  H. 
Fitton,  M.D.  P.G.S.  &c. ;  containing  an  account  of  an  excavation  in 
the  chalk  at  Norwich. 

The  writer,  having  learnt  that  an  extensive  cavity  in  the  chalk  of 
Heigham  Hill  near  Norwich,  had  been  discovered  about  four  years 
ago,  in  consequence  of  the  workmen  who  were  digging  a  well,  having 
suddenly  sunk  into  a  vault,  examined  the  place ;  and  he  describes  the 
excavation  as  consisting  of  various  galleries,  (a  plan  of  which  is  an- 
nexed to  his  letter,)  of  about  eight  feet  in  height,  from  two  to  five  feet 
in  breadth,  and  occupying  a  total  length  of  4600  feet.  He  conceives 
that  the  object  of  this  laborious  work,  was  to  extract  the  flints,  which 
were  used  in  great  quantity  in  the  construction  of  the  ancient  build- 
ings and  walls  of  Norwich ;  since  the  nodules  of  flint  have  been 
almost  entirely  removed  from  the  catacombs,  while  the  chalk  itself 
is  left.  And  he  states  in  support  of  this  opinion,  that  upon  re-opening 
the  original  entrance,  which  had  been  blocked  up  by  ruins,  the  date 
1571,  with  the  name  of  one  of  the  workmen,  was  found  written  on 
the  side  of  the  cavern : — a  year  which  corresponds  with  a  period, 
when  the  walls  of  the  town  are  known  to  have  been  repaired  with 
flints,  and  various  buildings  formed  of  them. 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE  GEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OP  LONDON. 

1827—1828.  No.  5. 


1827.  Dec.  7. — John  Braddick,  Esq.  of  Boughton -Mount  near 
Maidstone ;  G.  W.  Featherstonhaugh,  Esq.  of  Duanesburgh,  New 
York  ;  Arthur  Kett  Barclay,  Esq,  of  Grosvenor  Place,  London  ;  and 
Lord  Francis  Leveson  Gower,  of  Albemarle  Street,  were  elected 
Fellows  of  the  Society. 

A  paper  was  read,  "  On  the  Geology  of  Quebec  and  its  Vicinity, 
by  J.  T.  Bigsby,  M.D.  F.L.S.  G.S."  &c.  &c. 

The  author,  who  acknowledges  the  assistance  he  has  derived  from 
the  manuscripts  of  Lieut.  Skene,  R.  E.,  first  describes  the  tract,  on 
the  eastern  termination  of  which  the  city  of  Quebec  is  situated,  as  an 
oblong  ridge  of  about  seven  miles  and  a  half  in  length,  and  in  aver- 
age width  about  one  mile  and  a  half ;  subsiding  on  the  north-west, 
by  steep  and  rocky  slopes,  into  rich  meadows  ;  whilst  on  the  south- 
east it  advances  in  the  form  of  cliffs  towards  the  northern  bank  of 
the  St.  Lawrence. 

Several  rivers  traverse  the  district  above  mentioned,  nearly  from 
north  to  south,  of  which  the  most  considerable  are  the  St.  Charles 
and  the  Montmorenci.  On  the  southern  bank  of  the  St.  Lawrence, 
Point  Levi  is  the  most  conspicuous  promontory  ;  and  to  the  west  of 
it,  the  country  is  intersected  by  several  streams  running  from  south  to 
north. 

The  districts  above  mentioned  are  partially  covered  with  boulders 
of  gneiss,  granite,  syenite,  and  labrador  felspar  ;  the  greatest  quan- 
tities of  which  are  found  on  and  near  Cape  Diamond,  Point  Levi, 
and  Point  Montmorenci ;  whilst  occasional  deposits  of  clay,  grave), 
and  sand,  including  organic  remains,  the  author  supposes  to  be  of  di- 
luvial origin, — and  not  produced  by  the  operation  of  any  existing 
watercourses. 

The  rocks  of  this  region  repose  upon  each  other  in  the  following- 
descending  order: — 1st.  A  slaty  series,  composed  of  shale  and  grau- 
wacke,  occasionally  passing  into  a  brown  limestone,  and  alternating 
with  calcareous  conglomerate  in  beds,  some  of  which  are  charged 
with  fossils. — 2nd.  A  conchiferous  brown  and  black  limestone,  some- 
times based  upon  a  calcareous  conglomerate. — 3rd.  Gneiss.  The 
author's  chief  reason  for  considering  the  slaty-series  as  superior  to  the 
limestone,  is,  that  the  latter  is  in  some  situations  in  immediate  con- 
tact with  gneiss  ;  while  in  others  it  passes  into  beds  of  the  first  series 
above  mentioned  j  the  conglomerates  of  which  contain  organic  re- 
mains derived  from  the  conchiferous  limestone. 

1 .  The  slaty-series  occupies  the  whole  of  the  southern  shore  of  the 


38 

St.  Lawrence,  the  Island  of  Orleans,  and  a  considerable  portion  of  the 
north  bank  of  the  river,  including  the  ridge  upon  which  Quebec  is 
placed.  In  that  neighbourhood  the  mass  of  the  deposit  consists  of  a 
black  and  brown  slaty  limestone,  inclined  at  very  high  angles,  and 
alternating  with  semi-crystalline  limestone,  and  various  conglomerates. 
The  limestone  contains  several  varieties  of  crystallized  carbonate  of 
lime,  intermixed  with  quartz  crystals,  and  occasionally  traversed  by 
seams  of  bituminous  matter.  Near  Cape-Rouge,  and  on  the  plains 
of  Abraham  and  Kilgraston,  some  of  the  strata  consist  of  red  and 
greenish  clay-slate.  In  the  calcareous  conglomerates,  organic  re- 
mains are  mixed  with  fragments  of  clay-slate ;  and  the  beds  alternate 
with  compact  gray  limestone  and  quartzose  layers.  Between  Que- 
bec and  Cape-Rouge,  boulders  of  primary  rocks,  and  fragments  of 
compact  grauwacke,  are  buried  deep  in  the  red  schist. 

The  channels  of  the  various  streams  east  and  west  of  Quebec,  afford 
instructive  sections,  which,  according  to  the  author,  prove  these  slaty 
deposits  to  be  more  recent  than  the  conchiferous  limestone. 

On  the  south  side  of  the  river  St.  Lawrence,  the  slaty  limestone  of 
Quebec  is  no  longer  seen  ;  but  several  new  beds  of  conglomerate  pre- 
sent themselves,  one  of  the  lowest  of  which  contains  trilobites,  en- 
crinites,  corallines,  and  other  fossils, — associated  with  vegetable  im- 
pressions, probably  of  fuci  and  amansiee.  In  the  schistose  beds  near 
the  mouth  of  the  Etchemin  are  thin  seams  of  coal ;  and  at  the  village 
of  St.  Henry  the  slate  is  so  compact  as  to  be  used  for  hones. 

2.  The  horizontal  conchiferous  limestone  occupies  a  zone  from 
two  to  three  miles  in  breadth,  on  the  north  of  the  slaty  tract,  and 
included  between  the  slate  and  a  mountainous  range  of  gneiss.  It  is 
exposed  in  the  bed's  of  all  the  rivers  which  flow  southwards  into  the 
St.  Lawrence,  and  its  characters  are  well  developed  at  the  falls  of 
the  Montmorenci  and  the  St.  Charles,  and  at  the  quarries  of  Beaufort. 
The  organic  remains  consist  of  several  species  of  trilobite,  orthocera, 
terebratula,  encrinite,  ammonite,  &c.  On  the  Montmorenci  the  beds 
are  nearly  horizontal,  from  eighteen  inches  to  two  feet  in  thickness, 
and  of  a  blackish -brown  colour  ;  in  one  situation  they  pass  into  a 
subjacent  calcareous  conglomerate,  whilst  in  other  places  the  lime- 
stone itself  contains  large  blue  nodules,  and  reposes  immediately 
upon  gneiss.  At  Beaufort-quarries,  ledges  of  fetid  limestone  alter- 
nate with  calcareo-bituminous  shale,  containing  organic  remains 
similar  to  those  noticed  on  the  Montmorenci. 

From  the  characters  and  fossils  of  the  limestone  above  described, 
the  author  regards  it  as  the  same  with  the  calcaire  intermediaire  of 
D'Aubuisson, — and  the  equivalent  of  the  "  Carboniferous-limestone" 
of  English  geologists. 

Dec.  21. — Henry  Holland  Stutzer,  Esq.  River-Terrace,  Islington, 
was  elected  a  Fellow  of  the  Society. 

The  reading  was  begun  of  a  paper  "  On  a  Group  of  Slate-Rocks 
in  Yorkshire,  between  the  Rivers  Lune  and  Wharfe,  from  near  Kirby 
Lonsdale  to  near  Malham,"— by  John  Phillips,  Esq.  Hon.  Mem.  of  the 
Yorkshire  Leeds  and  Hull  Philosophical  Societies. 


39 

1828.  Jan.  4. — John  Murray,  Esq.  Jun.  of  Albemarle  Street,  Lon- 
don ;  Henry  Tuffnell,  Esq.  of  Christchurch,  Oxford ;  The  Right  Hon. 
Viscount  Cole,  of  Christchurch,  Oxford  •  R.  C.  Fergusson,  Esq.  M.P., 
of  Craigdarroch,  Dumfriesshire,  and  of  Great  Cumberland  Street, 
London  ;  John  Phillips,  Esq.  of  York  ;  and  John  Gurdon,  Esq.  of  As- 
sington  Hall,  Suffolk, — were  elected  Fellows  of  the  Society. 

The  reading  of  Mr.  Phillips's  paper,  begun  at  the  last  meeting,  was 
concluded. 

The  object  of  this  paper  is  to  describe  the  geological  structure  and 
relations  of  a  group  of  rocks,  which  the  author  characterizes  as  "  aber- 
rant from  the  slate  district  of  Cumberland,"  and  extending  about 
fifteen  miles  towards  the  east  under  the  summits  of  Greygarth,  Ingle- 
borough,  and  Pen-y-gant ; — a  tract  remarkable  for  the  variety  and  sin- 
gularity of  its  geological  appearances,  among  which  the  proofs  of 
dislocation  are  peculiarly  striking  and  important. 

To  this  description  a  sketch  is  premised  of  the  slate -series  of  the 
Lakes  of  Westmoreland  and  Cumberland ;  where  the  rocks  are  grouped 
in  three  principal  divisions,  the  lowest  consisting  of  dark  soft  slate 
much  contorted,  with  fine-grained  gneiss  beneath  it  passing  into 
granite.  The  second  division  occupies  a  country  of  very  different 
aspect  from  that  of  the  slate  :  the  mountain-ranges  being  marked  by 
abrupt  precipices,  as  at  Helvellyn,  Langdale-Pikes,  and  the  Lakes  of 
Ulswater,  &c.  and  consisting  of  brecciated  argillaceous  rocks  contain- 
ing calcareous  spar,  green-earth,  and  calcedony,  with  greenstone  and 
other  forms  of  trap.  On  the  south  of  this  chain  is  a  tract  of  transi- 
tion limestone,  containing  caryophylliae,  products,  spiriferee,  and  other 
fossils ;  and  this  is  covered  by  a  third  zone  of  slate,  the  most  recent 
rock  of  the  country,  usually  divisible  into  rhomboidal  blocks,  of  which 
two  principal  varieties  are  observable,  alternating  with  each  other ;  the 
one  homogeneous  and  fissile,  and  containing  organic  remains  spa- 
ringly distributed,  of  the  genera  trigonia,  pecten,  gryphea,  turritella 
and  terebratula ; — the  other  more  granular  and  micaceous.  This  for- 
mation is  in  some  cases  succeeded  by  red  conglomerate,  but  more 
commonly  by  mountain-limestone,  the  lowest  beds  of  which  contain 
numerous  pebbles  of  slate  and  quartz ;  and  above  the  limestone  are 
the  carboniferous  rocks,  including  the  millstone  grit  and  the  upper 
coal-measures.  The  highest  strata  known  in  the  country,  consist  of 
the  new  red  sandstone,  placed  in  an  unconformable  position  above 
the  coal  formation. 

The  tract,  which  is  the  more  immediate  object  of  this  paper,  extends 
from  the  valley  of  the  Lune  in  an  easterly  direction,  to  that  of  the 
Wharfe.  Along  its  middle,  from  Casterton  Fells  to  a  few  miles  east 
of  the  Ribble,  ranges  an  almost  continuous  line  of  argillaceous  rocks, 
generally  fissile,  and  belonging  to  the  third  division  of  slates  above 
mentioned.  This  tract  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  elevated  strata 
that  support  the  summits  of  Greygarth  and  Pen~y-gant ;  and  on  the 
south  (in  consequence  of  great  dislocations)  by  millstone  grit  and  the 
coal  measures.  If  the  rivers  Lune  and  Wharfe  are  included,  no  fewer 
than  nine  streams  cross  the  district  from  north  to  south,  and  exhibit 


40 

very  distinctly  the  structure  and  relations  of  the  rocks  ;  the  greater 
number  of  the  streams  cutting  through  the  limestone  and  millstone 
grit,  exposing  the  subjacent  slate.,  and  finally  passing  off  on  the  de- 
pressed strata  of  the  coal  measures.  The  author  describes  in  detail 
the  phenomena  presented  in  these  several  sections,  and  illustrates  his 
observations  by  sectional  views  and  sketches. 

The  structure  of  the  country  is  very  well  displayed  in  the  course  of 
the  Ribble ;  where,  on  the  north,  the  slate  first  appears  beneath  pa- 
rallel bands  of  limestone ;  while  on  the  south,  the  carboniferous 
strata,  the  northern  portion  of  which  is  horizontal,  decline  at  a  high 
angle,  thus  indicating  a  vertical  dislocation  of  about  four  hundred 
feet.  Besides  this  fault  on  the  southern  verge  of  the  slate,  another 
still  more  important  one  in  a  parallel  direction,  may  be  traced  across 
the  valley  of  Ribbles-dale,  and  over  Malham  Moor  5 — by  which,  strata 
have  been  brought  into  immediate  opposition,  that  in  their  original 
place  were  separated  by  a  thickness  of  more  than  five  hundred  feet. 
Various  facts  are  stated  by  the  author  in  proof  of  this  derangement, 
and  descriptive  of  the  phenomena  produced  by  it. 

The  author  subjoins  to  his  descriptions  some  remarks  on  the  strati- 
fication of  slate,  and  on  the  difficulty  of  discriminating  between  the 
planes  of  general  stratification,  or  dip,  and  those  of  the  cleavage  ef- 
fected by  a  blow, — the  latter  of  which  are  often  disposed  at  consider- 
able angles  to  those  of  the  dip.  He  is  disposed  to  think,  that  in  the 
fissile  granular  varieties  of  slate  approaching  to  sandstone,  the  laminae 
of  cleavage  may  really  be  those  of  deposition  ;  since  the  surfaces  are 
frequently  coated  with  mica,  and  the  fossil  remains  are  in  a  disposition 
parallel  to  them.  Besides  this  more  general  cleavage,  however,  the 
slate  is  also  traversed  by  other  planes,  oblique  to  those  of  the  eleavage, 
and  less  conspicuous, — to  which  the  quarry-men  give  the  name  of 
"  Bate."  The  direction  of  these  planes,  though  nearly  alike  in  limited 
spaces,  is  found  to  vary  considerably  in  different  portions  of  the  same 
tract ;  and  even  the  better-defined  planes  of  the  ordinary  cleavage  are 
seldom  parallel  to  each  other  throughout  any  great  extent  of  country. 

A  collection  was  exhibited  at  this  meeting,  of  fossil  vegetables, 
chiefly  from  the  Jarrow  and  Felling  collieries,  in  the  Northumberland 
and  Durham  coal-field,  presented  to  the  Society  by  William  Hutton, 
Esq.  of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne ;  with  a  catalogue  describing  the  plants 
according  to  the  system  of  M.  A.  Brongniart,  and  drawings,  with 
some  remarks  by  the  donor. — The  collection  consists  of  specimens  of 
Calamites,  Sigillaria?,  Sagenarise,  Stigmariea,  Filices,  Sphaenophylla, 
Asterophylla,  &c. ;  and  includes  several  undescribed  confervae,  leaves, 
stems,  &c. 

Jan.  18. — A  notice  was  read  "  On  the  Occurrence  of '  Chlorophasite' 
in  Basaltic  Dikes,  in  Northumberland  ;  and  of  Carbonate  of  Strontian 
in  the  Lead  Measures  at  Fallowfield  near  Hexham," — by  William 
Hutton,  Esq.  of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

The  author  discovered  *  Chlorophasite '  in  a  basaltic  dyke  near  the 
river  Coquet,  about  two  miles  N.E.  of  Felton  5  in  the  form  of  small 


41 

nodules,  which  upon  fracture  exhibit  the  changes  of  colour  and  ap- 
pearance mentioned  by  Dr.  MacCulloch,  who  first  discovered  this 
mineral  in  the  Isle  of  Rum.  This  substance  has  also  been  observed 
by  the  author  at  Coaley-hill  near  Newcastle,  in  the  steatitic  or  earthy 
form,  and  but  rarely  crystallized. 

The  reading  was  begun  of  a  paper  "  On  the  Geological  Relations 
of  the  Secondary  Strata  in  the  Isle  of  Arran ;" — by  the  Rev.  A.  Sedg- 
wick, V.P.G.S.  F.R.S.  Woodwardian  Professor,  and  Roderick  Impey 
Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S.  F.L.S.  &c. 

Feb.  1. — The  reading  of  Professor  Sedgwick  and  Mr.  Murchison 's 
paper,  begun  at  the  last  meeting,  was  concluded. 

This  paper  consists  of  three  divisions  :  1st.  A  brief  outline  of  the 
general  structure  of  the  Isle  of  Arran.  2d.  An  account  of  the  section 
on  the  N.E.  coast  of  the  island.  3d.  Concluding  remarks  explanatory 
of  the  probable  causes,  and  geological  epochs  of  the  several  phe- 
nomena. In  the  1st  division,  the  authors,  considering  that  the  sub- 
ject has  been  amply  elucidated  by  Jameson,  MacCulloch,  and  Hen- 
drick,  confine  themselves  to  such  details  as  are  necessary  to  make 
their  subsequent  description  intelligible.  In  the  2d  part,  the  strata 
on  the  N.E.  coast  are  described  in  great  detail,  for  the  purpose  of 
comparison  with  the  corresponding  members  of  the  English  Series  $ 
from  whence  it  appears,  that  a  succession  of  formations,  analogous  to 
the  old  red  sandstone,  carboniferous  series,  and  new  red  sandstone, 
are  exhibited  twice  over,  in  an  anticlinal  section. 

The  mineralogical  centre  of  this  section  is  at  North  Sannox,  and 
the  lower  red  conglomerate  is  there  seen  in  several  situations,  rising 
to  the  height  of  about  1 000  feet  above  the  sea.  1 .  This  formation  is 
supposed  to  be  identified  with  the  old  red  sandstone }  from  its  lowest 
members  graduating  into  grauwacke ;  from  its  containing  concretionary 
limestone  not  distinguishable  from  the  cornstone  of  Herefordshire  ; 
and  its  being  regularly  overlaid  by  the  carboniferous  series.  2.  The 
middle  deposit  of  the  section  is  clearly  referable  to  the  carboniferous 
series,  by  its  mineralogical  structure,  by  the  organic  remains  in  the 
calcareous  beds,  which  are  identical  with  those  of  the  mountain- 
limestone  ;  by  its  containing  seams  of  coal,  which  have  been  worked ; 
and  by  the  plants  in  the  shale  being  of  the  same  species  with  many 
of  those  most  abundant  in  the  coal-measures  of  England.  3.  The 
superior  sandstone  and  conglomerate  are  of  enormous  thickness,  rising 
into  lofty  and  precipitous  hills  upon  the  coast.  These  are  referred  to 
the  new  red  sandstone,  from  their  position  and  internal  characters ; 
and  this  classification  is  confirmed  particularly  by  the  structure  of  the 
sandstone  on  the  southern  coasts  of  the  island.  This  formation  differs 
however  from  the  new  red  sandstone  of  England,  not  only  in  being 
conformable  to  the  beds  on  which  it  rests,  but  also  by  graduating  into 
the  superior  parts  of  the  carboniferous  order. 

In  conclusion,  the  authors  endeavour  to  show,  that  the  great  dis- 
locations of  the  secondary  deposits  have  been  produced  by  an  up- 
heaving of  the  granite  j    and  they  state,  in  corroboration  of  this 


42 

opinion,  that  where  the  breaks  in  the  strata  are  greatest,  there  the 
granite  makes  the  nearest  approaches  to  them.  It  is  further  attempted 
to  be  proved,  that  the  granite  could  not  have  been  in  a  perfectly  fluid 
state  at  the  period  of  its  elevation,  from  the  fact  of  its  existence  in 
the  form  of  mural  and  serrated  precipices  on  the  flanks  of  the  se- 
condary strata ;  being  in  this  respect  prominently  distinguished  from 
the  trap  of  the  southern  regions  of  the  island,  which  has,  in  number- 
less places,  not  only  penetrated,  but  overflowed  upon  the  new  red 
sandstone. 


Erratum  in  the  "Proceedings,"  No.  4. — Page  35,  line  16  #  17. 

for  "  rest  conformably  on  the  new  red  conglomerate," 
read  "  rest  upon  the  red  conglomerate". 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE  GEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OP  LONDON. 


1827—1828. 


No.  6. 


At  the  Annual  General  Meeting  of  the  Fellows,  15th  February  1828  ; 

A  Report  from  the   Council  was  read,  of  which  the  following  is  an 
abstract. — 

"  Comparative  Statement  of  the  number  of  the  Society,  at  the  last 
and  present  Anniversaries. 

Fellows.  16th  Feb.  1827.        15th  Feb.  1828. 

Having  compounded 42 44 

Contributing   133 150 

Non-resident., 200 211 

375 405 

Honorary  Members     57. ...........     55 

Foreign  Members 46 47 

Total  478 507 

"  The  Names  of  the  Fellows  deceased  within  the  past  year  are  as 
follow  : — 

Dr.  Clarke  Abel. 
Captain  Apsley. 
Morris  Birkbeck,  Esq. 
Sir  Harry  Calvert,  Bart. 
Rev.  Dr.  Haggit. 
Right  Hon.  Geo.  Knox. 

Honorary  Members  deceased 
John  Hawker,  Esq. 


Rev.  Thomas  Leman. 

Abraham  Mills,  Esq. 

Daniel  Moore,  Esq. 

Robert  Morison,  Esq. 

M.  le  Chevalier  Luis  D'Onis. 

John  Harrison  Thompson,  Esq. 

Joseph  Wilkinson,  Esq. 


Foreign  Members  elected  : 

M.  Charles  von  Oeynhausen.   J    M.  Henry  von  Dechen. 

Foreign  Member  deceased : 
Signor  G.  Brocchi. 


<N  O 


2     «*     § 


<U       03      i— i 


C 

s 

CO 


bfl 


23 


to  o 

00  © 


to 


«o 


— ■  t>. 

*5  O  O  <o  ,    "6  OOOU 


o  <o 
rr  © 


CJ  „•  «5  O  CO 


T3 

3 


a   »>» 


ti 


cs 


oj  b»  to  *  TT 


<w 


u   a"c 


3 

'C     t 

j9 

o5  S 

c 
o 

CJ 

ncom 

Contr 
on  Fe 

o 

1^  =  1 

a3 

<0  <M 
t->.  to 

5? 


gwoS      g  .E<;<5 


c3 


<6 


O    cu 

as 


CJ    * 
0) 

J-  %~ 

cd&o 


SO 


c 


<W 


o 


«o 


CO 


-M 


T3  o  o     «o     CO 


iO  O      W      CO 


o 


«rt 


n«    o    - 

■^  CO     —     CO 


o  o 


0>    o 

— I   -* 


<% 


CO 


■  "2 
•  P- 

*>£  i 

.5*0- 
*&  >, ,,.  -a 


c  b 


>c£ 


ug 


.2  c 

"  .3 


--  --    S  — 
O    »:2    £ 

3'  rid 


9  JS  ft  c 


v_'      m      ,-i      — 

gmou 


.13 

o> 

.    4» 

•  0 

•  0 

u 

0 
CO 

•    •— 
•Cu 

0    "O 

w 

.  c 

>-. 

3    =3 

.a 

b/D 


«    C  - 


K 


CO 

co 


«rt 


PQ 


to  ^ 


O 
O 


o 
o 


CO 


05  ' 

o 

o 

< 

> 


H 
PS 

w 
a. 

o 
« 


biD 
cs 


co 


T3 

G 
cS 

SC 


o 
co 


■s 

0  0 

*5 

<D  rj< 

«rt 

o 
o 


o 


COfc 


OS 

O     dj     M 

c 
o 

•5    O    3 
is  ,J£    t— 

<u  E  c 

3-0    O 


c 

o 


o  £ 

S.I 

0  E. 


10 

CO 

CO 


"•a 


^ 


W 


%    % 


ts     I—. 


C     CU 

cu    hD 

^  a 
^  O, 

•C  ._ 
C  co 
03  _« 


•C 


en  CM 

•5  00 

O  r~' 
co 


«o  O 

CM  00 


o 

CM 


o 
o 


«rt 


•55  O  O 


CM  — 


O  O  O  O     | 

o  ©  o  o 


o  o  o  o 
in  c^  co  co 
cm 


©  o    o 


©  ©    © 


©  ©    © 

©  CM      CO 


be 


•    co        <~Z 

■  a      ^ 

i  M  " 


cu  o 
O 


03    cy 
P-  X 

0J    cs 


&  s 

-    CQ 


{O  ,irf     a;     03 

4)     h«    > 

ctf 
CO 


c 


s  ^1 

*  S3  S3 

K  .2 
o3  *;   «; 


©  © 
©  © 


©  © 

©   CM 


© 

CM 

CO 
OS 

55 


c 
co 


.2  c° 

•J2  .  — . 

o  -a 

..  as  cu 

co  cu 

2  c  o 

c    03  o 

•2££ 

03 

_u 

3 

s 

0-, 


ffl 


fee 


© 
© 


©   © 
©   © 


CO 

K 

< 


w 


Q  S 

Pi 

eo  S 


.2  S 

CJ  O 
O  \i3 
CO    p 


o 

cu   to' 
s  cu 

-O    CD 


•tjo- 


«rt 


T3  ITS 

cs  r1 


cu   fe 
>  $ 


.2 
cu  "-3 

CO      "      O 

.3   >o 

as 

c 


cu 
56  72 

"S  "co 

CO     M     gi 

cu   cu   g 

-CU  T3      I 

co    5 

C    cu    O 

.2tf  £ 
i  o  o 
s 


o 


©   © 

Tf      © 


«rt 


00    -rt 
CM     t> 

CO      03 


< 


w 


47 

"  The  Museum  has  received  many  valuable  donations  since  the  last 
Anniversary,  of  which  the  following  are  the  most  important  : — 


I.  British  Specimens. 

"  Portion  of  a  large  Head  of  the  Ichthyosaurus  Platyodon  ;  presented 
by  H.  T.  De  la  Beche,  Esq.,  F.R.S.  G.S.  &c. 

Fossil  bones  of  the  Hyaena  and  other  Animals,  found  in  a  cave  near 
Maidstone ;  presented  by  John  Braddick,  Esq.  F.G.S. 

Specimens  from  the  Strata  between  the  Chalk,  and  the  Kimmeridge 
Clay,  from  the  vicinity  of  Folkstone,  the  Vale  of  Wardour,  Berk- 
shire, and  other  places  ;  in  illustration  of  a  Paper  read  before  the 
Society  j  presented  by  W.  H.  Fitton,  M.D.  Pres.  G.S.  &c. 

Fossils  from  the  ferruginous  sandstone  of  Parham  Park,  and  Pul- 
borough  Mount,  and  from  the  lower  green-sand  of  Pulborough  ; 
presented  by  P.  I.  Martin,  Esq.  of  Pulborough. 

Additional  Fossils  of  the  Oolitic  series  in  Scotland,  and  Rocks  asso- 
ciated with  them  ;  to  illustrate  a  Paper  read  before  the  Society  ; 
presented  by  R.  I.  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 

Specimens  of  Fossil  vegetables  from  the  Northumberland  and  Durham 
Coal-Field  ;  arranged  and  presented  by  W.  Hutton,  Esq.  of  New- 
castle-on-Tyne. 

Specimens  from  Arran,  to  illustrate  their  memoir  on  the  secondary 
strata  of  that  island  : — presented  by  the  Rev.  A.  Sedgwick,  Wood- 
wardian  Professor,  Cambridge  ;  and  R.  I.  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec. 
G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 


II.  Foreign  Specimens. 

"  Specimens  of  Volcanic  Rocks  from  Auvergne  ;  presented  by  G.  P. 
Scrope,  Esq.  F.G.S.  &c. 

A  specimen  of  Apennine  Landscape-Limestone  from  near  Placentia ; 
presented  by  the  Rev.  W.  Buckland,  D.D.  F.R.S.  and  L.S.  Pro- 
fessor of  Mineralogy  and  Geology  in  the  University  of  Oxford. 

Specimens  of  Rocks  collected  during  his  survey  of  part  of  the  Straits 
of  Magellan  5  presented  by  Capt.  P.  P,  King,  R.N. 

Specimens  of  Fossil  bones,  wood,  and  shells,  from  Ava  j  presented 
by  J.  Crawfurd,  Esq.  F.G.S. 

Specimens  and  Fossils  from  Spitzbergen,  obtained  during  the  late 
Northern  Expedition  ;  presented  by  Capt.  Parry,  R.N.  and  Capt. 
Foster,  R.N. 

A  series  of  specimens  collected  during  the  late  Expedition  to  the 
North-west  coast  of  America  ■  presented  by  Capt.  Franklin,  R.N. 
and  Dr.  Richardson. 

III.  British  and  Foreign  Specimens. 

"  A  legacy  of  recent  shells,  fossil  organic  remains,  and  minerals  j  left 
by  the  late  Capt.  Apsley,  F.G.S. 

l<  The  Library  has  been  increased  by  the  donation  of  49  volumes. 


48 

"  The  second  Part  of  the  Second  Volume  of  the  New  Series  of 
Transactions  has  been  published  since  the  last  Anniversary  •  and 
directions  have  been  given  for  putting  to  press  the  third  and  con- 
cluding Part  which  will  contain  an  Index  to  the  whole  volume,  and 
discharge,  with  very  few  unavoidable  exceptions,  all  the  unpublished 
arrears  of  papers,  to  the  end  of  the  last  session. 

"  The  circulation  of  the  printed  Proceedings  of  the  Society 
has  given  such  general  satisfaction,  that  the  Council  has  had  no 
hesitation  in  recommending  the  continuance  of  it ;  since  a  record  is 
thus  obtained  of  the  progress  of  the  Institution,  which  may  hereafter 
become  an  object  of  reference,  with  a  view  to  the  history  of  the  subject; 
whilst  an  opportunity  is  afforded  of  circulating  with  promptitude, 
notices  of  transitory  interest,  or  that  require  immediate  attention  ; 
and  of  giving  publicity  to  various  papers  on  geological  subjects,  too 
valuable  to  lose,  but  not  of  sufficient  importance  to  occupy  a  place  in 
the  more  permanent  and  costly  record  of  the  Transactions. 

"  It  is  requested  that  such  Members  as  do  not  now  receive  the  Pro- 
ceedings, and  may  be  desirous  of  obtaining  them  in  future,  will 
leave  with  the  clerk,  some  address  in  London,  to  which  they  may  be 
directed,  as  heretofore,  through  the  medium  of  the  two-penny  post. 

"  Papers  read  at  the  Meetings  of  the  Society  since  the  last  Anniversary. 

On  the  Volcanic  district  of  Naples ;  by  G.  P.  Scrope,  Esq.  F.R.S. 
G.S.  &c. 

On  the  Geology  of  the  vicinity  of  Pulborough,  Sussex  ;  by  P.  I. 
Martin,  Esq. 

On  the  Magnesian  Limestone  of  the  northern  counties  ;  by  the 
Rev.  A.  Sedgwick,  Woodwardian  Professor,  Cambridge. 

On  the  discovery  of  fossil  bones  near  Besangon  in  France  ;  by  Pro- 
fessor Buckland. 

Notice  of  a  Whin  Dyke  in  Cowpen  Colliery  near  Blythe,  in  Northum- 
berland ;  by  W.  C.  Trevelyan,  Esq.  F.L.S.  G.S.  &c. 

On  the  fixed  rocks  of  the  valley  of  St.  Lawrence  in  North  America; 
by  J.  F.  Bigsby,  M.D.  &c. 

On  some  Fossil  bones  of  the  Elephant,  and  other  Animals,  found 
near  Salisbury  ;  by  Charles  Lyell,  Esq.  F.G.S.  &c. 

Remarks  on  some  of  the  strata  between  the  Chalk  and  the  Kimmeridge 
clay,  in  the  South  East  of  England ;  by  W.  H.  Fitton,  M.D.  F.G.S. 
&c. 

Extract  of  a  Letter  from  Capt.  P.  P.  King,  R.N.  to  Dr.  Fitton,  P.G.S. 
dated  at  Rio  Janeiro  10th  June  1827  ;  with  some  observations  on 
the  specimens  sent  home  by  Capt.  King  ;  by  the  President. 

On  the  Geology  of  Torr  and  Babbacombe  Bays,  Devon;  by  H.  T. 
De  la  Beche,  Esq.  F.R.S.  &c. 

Supplementary  remarks  on  the  Strata  of  the  Oolitic  Series  and  the 
rocks  associated  with  them  in  Sutherland,  Ross,  and  the  Hebrides; 
by  R.  I-  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  &c. 

A  Letter  from  G.  W.  Featherstonhaugh,  Esq.  containing  an  account 
of  an  Excavation  in  the  chalk  at  Norwich. 


49 

On  the    Geology  of  Quebec   and  its  vicinity  ;  by  Dr.  Bigsby. 

On  a  group  of  Slate-rocks  between  the  rivers  Lune  and  Wharfe,  in 
the  north  of  England,  from  near  Kirby  Lonsdale  to  near  Malham, 
&c. ;  by  John  Phillips,  Esq.  Hon.  Mem.  of  the  Yorkshire,  Leeds 
and  Hull  Philosophical  Societies. 

A  notice  of  the  occurrence  of  Chlorophseite  in  basaltic  Dykes,  in  Nor- 
thumberland ;  and  of  Carbonate  of  Strontian  in  the  Lead  Measures 
near  Hexham  ;  by  W.  Hutton,  Esq.  of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

On  the  Geological  relations  of  the  secondary  strata,  in  the  Isle  of 
Arran  ;  by  the  Rev.  A.  Sedgwick,  V.P.G.S.  &c.  Woodwardian  Pro- 
fessor, and  R.  I.  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  &c 


The  following  List  contains  the  Names  of  all  the  Persons,  from  whom 
Donations  to  the  Library  and  Museum  have  been  received  during 
the  past  year. 


Aikin,  Arthur,  Esq. 
Allan,  Robert,  Esq. 
American  Phil.  Society. 
Andreossy,  Comte. 
Apsley,  Captain. 
Asiatic  Society. 
Astronomical  Society. 

Backwell,  Joseph,  Esq. 
Bathurst,  Charles,  Esq. 
Beaufort,  Captain,  R.N. 
Benett,  Miss. 
Bicheno,  J.  E.,  Esq.,  F.R.S,  Sec. 

L.S.  &c. 
Biddle,  N.,  Esq. 
Bouillet,  M.  J.  B. 
Braddick,  James,  Esq. 
Bristol  Institution. 
Brongniart,M.A.,  For.  Mem. G.S. 
Brooke,  Captain  De  Capell. 
Brooke,  Henry  James,  Esq. 
Buckland,  Rev.  W.,  D.D.  F.R.S. 

&c. 
Bullock,  W.,  Esq.  F.L.S. 

Cambridge  Phil.  Society. 
Cazalet,  Mrs. 
Cole,  Viscount. 
Cordier,  M.  L. 
Crawfurd,  J ,  Esq.  F.G.S- 
Crosse,  J.,  Esq. 

Daubeny,   C.G.B.,  M.D.  F.R.S. 
&c. 


Dechen  Von,  M.  Henry. 

De  la  Beche,  H.  T.,  Esq.  F.R.S. 

L.  S.  &c. 
Drapiez,  M. 
Dulau  and  Co. 

East  India  Company  Directors, 

Court  of. 
Editors  of  Phil.  Mag.  and  Annals 

of  Philosophy. 

Faraday,    Michael,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 

&c. 
Featherstonhaugh,   G.  W.,  Esq. 

F.G.S. 
Ferrara,  Francesco. 
Ferussac,  M.  le  Baron  de. 
Firsch,  S.  G.,  Dr. 
Fitton,  W.  H.,  M.D.,  President 

G.S.  F.R.S.  &c 
Foster,  Captain,  R.N. 
Franklin,  Captain,  R.N. 
Frost,  J.,  Esq.  F.A.S.  L.S.  G.S. 

Goldsmid,  J.  L.,  Esq.  F.G.S. 

Hammond,  W.  O.,  Esq. 
Heathfield,  R.  Jun.,  Esq.  F.G.S. 
Hoeninghaus,  F.  G. 
Horticultural  Society. 
Humboldt,  Baron  de,  For.  Mem. 
G.S. 


50 


Hutton,  William,  Esq. 

King,  Captain,  P.  P.,  R.N. 

Leach,  Dr. 

Leeds  Phil,  and  Literary  Society. 
Leonhard,  M.  C.  C.  Von. 
Linnean  Society. 

Majendie,  A.,  Esq.  F.R.S.  G.S. 

&c. 
Martin,  G.  P.,  Esq. 
Medico-Botanical  Soc.  of  London. 
Mitchell,  Major. 
Murchison,  R.  1.,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S. 

F.R.S.  &c. 
Murray,  A.,  Esq. 

Oeynhausen  Von,  M.  Charles. 

Parry,  Captain,  R.  N. 

Randolph,  Rev.  J.  H. 
Richardson,  Dr. 
Royal  Institution. 


Royal  Academy  of  Berlin. 
Royal  Academy  of   Sciences  of 
France. 

Scrope,  G.  P.,  Esq.  F.G.S. 
Sedgwick,     Rev.    Adam,     M.A. 

V.P.  G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 
Sibbald,  Dr. 

Silliman,  Benjamin,  M.D.  LL.D. 
Society  of  Arts. 
Sternberg,  Count. 
Stift,  M.  gen.,  Superintendent  of 

Mines  of  Nassau. 
Stokes,  Charles,  Esq.,  F.R.S.  &c. 

Taylor,  Richard  Cowling,  Esq. 

Taylor,  S. 

Trevelyan,  W.  C,  Esq. 

Weiss,  Prof. 
Wilks,  Col.  Mark. 
Woodward,  S.,  Esq. 

Yorkshire  Phil.  Society. 

Zoological  Society. 


The  Report  having  been  read,  it  was  Resolved, — 

1.  That  the  Report  of  the  Council  be  approved  of;  and  that  such 
parts  of  it  as  the  Council  shall  think  fit,  be  printed  and  distri- 
buted among  the  Fellows  of  the  Society. 

2.  That  the  thanks  of  the  Society  be  given  to  John  Bostock,  M.D. 
retiring  from  the  office  of  Vice-president. 

The  President  then  delivered  the  following  Address  from  the  chair, 

Gentlemen  of  the  Geological  Society. 

You  have  just  received  from  your  Council  a  report  on  the  condition  of 
your  finances  ;  with  a  statement  of  the  accessions  to  your  number  du- 
ring the  past  year,  and  of  the  measures  adopted  for  advancing  the  wel- 
fare of  the  Institution.  It  remains  for  me  to  lay  before  vou  a  few 
remarks  on  the  branch  of  knowledge  which  the  Geological  Society 
is  intended  to  promote  :  and  what  I  shall  offer  upon  this  subject  will 
be  confined,  in  a  great  measure,  to  the  state  of  Geology  in  this  coun- 
try ;  since  neither  have  my  opportunities  of  acquiring  information 
during  the  past  year  enabled  me  to  give,  nor  does  my  duty  appear 
to  call  for,  a  more  extended  view; — though  such  periodical  reports  in 


51 

other   hands,  and  on  more  suitable  occasions,  have  been  frequently 
attended  with  advantage. 

We  have  had  since  our  last  Anniversary  to  regret  the  loss  of  one  of 
our  foreign  members.  Mr.  Brocchi,  whose  death,  according  to  the 
accounts  we  have  received,  took  place  in  Egypt,  whither  he  had  been 
invited  to  discharge  the  duties  of  a  mining  Engineer,  is  distinguished 
in  the  recent  scientific  history  of  Italy  by  numerous  contributions  to 
the  Geology  of  that  country  ; — and  his  principal  work  "On  the  Fossil 
Conchology  of  the  Subapennine  Hills,"  abounds  in  valuable  obser- 
vations, and  in  proofs  of  accuracy  and  acuteness  in  the  comparison 
of  the  fossil  and  existing  species.  His  talents,  however,  were  not 
merely  those  of  an  observer ; — his  general  views  were  always  wide 
and  philosophic  ;  and  the  style  of  his  writings  is  considered  by  com- 
petent judges  as  remarkable  for  its  purity  and  good  taste.  But  those 
only,  who  have  had  the  pleasure  of  being  personally  acquainted 
with  Mr.  Brocchi,  could  appreciate  his  patriotism  and  philanthropy, 
the  variety  of  his  acquirements,  and  the  spirit  and  eloquence  which 
rendered  his  conversation  more  than  commonly  instructive. 

The  printed  "  Proceedings"  of  the  Society,  and  the  portion  of  the 
Transactions  published  within  the  year,  are  the  best  records  of  our 
contributions  to  geological  science  during  that  period :  and  the  vo- 
lume now  in  progress  will,  I  trust,  be  found  to  have  contributed  in 
no  small  degree  to  the  advancement  of  inductive  Geology.  New 
monsters,  it  is  true,  have  not  been  brought  to  light  from  the  depths  of 
our  strata  ;  nor  has  Zoology  been  enriched  with  new  genera,  by  such 
rare  coincidences  of  genius  and  good  fortune  as  distinguish  the  last 
volume  of  our  Transactions  :  but  the  Geology  of  England  has  been 
illustrated  by  various  memoirs,  on  tracts  not  previously  examined ; 
and  by  more  exact  and  extended  researches  on  portions  of  our  strata, 
the  general  relations  of  which  had  been  before  determined.  Cor- 
rect data  have  thus  been  recorded,  to  which  inquirers  in  other  coun- 
tries may  refer,  for  the  purpose  of  comparison  with  their  own. 

I  have  to  congratulate  you  upon  the  progress  which  has  been 
made  in  the  Trigonometrical  survey  of  Ireland  ;  a  work  designed 
with  all  the  skill  of  modern  science,  and  committed  for  the  execution 
to  such  hands,  and  with  such  instruments,  as  to  leave  no  doubt  of  the 
result.  Maps  alone,  such  as  this  survey  will  produce,  are  an  acqui- 
sition of  the  first  importance  to  our  inquiries ;  since  they  form  one  of 
the  chief  and  indispensable  instruments  of  geological  research  : — but 
with  these,  in  the  present  case,  will  be  connected  a  series  of  obser- 
vations more  strictly  geological,  which  cannot  fail  to  throw  great  light 


52 

upon  the  structure  and  composition  of  the  country  to  which  the  ope- 
rations extend.  The  Tract,  which  I  now  show  you,  has  been  drawn 
up  by  one  of  the  principal  officers  engaged  in  the  Irish  survey*,  and 
ithographized  for  the  use  of  the  subordinate  surveyors ;  and  it  con- 
tains so  clear  and  able  a  system  of  instruction  for  their  guidance,  il- 
lustrated by  sectional  sketches,  as  greatly  to  facilitate  the  task  of 
geological  investigation.  The  surveyors  will  thus  accumulate  a  series 
of  specimens,  the  precise  places  of  which  will  have  been  recorded  in 
maps  upon  a  very  large  scale, — on  which  also  the  heights  above  the 
sea  will  be  determined,  in  points  almost  innumerable ;  while  sections 
are  taken  in  well  chosen  situations,  for  the  purpose  of  illustrating 
more  effectually  the  order  of  the  strata.  The1  ultimate  results  of  ope- 
rations so  well  combined,  must  be  equally  honourable  to  those  who 
are  engaged  in  this  vast  work,  and  ferule  in  various  and  substantial 
advantage  to  physical  science. 

But  while  the  survey  of  Ireland  is  in  progress,  it  is  to  be  hoped  that 
that  of  England  will  not  cease  to  advance  ;  and  that  no  great  delay 
will  take  place  in  the  publication  of  the  maps  which  have  been  actu- 
ally prepared  by  the  Ordnance.  To  geologists  who  have  travelled  in 
England,  I  need  not  mention  the  benefits  that  our  science  has  derived 
from  the  maps  already  engraved;  nor  dwell  upon  the  misery  of  plung- 
ing, from  a  tract  that  we  have  traversed  with  the  advantage  of  this 
guide,  into  regions  where  the  survey  leaves  us,  lost,  as  it  were,  and 
bewildered  from  the  want  of  such  assistance.  The  sheets  of  the  Ord- 
nance Survey  which  I  now  lay  before  you,  represent  a  portion  of  the 
midland  counties,  coloured  geologically  by  a  gentleman  whose  activity 
and  accuracy  of  research  have  made  him  minutely  acquainted  with 
the  stratification  of  the  district  around  himf  ;  and  the  maps  thus  co- 
loured, are  probably  as  complete  specimens  of  geological  illustration 
as  ever  have  been  produced.  The  knowledge  of  this  observer  extends 
with  equal  precision  several  miles  to  the  north  of  the  tract  here  re- 
presented ;  but  these  sheets,  you  perceive,  are  bounded  by  a  right 
line  ; — and  beyond  that  line  it  has  not  been  in  his  power  to  extend  his 
colours,  because  no  good  map  of  the  adjacent  district  is  in  existence. 
In  this  instance  therefore,  and  no  doubt  in  numberless  other  cases, 
the  want  of  adequate  maps  may  cause  the  final  and  irreparable  loss 
of  much  geological  information  :  And  when  it  is  considered,  that 
Geology  is  but  one  of  many  departments  of  useful  inquiry,  to  which 
good  maps  administer, — how  much  they  contribute  to  the  advancement 
of  commerce,  and  to  the  comforts  and  conveniences  of  life, — it  will 

*   Captain  Pringle,  of  the  Royal  Engineers. 
t  Mr.  Lonsdale  of  Bath. 


53 

be  unnecessary  to  urge  the  enlightened  and  public  spirited  persons, 
to  whose  hands  this  great  undertaking  is  committed,  to  finish  with  as 
much  promptitude  as  possible  what  has  been  so  admirably  begun. 

The  effective  establishment  in  this  country  of  a  society  for  the 
cultivation  of  Zoology, — a  source  of  just  gratification  to  all  who  are 
interested  in  the  progress  of  Natural  History, — is  an  event  connected 
very  intimately  with  the  advancement  of  our  subject :  for  to  the 
Geologist  it  is  of  great  importance  to  obtain  facility  of  access  to  ca- 
binets and  to  living  specimens,  in  elucidation  of  fossil  remains ;  and 
and  to  have  the  privilege  of  appealing,  in  doubtful  cases,  to  compe- 
tent authorities,  in  what  relates  to  the  animal  kingdom.  But  the 
connection  of  Zoology  with  our  science,  is  a  field  too  wide  to  be  dis- 
cussed upon  the  present  occasion  ;  nor  would  my  own  acquaintance 
with  the  subject  justify  my  dwelling  upon  it. 

The  numerous  provincial  institutions,  which  have  been  recently 
established  for  the  promotion  of  useful  knowledge,  will  also  materially 
contribute  to  the  diffusion  of  a  taste  for  Geology ;  and  will  throw 
new  light  upon  the  structure  and  productions  of  their  respective  dis- 
tricts. 

I  wish  that  it  had  been  in  my  power  to  speak  with  equal  gratifica- 
tion, of  the  relation  in  which  our  subject  stands  to  another  principal 
department  of  Natural  History ;  but  the  fossil  remains  of  the  vege- 
table kingdom  do  not  appear  to  occupy,  at  present,  a  just  share  of  the 
attention  of  Botanists  in  England  :.  and  hence  it  has  happened,  that 
of  the  numerous  and  interesting  specimens  of  fossil  plants  continu- 
ally brought  to  light  from  our  strata,  especially  within  the  coal  dis- 
tricts, the  greater  part  has  been  sent  for  illustration  to  those  na- 
turalists on  the  continent,  whose  publications  upon  this  branch  of 
inquiry,  are  so  creditably  known  to  science.  Ought  we  not  then 
to  imitate  the  example  of  those,  for  whose  labours  we  have  so  much 
reason  to  be  grateful;  and  to  reflect,  that — if  the  botanical  charac- 
ters of  fossil  specimens  be  obscure,  and  the  investigation  of  them  at 
present  unsatisfactory, — the  subject  is  still  comparatively  new,  and 
the  difficulties  such  as  perseverance  and  the  multiplication  of  speci- 
mens must  every  day  diminish  :  whilst  the  views  to  be  derived  from 
the  connection  of  vegetable  remains  with  geology,  are  scarcely  infe- 
rior in  interest  to  those  already  disclosed  by  the  fossil  remains  of 
animals  ?  The  distribution  of  plants  upon  the  former  surfaces  of  the 
globe, — its  relation  to  the  epochs  of  geological  deposition, — the  varia- 
tions it  may  have  undergone  from  change  of  ciimate,  either  by  alter- 
ation of  internal  temperature,  or  of  elevation  above  the  sea  ; — the 
former  existence  of  vegetation  in  the  more  complex  forms,  in  tracts 


54 

where  scarcely  any  traces  of  it  exist  at  present, — are  subjects  which 
give  rise  to  some  of  the  most  important  general  questions  connected 
with  the  history  of  the  globe  3 — and  that  require  for  their  due  con- 
sideration such  an  acquaintance  with  the  characters  of  fossil  vegetable 
remains,  as  none  but  the  most  skilful  and  experienced  botanists 
can  be  expected  to  possess. 

On  the  Geology  of  foreign  countries,  the  last  year  has  not  been 
unproductive.  A  valuable  paper  on  the  structure  of  Jamaica,  has 
been  published  in  our  Transactions,  by  one  of  the  most  skilful  of  our 
practical  observers.  We  have  received  a  very  important  contribution 
of  specimens  from  Captain  Franklin  and  Dr.  Richardson,  under  whose 
direction  the  expedition  to  the  northern  coast  of  America  has  been 
conducted  with  so  much  ability  and  success  ; — and  a  memoir  by  the 
latter,  on  the  structure  and  components  of  those  regions,  will  soon 
be  read  at  one  of  our  meetings.  Captain  Parry  also,  and  Captain 
Foster,  have  presented  us  with  a  valuable  collection  of  specimens  from 
Spitzbergen,  obtained  during  their  late  expedition  to  the  north. 
Captain  King,  who  has  enriched  our  cabinets  with  specimens  from 
the  coasts  of  Australia,  and  done  so  much  for  other  departments 
of  natural  history,  has  recently  sent  home  a  collection  of  rocks 
obtained  during  the  earlier  part  of  his  survey  in  the  Straits  of  Magel- 
lan 5  and  further  collections,  accompanied  with  new  information,  may 
still  be  expected  from  the  same  indefatigable  observer.  We  have  rea- 
son also  to  hope  that  Geology  will  not  be  neglected  during  the  expe- 
ditions soon  about  to  sail, — of  Captain  Boteler,  for  the  survey  of  the 
western  coast  of  Africa,  and  of  Captain  Foster,  for  the  purpose 
of  determining  the  longitude  of  important  stations  on  the  shores  of 
the  Atlantic. 

There  is  the  greater  reason  to  rejoice  in  the  contributions  thus 
given,  or  to  be  expected,  from  the  Naval  department  of  the  public 
service,  since  it  has  not  unfrequently  been  the  reproach  of  this 
country,  that — possessing  colonies,  which  have  dispersed  the  natives 
of  Britain  in  every  region  of  the  habitable  globe,  and  commerce,  that 
maintains  continual  intercourse  with  them,  — the  benefits  conferred 
by  England  on  the  natural  history  of  distant  countries,  have  fallen 
very  far  short  of  what  the  intelligence  and  activity  of  our  national 
character  might  have  afforded.  Let  us  hope,  however,  that  brighter 
days  are  opening  upon  us  ;  and  that  those  who  are  employed  in  the 
various  departments  of  our  foreign  service,  will  universally  feel,  that 
where  such  frequent  opportunities  of  advancing  useful  knowledge  are 
likely  to  occur,  an  acquaintance  with  branches  of  science  not  imme- 


55 

diately  essential  to  professional  duty,  is  strictly  accordant  with  the 
dignity  of  the  naval  and  military  character. 

Among  the  donations  of  foreign  specimens  to  our  cabinets,  there  is 
one  of  very  peculiar  interest ; — the  rich  collection  of  fossil  bones  and 
shells  presented  to  us  by  Mr.  Crawfurd  from  Ava :  which  has  the 
greater  value,  as  it  is  one  of  the  first  collections  of  this  description, 
that  has  made  its  way  into  England  from  our  extensive  empire  in 
the  East,  or  the  adjoining  territories.  These  specimens  afford  some 
very  striking  novelties,  both  to  the  Geologist  and  Zoologist ;  an  ac- 
count of  which,  I  trust,  will  soon  be  laid  before  you  by  competent 
describers. 

The  last  year  has  produced  some  valuable  publications  on  the  Geo- 
logy of  Volcanoes,  which,  though  not  emanating  immediately  from  this 
Society,  are  the  work  of  our  own  members.  We  are  indebted  to  Dr. 
Daubeny  for  a  judicious  volume,  in  which  he  has  combined  what  had 
been  previously  published  on  volcanoes,  with  much  valuable  obser- 
vation of  his  own.  The  productions  of  Mr.  Scrope,  though  his 
speculative  views  are  not  free  from  objection,  are  full  of  originality 
and  talent. — To  that  especially,  which  describes  the  extraordinary 
volcanic  region  in  the  centre  of  France,  illustrated  with  such  effect  as 
to  render  the  task  of  comparison  with  other  districts  easy  and  inviting, 
I  should  have  had  pleasure  in  alluding  more  fully  ;  if  an  eloquent  ac- 
count of  it,  in  one  of  our  leading  journals,  were  not  familiar  to  us 
all  *  :  and  this,  also  I  believe  I  do  not  err  in  ascribing  to  an  active 
member  of  our  Institution. 

In  the  speculative  department  of  Geology,  nothing  has  been  of 
late  more  remarkable,  with  reference  to  its  history  in  this  country, 
than  the  universal  adoption  of  a  modified  Volcanic  theory,  and  the 
complete  subsidence,  or  almost  oblivion,  of  the  Wernerian  and 
Neptunian  hypotheses  ; — so  that  what,  but  a  few  years  since,  it 
was  by  some  considered  as  hardihood  to  propose  in  the  form  of  con- 
jecture, seems  now  to  be  established  nearly  with  the  evidence  of  fact. 
It  is  no  longer  denied,  that  volcanic  power  has  been  active  during  all 
the  revolutions  which  the  surface  of  the  globe  has  undergone,  and  has 
probably  been  itself  the  cause  of  many  of  them ; — and  that  our  continents 
have  not  merely  been  shaken  by  some  mighty  subterraneous  force, 
but  that  strata,  originally  horizontal,  have  thus  been  raised,  shattered, 
and  contorted,  and  traversed,  perhaps  repeatedly,  by  veins  of  fluid  mat- 
ter 5 — operations  which  have  produced  phenomena,  so  nearly  resem- 

*  Quarterly  Review,  Vol.  xxxv.  page  447,  &c. 


56 

Ming  those  of  recent  volcanic  agency,  that  to  have  so  long  disputed  the 
identity  of  their  cause,  is  one  of  the  most  remarkable  proofs  in  the  an- 
nals of  philosophic  history,  of  the  power  of  hypothesis  in  distorting  or 
concealing  truth.  Whatever,  therefore,  be  the  fate  of  the  Huttonian 
theory  in  general,  it  must  be  admitted,  that  many  of  its  leading  pro- 
positions have  been  confirmed  in  a  manner  which  the  inventor  could 
not  have  foreseen. 

The  most  striking  modern  support  of  these  correcter  views,  is  due 
to  Von  Buch  and  Humboldt,  and  to  the  facts  and  inferences  derived 
by  Dr.  MacCulloch  from  the  country  which  gave  birth  to  Hutton, 
and  to  his  illustrator,  Mr.  Playfair,  and  in  which  were  made  the  expe- 
riments of  Sir  James  Hall.  More  recently,  a  series  of  facts  observed 
by  Professor  Henslow,  in  the  Isle  of  Anglesea*,  has  proved,  in  the  most 
satisfactory  manner,  the  connection  of  veins  of  trap  with  very  high  tem- 
perature ;  since  the  change  produced  upon  the  strata,  through  which 
the  substances  now  occupying  the  veins  were  injected,  has  approached 
so  nearly  to  fluidity,  as  to  admit  of  their  crystallization,  in  forms  differ- 
ent from  any  which  the  components  of  the  rocks,  if  they  had  not  been 
thus  acted  on,  would  have  afforded.  Sir  Humphry  Davy's  experiments 
on  the  fluids  contained  within  cavities  in  crystals  f,  are  another  strik- 
ing and  unexpected  confirmation  of  Mutton's  views  :  and  our  own 
Transactions,  besides  various  incidental  pieces  of  evidence  derived 
from  this  country,  supply  the  testimony  of  an  unprejudiced  witness  to 
an  earthquake  on  the  coast  of  Chili  J,  which  brings  almost  before  the 
eyes  of  the  reader,  the  movement  and  permanent  elevation  of  the  land. 

Having  alluded  to  Mr.  Playfair's  support  of  the  volcanic  theory,  it 
would  be  unjust  to  the  memory  of  that  distinguished  man,  not  to 
mention,  that  his  geological  writings  have  had,  indirectly,  an  effect  in 
accelerating  the  progress  of  our  subject,  the  benefit  of  which  we  expe- 
rience at  this  moment,  and  probably  shall  long  continue  to  feel ;  and 
which,  perhaps,  outweighs  in  value  the  partial  success  of  the  specula- 
tions for  which  he  so  strenuously  contended.  He  clothed  our  sub- 
ject with  the  dignity  of  an  eloquence  most  happily  adapted  to  phi- 
losophic inquiry  ;  and  redeemed  the  geologist  from  association  with 
that  class  of  naturalists  who  lose  sight  of  general  laws,  and  are 
occupied  incessantly  with  details, — placing  him,  where  he  ought 
to  stand,  beside  the  mathematician,  the  astronomer,  and  the  che- 
mist ,  and  permanently  raising  our  science  into  an  elevated  depart- 
ment of  inductive  inquiry.  His  mild  and  tolerant  character  threw  an 
assuaging  influence  upon   the  waves  of  a  controversy,  which  in  his 

*  Transactions  of  the  Cambridge  Philosophical  Society,  vol.  i.  page  406. 

t  Philosophical  Transactions,  1822,  page  367,  &c 

J  Geological  Transactions,  second  series,  vol.  i.  puge  413. 


57 

time  considerations,  entirely  foreign  to  science,  had  exasperated  into 
unusual  violence  :  and  if,  fortunately,  there  is  no  longer  any  trace  of 
this  asperity,  the  change  must,  in  a  great  degree,  be  ascribed  to  the 
tone  of  Mr.  Playfair's  writings,  enforced  by  the  manly  and  consistent 
tenour  of  his  blameless  life. 

I  cannot,  for  your  sake,  regret  that  the  presence  of  some  of  those 
who  have  had  a  large  share  in  the  foundation  of  this  Institution,  pro- 
hibits my  alluding  to  their  continued  and  unremitting  efforts  in  sup- 
port of  it. — And  the  same  cause  prevents  my  dwelling  on  the  effects 
produced,  at  both  our  Universities,  by  the  geological  instructions  de- 
livered there  ;  which  have  given  to  the  subject  an  impulse  perhaps 
without  example  in  the  history  of  those  institutions,  and  gone  far  to 
render  natural  science  a  permanent  department  of  general  education. 

But  there  is  one  of  our  number,  whom  professional  and  domestic 
occupations  retain  so  much  in  a  remote  quarter  of  the  country,  that 
we  have  seldom  the  gratification  of  his  presence  amongst  us,  though 
his  writings  are  in  all  our  hands  :  and  it  is  a  duty, — not  to  Mr.  Cony- 
beare,  but  to  the  subject,  and  to  ourselves, — to  say,  that  among  the 
more  recent  causes  which  have  accelerated  the  progress  of  Geology  in 
England,  the  publication  of  the  "  Outlines  of  England  and  Wales," 
by  him  and  Mr.  Phillips,  has  had  an  effect,  to  which  nothing  since 
the  institution  of  this  Society,  and  the  diffusion  of  the  geological  maps 
of  England,  can  be  compared.  It  is  with  peculiar  pleasure  that  this 
statement  can  be  made  in  this  place  ;  since  a  large  proportion  of  that 
work  has  been  derived  from  our  own  Transactions,  and  the  authors 
have  long  been  distinguished  members  of  our  Society.  Of  course 
their  publication  is  not  free  from  defects  and  inequalities, — inseparable 
perhaps  from  a  first  edition,  composed  for  the  greater  part  during  its 
progress  through  the  press: — but,  regarding  it  as  the  first  general 
sketch  of  a  country  so  complex  as  our  own,  it  may  be  said  without 
fear  of  contradiction,  that  no  equal  portion  of  the  earth's  surface  has 
ever  been  more  ably  illustrated; — nor  any  geological  work  produced, 
which  bears  more  strongly  impressed  upon  it  the  stamp  of  original 
talent  for  natural  science. 

The  object,  however,  of  our  Institution,  to  adopt  the  language  of 
the  charter,  is  "  to  investigate  the  mineral  structure  of  the  Earth;" — 
not  to  confine  ourselves  to  the  British  Islands  only,  (and  even  they 
are  best  illustrated  by  comparison,)  but  to  extend  our  researches  if 
possible,  to  every  part  of  the  globe  ; — to  record  the  geological  phe- 
nomena of  the  most  distant  countries,  as  well  as  of  our  own, — and  from 
the  whole,  derive  the  laws  that  have  regulated  the  structure  of  this 


58 

planet,  and  still  influence  the  changes  which  are  in  progress  upon  it. 
It  is  our  good  fortune,  and  the  fact  is  intimately  connected  with  the 
commercial  wealth  of  our  country,  that  it  affords  perhaps  a  greater 
variety  of  strata  and  of  geological  appearances,  than  most  other  por- 
tions of  the  civilized  world  of  such  limited  extent  ;  while  the  range 
and  variety  of  our  coasts  unveil  the  geological  anatomy  of  England, 
with  an  obviousness  and  convincing  facility  to  the  observer,  that  have 
greatly  accelerated  our  inquiries.  The  Geology  of  England,  therefore, — 
which,  with  a  view  only  to  commercial  advantage,  and  to  the  com- 
forts and  conveniences  of  life,  would  have  well  deserved  all  the  labour 
that  has  been  bestowed  upon  it, — acquires  a  new  and  more  dignified 
interest,  when  we  reflect  that  this  island  is  in  a  great  measure  an 
epitome  of  the  globe  ;  and  that  the  observer,  who  makes  himself  fa- 
miliar with  our  strata,  and  the  fossil  remains  which  they  include, 
has  not  only  prepared  himself  for  similar  inquiries  in  other  quarters, 
but  is  already,  as  it  were,  acquainted  by  anticipation  with  what 
he  must  expect  to  find  there.  If,  therefore,  I  were  called  upon 
to  state  in  what  manner  those  who  have  leisure,  health,  and  talent 
for  such  inquiries,  can  most  effectually  advance  the  bounds  of  our 
science,  and  increase  the  reputation  which  England  has  begun  to  ac- 
quire in  this  department  of  natural  knowledge, — I  should  say,  that  it 
would  be, — First, by  rendering  themselves  accurately  familiar  with  the 
geological  phenomena  of  our  own  country ;  and  then, — by  taking 
abroad  with  them  the  knowledge  thus  acquired,  and  comparing  the 
phenomena  with  those  of  distant  regions;  since  it  is  only  from  the 
multiplication  of  such  comparisons,  that  sound  general  views  can 
be  derived. 

But  even  within  the  British  Islands,  there  still  are  tracts,  and  of  no 
small  extent,  which  are  comparatively,  and  a  great  part  of  them  abso- 
lutely, unknown.  More  than  one  half  of  Ireland  is  in  this  condition  :  for 
the  publications  of  Conybeare  and  Buckland,  Stephens,  Weaver,  Grif- 
fith, and  Dr.Berger,  comprehend  nearly  all  that  has  been  done  in  that 
country.  But  this  subject,  as  I  have  already  mentioned,  has  passed  into 
such  hands,  as  will,  no  doubt,  accomplish  every  thing  that  can  be 
desired. 

In  the  North  and  North-west  of  England,  the  labours  of  Otley*, 
Smith,  Professor  Sedgwick,  and  some  other  inquirers,  have  already 
ascertained  the  principal  relations  of  one  of  the  most  important  dis- 

*  The  work  here  referred  to,  is  a  brief  but  valuable  notice,  "  On  the 
succession  of  rocks  in  the  district  of  the  Lakes,"  published  in  the  Lonsdale 
Magazine,  or  Provincial  Repository,  for  October  1820: — Vol.  I.  No.  x. 
pp.  433,  &c. 


59 

tricts  5  but  very  little  has  yet  been  published  upon  it.  And  on  the 
mountainous  tracts  in  Wales,  the  ancient  and  very  interesting  essay 
of  Owen  *,  and  the  valuable  papers  of  Mr.  Aikin  and  Professor 
Henslow,  with  that  of  Mr.  De  la  Beche  on  Pembrokeshire,  and  of 
Mr.  Martin  on  the  Coal  Basin  of  Glamorganshire  f, — a  tract  on  which 
Mr.  Conybeare  is  occupied  at  present, ■ — comprehend  nearly  every 
thing  that  deserves  to  be  mentioned  here. 

In  Scotland  also,  notwithstanding  the  graphic  and  copious  illus- 
trations of  Dr.  MacCulloch,  and  the  mineralogical  skill  and  perse- 
verance of  other  eminent  naturalists  who  have  applied  themselves  to 
the  Geology  of  their  native  country, — no  geological  map  has  yet  ap- 
peared 5  and  a  great  part  of  that  rich  and  varied  region  remains  to  be 
explored.  But  the  Society  will  have  pleasure  in  observing,  in  the  last 
portion  of  their  Transactions  J,  that  an  effective  comparison  of  the 
more  recent  strata  of  Scotland  with  our  English  formations  has 
been  already  begun.  The  memoir  of  Mr.  Murchison  on  the  Brora 
Coal-field  is  an  excellent  specimen  of  what  may  be  effected  in  this 
department  of  inquiry ;  and  a  paper  produced  at  the  last  meeting  by 
the  joint  labours  of  Professor  Sedgwick  and  Mr.  Murchison,  leaves  no 
doubt  that  the  remaining  memoirs  which  are  to  be  expected  from 
those  gentlemen,  will  throw  great  light  on  the  comparative  geology 
of  that  distant  portion  of  our  island. 

The  value,  however,  of  the  researches  and  identification  at  Brora, 
goes  much  further  than  the  mere  comparison  of  a  remote  tract,  with 
the  stratification  of  England  :  they  confirm  a  suggestion  of  Dr.  Buck- 
land  and  Mr.  Lyell,  that  the  coal  formation  of  that  neighbourhood 
was  in  reality  the  equivalent  of  a  portion  of  our  Oolitic  strata  ;  and 
demonstrate  the  remarkable  fact,  that  the  same  fossils  which  in  En- 
gland occur  in  oolitic  limestone,  exist  there  in  strata  of  quartzose  sand- 
stone and  of  shale  !  The  whole  series  indeed,  of  the  phenomena 
developed  by  recent  examination  in  Scotland  and  the  north  of  En- 
gland, gives  rise  to  the  most  interesting  speculations  on  the  questions 
of  geological  identity,  and  of  the  relative  value  in  geology  of  mine- 
ralogical and  zoological  characters, — which  has  been  so  ably  treated 
by  Brongniart  and  other  continental  writers  : — questions,  which  it  is 
necessary  to  keep  continually  in  view,  and  that  acquire  fresh  interest 
and  importance  in  proportion  as  we  extend  our  researches  to  the  re- 
moter districts  of  the  world. 

To  those  amongst  us  who  are  confined  to  England,  the  most  use- 

*  Dated  in  1570:  — See  Cambrian  Register,  for  1/96,  and  Geol.  Trans. 
N.  S.  Vol.  I.  page  312. 

f  Philosophical  Transactions,  1806.  page  342. 
I  Second  Series,  vol.  ii.  p.  293. 


60 

ful  task  perhaps  would  be,  when  we  have  mastered  the  general  re- 
lations of  our  series,  to  take  up  some  one  portion  of  the  subject, — 
a  group  of  strata,  or  even  a  single  stratum,  or  any  one  of  the  num- 
berless questions  connected  with  their  zoological  and  mineralogical 
relations, — and  to  publish  in  the  form  of  Monographs  the  results  of 
our  inquiries.  For  it  may  be  stated  with  confidence,  that  there 
is  not  any  one  of  our  strata,  however  familiarly  it  may  be  supposed 
to  be  already  known,  that  would  not,  if  thus  treated,  reward  the 
most  elaborate  and  minute  examination. 

But  those  who  are  deprived  of  the  privilege  of  travelling  even  in 
England,  must  not  suppose  that  they  can  be  of  no  service  as  geo- 
logists j  or  if  they  belong  to  our  body,  that  they  are  thus  released 
from  their  obligation  to  be  active  in  our  cause  :  and  there  are  two 
descriptions  of  persons, — the  resident  clergy,  and  members  of  the 
medical  profession  in  the  country, — to  whom  what  I  am  about  to 
say  may  be  more  particularly  deserving  of  attention.  Such  persons, 
if  they  have  not  yet  acquired  a  taste  for  natural  science,  can  hardly 
conceive  the  interest  which  the  face  of  the  country  in  their  vicinity 
would  gain,  however  unpromising  it  may  appear,  by  their  having  such 
inquiries  before  them  ;  how  much  the  monotony  of  life  in  a  remote 
or  thinly  inhabited  district  would  thus  be  relieved ;  nor  how  much 
benefit  they  might  confer  on  the  natural  history  of  their  coun- 
try. Even  of  those  who  have  made  some  progress  in  geological 
studies,  many,  I  apprehend,  are  prevented  from  investigating  atten- 
tively the  tracts  where  they  reside,  or  from  communicating  their  know- 
ledge, by  a  belief  that  the  Geology  of  England  itself  is  sufficiently 
known  already  ;  and  that  the  district,  with  the  phenomena  of  which 
they  are  themselves  familiar,  would  have  no  interest  or  novelty  for 
the  world  at  large  : — whereas  it  may  be  asserted  (and  it  were  easy  to 
produce  examples  from  modern  researches  in  some  of  the  counties 
near  London),  that  there  is  no  district  that  will  not  furnish  sufficient 
interest  and  novelty  to  an  attentive  inquirer,  not  merely  to  repay  his 
own  exertions,  but  to  instruct  the  most  learned,  and  enlarge  the 
bounds  of  our  science. 

To  landed  proprietors  also,  it  can  hardly  be  known,  without  some 
tinge  of  geological  information,  how  nearly  our  subject  is  connected 
with  Agriculture, — with  an  acquaintance  with  the  nature  and  correc- 
tives of  the  soil,  the  supply  of  water,  and  facility  of  effectual  drainage, 
and  numberless  facts  essential  to  the  perfection  of  rural  oeconomy  ; — 
with  the  discovery  and  supply  of  stone,  for  building  and  the  construc- 
tion of  roads, — the  choice  of  the  line  of  roads  and  of  canals,  and  the 
facility  of  their  execution.     All  these  are  but  a  few  of  the  topics  that 


61 

come  strictly  within  the  province  of  the  geologist :  and  which  are  so 
essential  to  the  prosperous  management  of  landed  property,  that  a 
geological  map  may  perhaps  with  truth  be  considered  as  not  less 
necessary  to  the  country  gentleman,  than  the  topographical  plan  of 
his  estates. 

I  am  fully  aware,  that  much  of  what  I  have  just  said  is  obvious  ■ 

and  even  familiar,  to  the  greater  part  of  those  who  hear  me  : — But 
my  object  is  to  be  useful ;  and  1  believe  that  some  of  those  whom 
these  remarks  are  likely  to  reach,  are  not  sufficiently  acquainted  with 
the  practical  advantages  derivable  from  our  pursuits ; — and  that  others 
are  unconscious  of  the  means  within  their  own  power  for  advancing 
them. 

I  shall  conclude,  Gentlemen,  by  congratulating  you  on  the  good 
feeling  by  which  the  proceedings  of  this  Society  have  always  been  cha- 
racterized ';  and  on  the  self-command  that  renders  both  agreeable  and 
instructive  the  conversations,  (I  will  not  call  them  discussions — much 
less  debates)  with  which  it  is  now  our  practice  to  follow  up  the  reading 
of  memoirs  at  our  table  5  and  which  have  given  to  our  evening 
meetings  a  character  more  like  that  of  social  intercourse  in  a  private 
circle,  than  of  the  formal  proceedings  of  a  public  body.  This  practice, 
I  know,  has  been  a  subject  of  doubt,  to  many  who  wish  well  to  our 
institution,  and  do  not  undervalue  the  personal  character  and  dispo- 
sition of  our  members.  But,  so  long  as  our  conversations  are  car- 
ried on  with  the  urbanity  by  which  they  have  hitherto  been  dis- 
tinguished,— while  it  is  the  wish  of  those  who  share  in  them  to 
give  or  to  receive  information,  and  not  to  shine, — and  the  object  is 
not  victory  but  truth, — there  seems  to  be  no  reason  to  apprehend 
any  very  serious  injury  from  the  continuance  of  our  geological  war- 
fare. 

There  is  still  another  train  of  thought  connected  with  our  meet- 
ings, on  which  I  confess  I  have  sometimes  delighted  to  dwell.  The 
spirit  in  which  they  have  been  conducted  has  been  so  kind, — so  little 
tainted  with,  or  rather  so  perfectly  free  from,  any  admixture  of  the 
leaven  with  which  from  interest  or  ambition  most  of  the  pur- 
suits of  life  are  embittered ; — and  our  duties  here  have  been  asso- 
ciated with  so  many  offices  of  cordiality  and  friendship  • — that  when, 
in  after  life,  the  cares  and  chances  of  the  world  may  have  dispersed 
those  whom  I  have  now  the  happiness  to  see  around  me,  I  am  fond  to 
believe  that  the  remembrance  of  these  evenings  will  be  called  to  mind 
with  pleasure  : — And  I  feel  confident,  that,  as  many  of  us  already  de- 
rive the  chief  part  of  our  enjoyments  from  the  friendships  to  which 
congenial  pursuits  have  led,  the  Geological  Society  will  continue  to 


62 

be  no  less  effective,  in  the  production  of  warm  personal  attachment, 
and  of  manly  and  ingenuous  intercourse  among  its  members,  than 
it  has  been,  in  maintaining  an  active  and  energetic  spirit  of  research. 


The  Meeting  then  proceeded  to  the  election  of  the  Council  and 
Officers  for  the  ensuing  year ;  when  the  following  list  was  delivered 
in  by  the  Scrutineers  : — viz. 

President. 
William  Henry  Fitton,  M.D.  F.R.S.  &c. 

Vice-Presidents. 
Arthur  Aikin,  Esq.  F.L.S. 
Rev.  W.  Buckland,  D.D.  F.R.S.  &c.  Professor  of  Mineralogy 

and  Geology  in  the  University  of  Oxford. 
Charles  Lyell,  Esq.  F.R.S.  &c. 

Rev.  A.  Sedgwick,  F.R.S.  &c.  Woodwardian  Professor,  Cam- 
bridge. 

Secretaries. 

W.  J.  Broderip,  Esq.  F.R.S.  &c. 
R.  1.  Murchison,  Esq.  F.R.S.  &c. 

Foreign  Secretary. 
Henry  Heuland,  Esq. 

Treasurer. 
John  Taylor,  Esq.  F.R.S. 

Council. 
J.  E.  Bicheno,  Esq.  F.R.S.  Sec.  L.S. 
John  Bostock,  M.D.  F.R.S. 
Rev.  W.  D.  Conybeare,  F.R.S.  &c. 
John  Crawfurd,  Esq.  F.R.S. 
Michael  Faraday,  Esq.  F.R.S.  &c. 
Davies  Gilbert,  Esq.  M.P.  Pres.  R.S. 
G.  B.  Greenough,  Esq.  F.R.S. 
J.  F.  W.  Herschel,  Esq.  F.R.S.  Pres.  A.S. 
Leonard  Horner,  Esq.  F.R.S.  &c. 
Ashurst  Majendie,  Esq.  F.R.S. 
Rev.  J.  H.  Randolph,  M.A. 

N.  A.  Vigors,  Esq.  F.R.S.  Sec.  Z.S.  ■  . .  :.* 

Sir  R.  R.  Vyvyan,  Bart.  M.P. 
Henrv  Warburton,  Esq.  M.P.  F.R.S.  &c. 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE  GEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  LONDON 

1827—1828.  No.  7. 


March  7. — A  Paper  was  read  "  On  the  Geological  Relations  and 
Internal  Structure  of  the  Magnesian  Limestone,  and  the  lower  por- 
tions of  the  New  Red  Sandstone  series,  in  their  range  through  Not- 
tinghamshire, Derbyshire,  Yorkshire,  and  Durham." — By  the  Rev.  A. 
Sedgwick,  M.A.  V.P.G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 

A  sketch  of  the  subjects  contained  in  this  paper  was  laid  before 
the  Society  in  1826  (Nov.  17)  : — They  were  resumed  in  a  more  sy- 
stematic and  detailed  form  during  two  meetings  in  1827 ;  and  are 
now  terminated  by  the  observations  read  at  the  present  meeting, 

The  contents  of  the  Memoir  are  presented  in  the  following  order : 

Part  I. — §  1.  Introduction. — The  new  red  sandstone  is  considered 
as  one  great  complex  formation,  interposed  between  the  coal  mea- 
sures and  the  lias  j — with  two  calcareous  formations  subordinate  to  it, 
one  in  the  lower  part  of  the  series  (the  magnesian  limestone),  and 
another  in  the  upper  part  (the  muschel-kalkstein) .  The  lower  of  the 
two  calcareous  formations  is  considered  in  detail ;  the  upper  has  not 
yet  been  discovered  among  the  British  secondary  deposits. 

§  2.  External  characters  of  the  country  through  which  the  Magne- 
sian Limestone  ranges. — The  form  of  the  western  escarpment  is  de- 
scribed, and  is  supposed  to  exhibit  proofs  of  great  denudations  ;  and 
the  general  character  of  the  soils  resting  upon  the  formation  is  no- 
ticed. 

§  3.  General  distribution  of  the  formation. — The  range  of  the  es- 
carpment is  given  in  great  detail ;  some  errors  of  the  geological  maps 
are  corrected  ;  and  in  describing  the  eastern  boundary,  the  enormous 
masses  of  diluvium  in  the  county  of  Durham  are  briefly  noticed. 

§  4.  Outliers. — Sixteen  outliers  from  the  western  escarpment  are 
described ;  the  most  southern  of  which  is  at  Conisborough.  In  addi- 
tion to  these,  there  are  eight  detached  patches  of  magnesian  lime- 
stone on  the  line  of  bearing,  which  are  not  considered  as  outliers. 
The  most  remarkable  of  these  are  seen  in  the  range  through  York- 
shire. 

§  5.  Relations  of  the  Magnesian  Limestone  to  a  succession  of  Coal 
Measures, — In  a  general  point  of  view  these  formations  must  be  un- 
conformable, because  the  overlying  beds  are  extended  far  beyond  the 
limits  of  the  productive  parts  of  the  carboniferous  order  :  and  the  fact 
is  also  proved  by  actual  sections  in  several  parts  of  Yorkshire  and 
Durham.  At  the  same  time  there  are  continuous  tracts  of  country 
where  the  want  of  conformity  does  not  appear,  and  where  the  over- 


64 

lying  beds  seem  almost  to  graduate  into  the  coal  measures.  Several 
details  are  given  respecting  ancient  coal  works,  in  which,  in  more 
than  one  hundred  places,  the  coal  had  been  extracted  by  shafts  sunk 
through  the  magnesian  limestone  :  and  it  is  asserted  that  the  quality  of 
the  coal  is  never  injured  by  the  presence  of  the  overlying  formations. 
Such  injury  is  not  only  contrary  to  fact,  but  seems  to  be  a  physical 
impossibility. 

§  6.  On  the  Faults  affecting  the  Magnesian  Limestone  and  Coal 
strata,  Trap  dykes,  fyc. —  Examples  are  given  of  some  great  faults 
which  traverse  both  the  carboniferous  and  the  superior  formations  : 
but  it  is  remarked  that  many  of  the  dislocations  of  the  lower  order  of 
rocks  do  not  affect  the  upper.  Respecting  the  age  of  the  trap  dykes 
of  the  coal-fields,  it  is  not  possible  to  determine  their  epoch  in  com- 
parison with  that  of  the  magnesian  limestone,  where  they  range  up 
to  the  escarpment : — and  of  such  dykes  there  are  only  two  examples  ; 
one  of  which  does,  and  the  other  does  not,  pass  through  the  beds  of 
the  overlying  series. 

Part  II. — Internal  Structure  and  great  Subdivisions  of  the  Magne- 
sian Limestone. — Considered  as  a  subordinate  part  of  the  new-red- 
sandstone  series,  this  formation  admits  of  five  natural  subdivisions, 
each  of  which  is  described  in  a  separate  section. 

§  1.  Lower  Red-sandstone,  or  Rothe-todte-liegende. — In  Yorkshire 
this  appears  generally  in  the  form  of  a  coarse  siliceous  sandstone,  of 
a  reddish  tinge.  It  is  associated  with  incoherent  sand,  red  micaceous 
shale,  and  sometimes  with  variegated  marls.  In  Durham  it  is  gene- 
rally represented  by  a  yellowish  and  nearly  incoherent  sand.  In 
some  places  it  cannot  be  distinguished  from  the  gritstone  beds  of  the 
coal  measures  :  but  as  it  commences  in  the  edge  of  Derbyshire,  and 
is  almost  co-extensive  with  the  magnesian  limestone  as  far  as  the 
mouth  of  the  Tyne,  it  must  on  the  whole  be  unconformable  to  the 
inferior  order,  it  is,  however,  of  very  unequal  thickness,  and  its 
upper  beds  are  not  always  parallel  to  the  strata  of  limestone  which 
rest  upon  it.  In  Durham,  being  of  loose  texture  and  pervious  to 
water,  it  throws  the  greatest  difficulties  in  the  way  of  mining  opera- 
tions carried  on  within  the  limits  of  the  limestone. 

§  2.  (a).  Variegated  Marls,  with  irregular  Beds  of  Compact  and  of 
Shell  Limestone. — This  deposit  is  not  either  of  great  extent  or  thick- 
ness, and  is  confined  to  a  small  part  of  the  escarpment  in  Notting- 
hamshire and  Derbyshire.  It  is  supposed  to  be  contemporaneous 
with  the  following  subdivision  : 

(b).  Marl-slate,  and  Compact  Limestone. — This  is  much  more  ex- 
tensively developed  than  the  preceding  formation  ;  and  though  by 
no  means  co-extensive  with  the  yellow  limestone,  derives  importance 
from  its  constancy  of  position  and  from  its  fossils.  Several  localities 
in  the  county  of  Durham  are  described ;  and  among  the  beds  of  marl- 
slate  of  East  Thickley,  &c,  two  or  three  species  of  fern  have  been 
discovered  ;  and  seven  or  eight  species  of  fish,  four  of  which  at  least 
seem  to  be  identical  with  fish  of  the  Copper-slate. 

§  3.  Great  central  deposit  of  Yellow  Limestone. — It  is  subdivided 
into  the  following  modifications,  each  of  which  is  described  in  detail. 


65 

(1)  Dolomite,  a  simple  crystalline  rock. — (a)  Arenaceous  dolomite, 
coarse,  nearly  incoherent,  often  in  minute  rhombs. — (b)  Small- 
grained  dolomite.  Many  quarries  of  this  variety  are  described  as  ex- 
isting on  the  back  of  the  deposit,  and  extending  from  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Mansfield  to  Bramham  Moor.  The  crystalline  beds  pass  into 
others  of  mechanical  structure,  and  in  some  extreme  cases  contain 
20  or  30  per  cent  of  siliceous  sand, — (2)  Compact  magnesian  lime- 
stone.— (3)  Laminated. — (4)  Earthy.- — (5)  Masses  of  irregular  con- 
cretionary structure. — (6)  Beds  or  concretionary  masses  of  crystalline 
limestone  without  magnesia.  Examples  of  these  are  derived  from 
quarries  near  Ripon,  Knaresborough,  and  Newton  Kyme,  &c. —  (7) 
Brecciated  structure.  This  modification  abounds  on  the  coast  of 
Durham. — (8)  Small  concretionary  structure. — (a)  Irregular. — (b) 
Regular  or  oolitic. — (9)  Large  globular  concretionary  structure. — Of 
this,  four  principal  modifications  are  described  with  minute  detail. 
All  these  several  subdivisions  of  structure  are  supposed  to  have  been 
produced  by  great  internal  movements,  after  the  mechanical  deposi- 
tion of  the  formation. 

§  4.  Lower  Red  Marl  and  Gypsum. — This  extends  from  the  edge 
of  Nottinghamshire  to  the  banks  of  the  Wharf ;  thins  off  at  the  two 
extremities;  attains  its  greatest  thickness  (perhaps  nearly  100  feet) 
on  the  right  bank  of  the  Ain  ; — but  has  not  been  discovered  in  Dur- 
ham or  the  northern  parts  of  Yorkshire. 

§  5.  Upper  thin-bedded  Gray  Limestone. —Near  Ferry  Bridge  this 
contains  very  little  magnesia.  In  other  places  it  contains  subordinate 
dolomitic  beds.  It  commences  at  Carlton  near  Worksop,  and  ranges 
without  interruption  to  the  left  bank  of  the  Wharf.  Further  north 
it  reappears  in  several  places,  under  a  modified  form  :  and  the  highest 
beds  on  the  coast  of  Durham  may  perhaps  be  referred  to  it ;  but 
the  classifications  are  made  obscure  by  the  absence  of  the  lower  red 
marl. 

§  6.  Great  Subdivisions  of  the  new  red  Sandstone  which  are  superior 
to  the  dolomitic  series. — In  Nottinghamshire  these  consist  of  two 
principal  deposits. — (a)  Upper  red  sandstone. — (b)  Upper  red  marl 
and  gypsum. — The  same  subdivisions  may  be  traced  near  the  mouth 
of  the  Tees.  In  the  central  parts  of  Yorkshire  they  are  obscured  by 
diluvium. 

By  way  of  conclusion, — the  deposits  described  in  §  1  and  §  2,  are 
supposed  to  be  the  equivalents  of  the  rothe-iodte-liegende,  the  kupfer- 
schiefer,  and  zechstein. — Those  described  in  §  §  3,  4,  and  5,  are  in 
like  manner  supposed  to  be  the  equivalents  of  the  rauchwacke,  asche, 
foliated  slinkstein,  breccias,  and  gypsum,  which  compose  the  upper 
part  of  the  Thuringerwald  system.  The  coincidence,  in  order,  mi- 
neralogical  character,  and  organic  remains,  seems  to  be  nearly  per- 
fect. In  like  manner  the  two  divisions  described  in  §  6,  are  taken 
as  the  respective  equivalents  of  the  hunter,  sandstein  and  keuper ; 
and,  the  enormously  thick  deposits  between  the  coal  measures  and 
the  lias,  with  the  exception  of  the  muschel-kalkstein,  are  thus  found 
to  admit  of  the  same  natural  subdivisions  in  England  and  in  central 
Germany.     Finally,  the  author  speculates  about  the  origin  of  the  do- 


66 

lomitic  deposits,  and  adopts  in  part  the  theory  which  derives  them 
from  the  mechanical  destruction  of  the  rocks  of  the  carboniferous 
order.  He  states  however  two  facts,  which  seem  to  imply  that  the 
waters  of  the  ocean  had  a  power  of  separating  carbonate  of  mag- 
nesia from  the  pre-existing  rocks,  in  a  manner  which  is  not  ex- 
plained by  the  mere  mechanical  hypothesis  :  —  1st,  the  greater  abun- 
dance of  magnesia  than  could  have  been  supplied  by  the  dolomites  of 
the  carboniferous  limestone  j  2ndly,  the  fact  that  some  beds  contain  a 
greater  proportion  of  magnesia  than  is  found  in  true  dolomites. — 
Whatever  may  have  been  the  origin  of  the  whole  system  ;  its  extent, 
regular  subdivisions,  and  characteristic  organic  remains,  seem  to 
prove,  that  it  originated  in  the  long  continued  and  consistent  opera- 
tion of  powerful  causes,  acting  simultaneously  in  distant  parts  of  the 
earth. 

March  21. — Benjamin  Silliman,  M.D.  LL.D.  of  Yale  College, 
North  America,  was  elected  a  Foreign  Member  of  this  Society. 
Francis  Finch,  Esq.  and  Thomas  Winter,  Esq.,  both  of  West  Brom- 
wich,  Staffordshire,  were  elected  Fellows  of  this  Society. 

A  Paper  was  read,  entitled  "  Topographical  and  Geological  No- 
tices, from  information  collected  during  the  Expedition  to  the  North- 
west coast  of  America  under  the  command  of  Captain  Franklin  ;  by 
John  Richardson,  M.D.  F.R.S.,  &c." 

The  expedition  under  Captain  Franklin  having  arrived  at  their  in- 
tended winter  quarters  on  the  shore  of  Great  Bear  Lake,  examined 
in  1825  the  vicinity  of  that  lake,  and  the  course  of  the  Mackenzie 
River  from  thence  to  the  sea.  The  author  subsequently  accompanied 
Captain  Franklin  down  the  river,  as  far  as  Point  Separation,  in  lat. 
67°  38' ;  from  whence  the  latter  proceeded  westward  to  lat.  70°  26', 
long.  148°  52' : — the  extreme  western  point  seen  by  the  expedition 
being  in  long.  149°  37'  west.  Dr.  Richardson  at  the  same  time 
went  eastward  to  the  mouth  of  the  Copper  Mine  River,  and  thence 
returned  overland  and  across  the  Great  Bear  Lake,  to  the  head- 
quarters. 

This  Paper  contains  an  account  of  the  specimens  collected,  and  the 
geological  observations  made  by  both  divisions  of  the  party ;  and 
gives  in  considerable  detail  a  description  of  the  vicinity  of  Great  Bear 
Lake,  with  a  more  general  one  of  the  banks  of  the  Mackenzie  and 
of  the  coast  to  the  East  of  it ;  to  which  are  subjoined  some  observa- 
tions respecting  the  country  previously  passed  over  by  the  expedi- 
tion, between  Lake  Superior  and  Fort  Franklin.  The  distances 
traversed  being,  in  latitude,  about  23  degrees  N.  of  Lake  Supe- 
rior ;  and  in  longitude,  altogether  about  80  degrees  ; — 60  degrees 
to  the  west  of  Lake  Superior,  and  20  degrees  on  the  coast,  east- 
ward from  the  mouth  of  the  Mackenzie.  The  total  extent  passed 
over  in  America  by  the  expedition,  in  going  and  returning,  was  about 
14,000  miles  ;  and  that  surveyed  and  laid  down  for  the  first  time  on 
the  maps,  is  about  5000  miles. 

The  author  however  mentions,  that  a  very  limited  portion  of  his 
time  could  be  devoted  to  geological  researches ;  the  ground  being  for 


67 

eight  months  in  the  year  covered  with  snow  ;  and  the  other  objects 
of  the  journey  demanding  his  principal  attention  during  the  short 
summer. 

The  country  described  consists,  in  general,  of  three  or  four  forma- 
tions, or  series  of  beds,  which  occupy  well  marked  divisions  : — 

1 .  The  most  western  division  comprehends  the  Rocky  Mountains, 
which  appear  to  be  composed  of  primitive  rocks  ;  and  the  course  of 
the  ranges  is  from  about  S.E.  to  N.W. ;  the  faces  of  the  hills  to 
the  eastward  being  abrupt,  but  the  slope  towards  the  W.  more  gra- 
dual. These  mountains  join  the  sea  on  the  west  of  the  Mackenzie  ; 
and  at  their  termination  are  divided  into  four  groups  or  chains,  to 
which  Captain  Franklin  has  given  the  names  of  Richardson's,  Buck- 
land's,  the  British,  and  Romanzoff  chains.  The  land  again  becomes 
lower  to  the  west  of  the  chain  last  mentioned,  and  continues  to  be  so 
from  thence  to  the  remotest  point  arrived  at ;  no  prominent  elevations 
having  been  observed  to  the  west  of  long.  146°. 

2.  Another  very  extensive  tract  of  primitive  rocks  in  the  north  of 
America  has  nearly  the  same  direction  with  the  range  of  the  Rocky 
Mountains,  but  the  two  ranges  converge  towards  the  north ;  the 
distance  between  them  being,  inlat.  50°,  700  miles; — about  220  miles 
where  it  was  traversed  by  Captain  Franklin,  in  going  from  Hudson's 
Bay  to  Lake  Winipeg  ; — and  in  lat.  66°  only  200  miles.  This  east- 
ern primitive  tract  consists  principally  of  granite  and  gneiss  ;  it  ex- 
hibits great  uniformity  of  character,  contains  no  very  elevated  ground, 
and  is  in  fact  traversed  by  several  rivers  which  arise  in  the  Rocky 
Mountains.  It  is  flanked  on  both  sides  by  extensive  calcareous  tracts. 

3.  The  north-eastern  extremity  of  the  Rocky  Mountain  chain,  near 
the  mouth  of  the  Mackenzie,  consists  of  grauwacke  and  other  transi- 
tion-rocks, interposed  apparently  between  the  primary  and  the  cal- 
careous districts.  In  some  of  the  other  places  described,  a  rock 
resembling  the  old-red-sandstone  of  England,  occupies  a  similar  si- 
tuation. 

4.  The  tract  that  intervenes  between  the  Rocky  Mountains  and  the 
eastern  primary  band  above  mentioned,  consists  principally  of  cal- 
careous strata,  and  is  remarkable  from  its  including,  throughout,  a 
series  of  great  lakes  or  lake-like  rivers,  with  which  a  very  large  pro- 
portion of  the  surface  is  occupied,  and  the  bottoms  of  which  appear 
in  several  instances  to  be  below  the  level  of  the  sea.  This  interme- 
diate calcareous  band  was  traced  in  one  place  by  the  author,  to  the 
width  of  about  280  miles  from  the  eastern  primary  tract ;  and  one  of 
its  highest  summits,  about  a  mile  from  Bear  Lake,  was  supposed  to 
be  about  950  feet  above  the  sea.  The  limestone  of  which  this  district 
is  composed,  as  well  as  that  of  the  calcareous  tract  on  the  east  of 
the  primary  band  above  mentioned,  presents  considerable  uniformity 
of  character  :  the  ridges  of  hills  are  nearly  parallel  to  those  of  the 
Rocky  Mountains ;  and  a  very  large  proportion  of  the  rocks  observed 
by  the  author,  was  found  to  be  magnesian  limestone, — apparently 
belonging  either  to  the  magnesian  limestone  formation  of  England, 
or  to  our  mountain-limestone,  which  it  is  well  known  includes  in 
Europe  numerous  beds  of  dolomite. 


68 

The  fossils  also  of  this  calcareous  formation,  are  of  the  same  genera 
with  those  of  our  mountain-limestone  and  of  the  magnesian  beds  in 
the  north  of  England  ;  including  corallines,  products,  terebratulites, 
and  a  cardium  :  and  in  several  places  the  calcareous  beds  contain  a 
large  proportion  of  chert  and  flinty  slate.  The  correct  determination 
of  the  relations  of  this  great  calcareous  tract,  is  one  of  the  chief 
points  of  interest  remaining  for  future  research,  in  the  country  de- 
scribed by  the  author  ;  for  while  he  agrees  with  other  geologists  in 
assigning  a  portion  of  it,  (as  in  the  vicinity  of  Lake  Winipeg,)  to  the 
mountain-limestone  of  Europe,  he  justly  remarks  that  in  other  places 
the  quantity  of  gypsum,  in  connection  with  copious  salt  springs,  and 
great  abundance  of  petroleum,  together  with  the  occurrence  of  soft 
marly-sandstone,  and  beds  of  breccia  interstratified  with  those  of 
dolomite,  and  above  all,  the  fact  that  dolomitic  limestone  is  by  far 
the  most  common  and  extensive  rock  in  the  deposit,  would  lead  to  its 
identification  with  the  zechstein  of  continental  geologists, — the  mag- 
nesian limestone  of  the  North  of  England. 

5.  Above  the  limestones,  and  in  some  cases,  it  would  appear, 
alternating  with  the  dolomite,  is  a  very  extensive  deposition  of  sand- 
stone, bituminous-shale,  and  slaty-clay  (which  last  exhibits  in  some 
places  the  peculiar  structure  denominated  cone-in-cone)  containing 
nodular  ranges  of  clay-iron-stone  and  beds  of  lignite.  The  shales 
include  impressions  of  ferns,  lepidodendrons,  and  other  vegetable 
remains  ;  and  among  the  fossils  of  this  formation  was  also  found  an 
ammonite,  supposed  by  Mr.  Sowerby  to  belong  to  a  part  of  the 
oolitic  series  of  England.  It  deserves  inquiry  therefore,  whether 
this  may  not  be  the  equivalent  of  the  carboniferous  strata  which 
form  a  portion  of  the  oolitic  series  in  Yorkshire,  and  at  Brora  in  Scot- 
land. 

The  series  of  beds  above  described  occurs  extensively  in  the 
course  of  the  Mackenzie  River,  and  on  the  shores  of  the  Great  Bear 
Lake  j  and  from  its  being  found  also  on  the  northern  coast,  at  a 
distance  of  about  300  miles  from  thence,  and  in  a  direction  precisely 
corresponding,  it  not  improbably  occupies  the  intervening  country. 

About  Cape  Bathurst  (lat.  70°  36',  long.  127°  35')  cliffs  of  alum 
shale  form  the  coast  for  more  than  60  geographical  miles,  and  are 
described  as  resembling  those  of  Whitby  in  Yorkshire. 

6.  On  the  promontory  of  Cape  Lyon  are  extensive  ridges  of  co- 
lumnar trap  associated  with  limestone  and  slate-clay  ;  and  green- 
stone is  of  frequent  occurrence  there  and  in  some  other  places. 
Porphyry  also,  forms  low  conical  hills  in  the  high  ground  between 
the  Copper  Mountains  and  Bear  Lake. 

7.  Near  the  western  boundary  of  the  limestone,  and  not  far  from 
the  base  of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  there  occur  at  intervals,  from  lat. 
50°  to  69°  N.  extensive  (tertiary  ?)  deposits,  consisting  generally  of 
sandstone,  gravel,  clay  more  or  less  bituminous,  and  brown  wood- 
coal.  In  some  spots  the  wood-coal  was  replaced  by  an  excellent 
pitch-coal,  the  fractured  surface  of  which  is  marked  with  very  peculiar 
concentric  semicircular  depressions  j  and  it  is  interesting  to  know 
that  this  coal,  which  would  be  excellent  fuel  for  a  steam- vessel,  occurs 


69 

on  the  coast  of  the  Polar  sea  near  the  Mackenzie  in  considerable 
quantity.  This  formation  contains  layers  of  a  variety  of  pipe-clay  which 
is  eaten  by  the  natives,  and  is  said  to  sustaih  life  for  a  considerable 
time.  The  deposit  at  the  mouth  of  Bear  Lake  River  includes  some 
beds  of  impure  porcelain  earth.  The  author  found  occasionally  much 
difficulty  in  distinguishing  the  sandstones  and  shales  of  this  deposit, 
from  those  of  the  formation  mentioned  above  in  Section  5. 

8.  Among  the  indications  of  other  strata  more  recent  than  the 
magnesian  limestone,  was  a  loose  fragment  of  soft  limestone  found 
at  the  mouth  of  Babbage  River,  on  the  coast  west  of  the  Mackenzie, 
containing  the  species  of  Cyclas  (C.  medius)  which  occurs  extensively 
in  the  weald-clay  of  England. 

This  memoir,  which  will  be  published  in  full  in  the  Appendix  to 
Captain  Franklin's  Narrative  of  the  expedition,  is  illustrated  by  maps 
and  drawings,  and  accompanied  by  a  catalogue  in  detail,  of  the 
specimens  referred  to,  which  have  been  presented  to  the  Geological 
Society. 

April  18. — William  Hutton,  Esq.  of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  Beriah 
Botfield,  Esq.  of  Christchurch  Oxford,  and  William  Parker  Hamond, 
Esq.  of  St.  John's  College  Cambridge,  were  elected  Fellows  of  this 
Society. 

A  Paper  was  read,  "  On  the  fossil  remains  of  two  new  species  of 
Mastodon,  and  of  other  vertebrated  animals,  found  on  the  left  bank  of 
the  Irawadi ;  by  William  Clift,  Esq.  F.G.S.  F.R.S.,  conservator  of  the 
Museum  of  the  Royal  College  of  Surgeons." 

The  author  having  been  requested  to  describe  the  fossil  remains 
wtich  the  zeal  and  liberality  of  Mr.  Crawfurd  have  transferred  from 
the  deserts  of  the  Irawadi  to  the  Museum  of  the  Geological  Society, 
coifines  himself  strictly  to  zoological  and  anatomical  details  ;  and  fol- 
loving  the  system  of  Cuvier,  commences  with  the 

Pachydermata  proboscidifera. — The  only  genus  of  this  order  indi- 
«ated  by  the  remains  is  the  Mastodon  ;  and  of  this  there  are  two  spe- 
ues,  Mastodon  latidens  and  Mastodon  elephantoides,  not  only  com- 
nanding  attention  from  their  novelty,  but  from  the  beautiful  gradation 
vhich  they  exhibit  between  the  mastodons  already  described  and  the 
eephant.  On  comparing  the  teeth  of  Mastodon  latidens  with  those 
d  the  mastodon  of  the  Ohio  (M.  giganteum)  the  denticules  are  found 
ti  be  more  numerous,  and  less  distant,  and  the  interstices  less  deep 
tlan  in  those  of  the  latter.  The  teeth,  in  short,  begin  to  assume  the 
apearance  of  those  of  the  elephant.  On  advancing  to  Mastodon 
eiphantoides,  these  features  of  similarity  are  more  strongly  deve- 
loed  :  the  many-pointed  denticules  are  still  more  numerous  and 
rare  compressed ;  and  the  structure,  were  it  not  for  the  absence  of 
ensta  petrosa,  becomes  almost  that  of  the  tooth  of  the  elephant. 
Ir  both,  though  the  teeth  are  formed  upon  the  principle  by  which 
th  tooth  of  the  mastodon  is  distinguished  from  that  of  the  elephant, 
th  crown  of  the  tooth  wears  away  more  like  that  of  the  elephant  than 
tV.t  of  the  other  mastodons. 


70 

The  species  are  thus  characterized  : 

Mastodon  latidens. — Mastodon  dentibus  molaribus  latissimis,,  den- 
ticulis  rotundatis,  elevatis.     Palato  valde  angusto. 

The  dentition  very  much  resembles  that  of  the  elephant.  The 
molar  tooth  is  gradually  pushed  forward,  and  rises  as  the  fangs  are 
added,  according  to  the  demand  occasioned  by  the  abrasion  of  the  ex- 
posed crown,  and  the  consequent  absorption  of  the  anterior  fang ;  the 
posterior  part  of  the  tooth  not  having  yet  cut  the  gum,  while  the  an- 
terior portion  is  completely  worn  away.  Before  it  are  seen  the  relics 
of  the  preceding  tooth,  the  place  of  which  the  tooth  in  use  was  pro- 
gressively supplying. 

The  lower  jaw  in  this  species  is  less  square  and  deeper  than  it  is  in 
M.  giganteum. 

The  tusks,  judging  from  the  alveoli,  must  have  been  of  equal  vo- 
lume with  those  of  the  largest  living  elephant. 

The  following  is  the  measurement  of  some  of  the  remains  of  M. 
latidens. 

Extreme  breadth  of  fragment  of  cranium  (upper  jaw 

with  the  greatest  part  of  both  grinders) 1  Ft.  3  In. 

Length  of  ditto 1       8 

Extreme  length  of  right  anterior  grinder  (6  denticuli 

and  the  spur)    0       8| 

Extreme  breadth  at  third  denticulus    0       4 

Circumference  of  lower  jaw,  measured  over  the  grind- 
ing surface  of  the  tooth    2       4 

Extreme  length  of  tooth  0     1  If 

Extreme  breadth 0       4| 

Circumference  of  the  lower  extremity  of  right  femur       2       2 

Same,  round  the  condyles    2       4 

Mastodon  elephantoides. — M.  dentibus  latis  ;  denticulis  numeroas, 
compressis. 

This  species  must  have  been  smaller  than  the  last.  There  is  a  fine 
example  of  the  lower  jaw,  showing  the  tooth  in  the  highest  degre* 
of  perfection.  The  tooth  is  1 1  inches  long  and  3^  inches  broad 
has  no  less  than  ten  denticules,  and  each  of  these  denticules  is  ma 
millated  with  small  points  ;  five  being  the  smallest,  and  eight  ths 
greatest  number  on  any  one  denticule.  In  front  of  this  tooth  s 
seen  the  remnant  of  the  preceding  one,  worn  down  and  disappear 
ing  ;  and  behind  it  is  the  cavity  wherein  the  young  tooth,  intendd 
as  a  successor  to  that  in  existence,  was  in  the  course  of  formatio:. 
The  denticules  are  much  more  compressed  than  those  in  the  specis 
last  described  ;  they  are  closer  together,  and  the  whole  tooth  a- 
proaches  still  more  nearly  to  that  of  the  elephant,  while  the  jaw  is  n 
unison  with  the  appearance  of  the  tooth. 

Pachydermata  ordinaria. — In  this  group  we  have  the  remains )f 
the  genera  Sus,  Hippopotamus,  and  Rhinoceros.  Of  the  first  thee 
is  only  a  single  specimen,  consisting  of  a  small  portion  of  the  lowr 
jaw,  containing  one  molar  tooth  and  the  fragment  of  another.  *f 
the  second  there  are  but  few  fragments,  nor  are  they  sufficiently  ch- 
vacteristic  to  warrant  a  definition  of  the  species,  which  must  have  ben 


71 

comparatively  small.  Of  the  third  there  is  a  portion  of  the  upper 
jaw,  containing  two  molar  teeth ;  and  portions  of  the  lower  jaw  with 
molares,  which  seem  to  approach  nearer  to  those  of  the  rhinoceros 
of  Java  than  to  those  of  any  other  living  species. 

Ruminantia. — In  this  group  we  have  fragments  of  the  ox  and  of 
the  deer. 

Reptilia. 

Chelonia,  Cuv. — (Testudinata,  Bell). — There  are  many  fragments 
of  a  large  species  of  trionyx,  and  some  of  an  emys.  But  the  remains 
are  not  sufficiently  defined  for  specific  description. 

Sauria. — Fam.  Crocodilidce. — Of  this  family  we  have  the  remains 
of  two  genera ;  viz.  a  Leptorhynchus  allied  to,  if  not  identical  with, 
the  great  gavial ;  and  a  crocodile  resembling  Crocodilus  vulgaris.  Of 
the  former  there  are  portions  of  the  lower  jaw  and  several  vertebrae; 
of  the  latter,  there  is  the  anterior  termination  of  the  lower  jaw,  which 
■must  have  belonged  to  a  very  large  individual. 

The  specimens,  in  general,  do  not  appear  to  have  undergone  any 
mineral  change,  with  the  exception  of  being  abundantly  penetrated 
with  iron,  and  are  very  brittle.  This  last  circumstance,  arising  from 
the  loss  of  their  animal  gluten,  indicates  great  antiquity,  and  that  they 
have  not  been  imbedded  in  any  very  compact  soil ;  unlike  the  teeth 
of  the  mastodon  of  the  Ohio,  which  lie  in  a  strong  blue  clay,  and  have 
almost  as  much  animal  matter  as  is  to  be  found  in  a  recent  tooth. 

The  bones  are  almost  in  every  instance  broken  ;  and  from  the 
firmness  of  texture  of  most  of  them,  the  direction  and  cleanness  of  the 
fracture,  and  the  sharpness  of  its  edges,  the  injury,  which  must  have 
been  the  result  of  an  immense  power  operating  with  sudden  violence, 
appears  to  have  taken  place  at  the  period,  or  very  soon  after  the 
period,  of  the  destruction  of  the  animal. 

A  Paper  was  next  read  "  On  a  collection  of  vegetable  and  animal 
remains,  and  rocks,  from  the  Burmese  Country,  presented  to  the 
Geological  Society  by  J.  Crawfurd,  Esq,"  by  the  Rev.  W.  Buckland, 
D.D.  V.P.G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 

Mr.  Crawfurd  collected  these  specimens  during  his  voyage  up  the 
Irawadi  in  a  steam-boat,  on  an  embassy  to  Ava,  in  the  latter  part  of 
the  year  1 826.  The  author  considers  them  to  be  of  high  importance, 
as  affording  an  answer  to  the  curious,  and  till  now  undecided  ques- 
tion, whether  there  be,  or  be  not,  in  the  southern  regions  of  Asia,  any 
remains  of  fossil  quadrupeds  analogous  to  those  which  are  found  so 
widely  dispersed  in  the  diluvium  of  northern  Asia,  and  of  Europe  and 
America. 

The  evidence  which  Mr.  Crawfurd  has  imported,  consists  of  several 
chests  full  of  fossil  wood  and  fossil  bones,  and  of  specimens  of  the 
strata  that  are  found  along  the  course  of  the  Irawadi,  from  Prome  up 
to  Ava,  being  a  distance  of  nearly  500  miles.  The  greater  part  of  the 
fossil  wood  is  beautifully  silicified  ;  other  specimens  of  it  are  calca- 
reous ;  they  are  mostly  portions  of  large  trees,  both  monocotyledo- 
nous  and  dicotyledonous,  and  were  found  along  the  whole  valley  of 
the  Irawadi  from  Ava  to  Prome,    The  bones  were  all  collected  from 


72 

a  small  district  near  some  wells  of  petroleum,  about  halfway  between 
these  towns,  and  on  the  left  bank  of  the  river.  From  Mr.  Cliffs  exa- 
mination, it  appears,  that  although  we  have  among  them  no  remains 
of  fossil  elephants,  we  have  the  same  fossil  pachydermata  that  are 
found  associated  with  elephants  in  Europe  j  namely,  rhinoceros, 
hippopotamus,  mastodon,  and  hog.  We  have  also  two  or  three  spe- 
cies of  ruminantia  resembling  the  ox,  antelope  and  deer,  with  the 
addition  of  the  gavial  and  alligator,  and  two  freshwater  tortoises, 
namely,  trionyx  and  emys. 

The  teeth  of  the  mastodon  belong  to  two  unknown  species  of  that 
genus,  both  of  them  approaching  in  size  to  the  largest  elephant.  Mr. 
Clift  has  designated  them  by  the  names  of  Mastodon  latidens  and 
M.  elephantoides.  The  teeth  are  from  animals  of  all  ages  ;  and  there 
are  many  fragments  of  ivory,  derived  probably  also  from  the  mas- 
todon. 

The  remains  of  the  mastodon  are  by  far  the  most  abundant  in  this 
collection,  and  amount  to  about  150  fragments. 

Of  the  rhinoceros  there  are  about  10  fragments. 

Of  a  small  species  of  hippopotamus,  2. 

Of  the  hog,  1  ;  and  of  the  ox,  deer  and  antelope,  about  20. 

Of  the  gavial  and  alligator,  about  50. 

Of  the  emys,  20  ;  and  trionyx,  10. 

One  fragment  of  emys  is  so  large,  that  the  animal  of  which  it 
formed  a  part,  must  have  been  several  feet  in  width. 

The  state  of  preservation  of  these  bones  is  very  perfect,  from  their 
being  penetrated  with  hydrate  of  iron,  and  thereby  rendered  strong. 
Not  one  of  them  is  silicified,  though  they  have  been  erroneously 
stated  to  be  so,  in  some  of  the  periodical  journals. 

The  district  in  which  they  were  found  is  a  little  North  of  the  town 
of  Wetmasut,  and  is  composed  of  barren  sand-hills  and  beds  of  gravel 
intersected  by  ravines,  and  cemented  occasionally  into  a  breccia  by 
carbonate  of  lime,  and  sometimes  by  hydrate  of  iron.  Over  the  sur- 
face of  these  hills  were  scattered  the  fragments  of  bones  and  wood, 
some  quite  naked  and  loose,  others  half  buried  in  the  sand  and  gravel. 
Many  fragments  of  wood  lay  also  at  the  bottom  of  the  ravines. 
About  one-third  of  the  bones  have  been  slightly  rolled ;  and  the  rest 
had  all  been  broken  before  they  were  lodged  in  the  places  where  Mr. 
Crawfurd  found  them,  and  where  they  appear  to  have  been  dispersed 
and  buried,  by  the  action  of  the  same  waters  that  produced  the  dilu- 
vial sand  and  gravel,  whence  they  have  since  been  washed  out,  and 
left  bare  by  the  action  of  rains  and  torrents. 

Concretions  of  sand  and  gravel  adhere  to  many  of  the  bones,  but 
they  contain  no  traces  of  shells,  and  differ  mineralogically  from  all 
the  rock  specimens  in  this  collection,  which  we  recognize  as  belong- 
ing to  tertiary  and  freshwater  strata. 

Indications  of  freshwater  formation  were  found  in  one  spot  only, 
not  far  from  the  fossil  bones,  and  they  consist  of  a  marly  blue  clay, 
abounding  with  shells  of  a  large  and  thick  species  of  Cyrena. 

The  tertiary  rocks  are :    1st,  a  dark  slaty  limestone,  containing 


73 

many  shells,  that  have  been  identified  by  Mr.  Sowerby  with  those  of 
the  London  clay.  2nd,  a  yellow  sandy  limestone  containing  shells, 
and  resembling  the  calcaire  grossier,  and  3rd,  a  soft  greenish  sand- 
stone resembling  the  sandy  beds  of  our  plaslic  clay  formation. 

This  London  clay  and  calcaire  grossier  afford  an  additional  locality 
of  these  strata  to  those  indicated  by  the  specimens  described  by  Mr. 
Colebrooke,  in  vol.  i.  Part  1,  2nd  series  of  the  Geological  Transactions, 
— which  had  already  established  the  existence  of  this  formation  in 
the  N.E.  border  of  Bengal. 

Mr.  Crawfurd  states  distinctly,  that  it  is  impossible  to  refer  the  si- 
tuation of  the  bones,  or  the  origin  of  the  hills  containing  them,  to  any 
operations  of  the  existing  river  :  these  hills  are  sixty  feet  above  the 
level  of  its  highest  flood  ;  the  effect  of  its  actual  operations,  he  ob- 
serves also,  is  distinctly  visible  in  the  shifting  islands  of  mud  and  sand 
that  abound  along  the  whole  course  of  the  river  within  this  high- 
flood  level,  and  in  the  great  alluvial  delta  that  extends  from  a  little 
below  Prome  to  Rangoon  and  the  gulf  of  Martaban. 

The  recent  bones  and  recent  wood  which  he  observed  to  be  stranded 
on  some  of  these  islands,  were  not  in  a  state  of  progress  towards 
becoming  mineralized,  but  were  falling  rapidly  to  decay. 

The  existence  of  so  many  animal  remains  analogous  to  those  that 
occur  in  the  diluvium  of  Europe,  in  a  matrix  which  so  nearly  re- 
sembles that  diluvium,  and  which  so  decidedly  differs  from  the  allu- 
vium, and  freshwater,  and  tertiary  strata  of  the  adjacent  country, 
seems  to  authorize  us  to  refer  this  matrix  to  a  similar  diluvial  de- 
posit in  the  valley  of  the  Irawadi,  reposing  irregularly  upon  the  ter- 
tiary and  other  stratified  rocks,  that  form  the  basis  of  that  district. 

Besides  the  tertiary  strata  above  enumerated,  there  are  specimens 
of  grauwacke  and  transition-limestone  from  several  distant  points  in 
the  valley  of  the  Irawadi  between  Prome  and  Ava,  which  render  it 
probable  that  the  fundamental  rocks  of  this  valley  belong  to  the  trans- 
ition series. 

On  the  north  of  Ava  there  are  chains  of  primitive  mountains 
abounding  with  statuary  marble,  associated,  as  usual,  with  horn- 
blende and  mica  slate. 

We  may  therefore  consider  it  as  now  established,  on  the  authority 
of  Mr.  Crawfurd's  notes  and  specimens,  that  the  Burmese  country 
not  only  contains  the  remains  of  fossil  animals  above  enumerated, 
but  also  affords  examples  of  the  following  geological  formations, 
which  can  be  identified  with  those  of  Europe  j  namely — 

1.  Alluvium. 

2.  Diluvium. 

3.  Freshwater  Marl. 

4.  London  Clay  and  Calcaire  grossier. 

5.  Plastic  Clay,  with  its  sands  and  gravel. 

6.  Transition  limestone  and  grauwacke. 

7.  Primitive  marble  and  mica  slate. 


On  the  same  evening,  after  the  ordinary  business  of  the  Society 


74 

had  been  transacted,  a  special  general  meeting  was  held,  when  the 
President  having  stated,  that  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  his  Ma- 
jesty's Treasury  had  been  pleased  to  transfer  to  this  Society  some  of 
the  apartments  in  Somerset  House,  formerly  used  as  the  Lottery 
Office,  and  lately  in  the  possession  of  the  Royal  Society ;  and  that  a 
sum  not  less  than  1000Z.  would  be  required  for  preparing  the  said 
apartments  for  the  reception  of  the  Society,  and  the  removal  of  their 
Library  and  Collections  : — 

It  was  resolved  unanimously, 

L  On  the  motion  of  Davies  Gilbert,  Esq.  M.P.,  Pres.  R.S.,  se- 
conded by  Henry  Warburton,  Esq.,  M.P., — That  the  thanks  of  this 
Society  be  given  to  the  Right  "Honourable  the  Lords  Commissioners 
of  his  Majesty's  Treasury,  for  the  grant  which  they  have  been  pleased 
to  make  to  this  Society,  of  apartments  in  Somerset  House. 

II.  On  the  motion  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  Buckland,  Professor  of  Geology 
at  Oxford,  seconded  by  the  Rev.  A.  Sedgwick,  Woodwardian  Pro- 
fessor at  Cambridge, — That  the  thanks  of  this  Society  be  given  to 
Davies  Gilbert,  Esq.  the  President,  and  to  the  Council  of  the  Royal 
Society,  for  their  aid  and  cooperation  in  obtaining  from  the  Lords  of 
his  Majesty's  Treasury  a  grant  of  the  apartments  in  Somerset  House. 

III.  On  the  motion  of  Robert  Ferguson,  Esq.,  seconded  by  Leo- 
nard Horner,  Esq., — That  a  Subscription  be  immediately  entered 
upon,  to  defray  the  expense  of  the  necessary  repairs  in  the  apartments 
recently  granted  to  the  Society  in  Somerset  House,  and  of  the  re- 
moval thereto. 

May  2. — At  a  special  general  meeting  holden  this  day  at  one 
o'clock,  for  the  purpose  of  electing  a  Member  of  the  Council  in  the 
room  of  Ashhurst  Majendie,  Esq.;  and  also  for  electing  a  Secretary 
in  the  room  of  R.  I.  Murchison,  Esq.,  and  a  Foreign  Secretary  in  the 
room  of  Henry  Heuland,  Esq.,  who  had  retired  from  their  re- 
spective offices  ; 

It  was  resolved  unanimously, 

I.  That  the  thanks  of  this  Society  be  given  to  Ashhurst  Majendie, 
Esq.,  retiring  from  the  Council. 

II.  That  the  thanks  of  this  Society  be  given  to  Henry  Heuland, 
Esq.,  for  his  long  services  in  the  office  of  Foreign  Secretary,  and  for 
the  high  regard  which  he  has  always  manifested  for  the  welfare  of  the 
Society. 

III.  That  the  thanks  of  this  Society  be  presented  to  R.  I.  Mur- 
chison, Esq.  on  his  retiring  from  the  office  of  Secretary. 

A  ballot  having  been  held  for  electing  a  Member  of  Council  in  the 
room  of  Ashhurst  Majendie,  Esq.,  the  scrutineers  reported  that  Dr. 
Henry  Burton  was  duly  elected. 

A  ballot  having  been  held  for  electing  a  Secretary  in  the  room  of 
R.  I.  Murchison,  Esq.,  and  a  Foreign  Secretary  in  the  room  of 
Henry  Heuland,  Esq.,  the  scrutineers  reported  that  Dr.  Burton  was 
elected  Secretary  ;  and  that  R,  I.  Murchison,  Esq.,  was  elected  Fo- 
reign Secretary. 


75      • 

At  the  Ordinary  Meeting  holden  on  the  same  evening,  John  Clau- 
dius Loudon,  Esq.,  of  Porchester  Terrace,  Bayswater •  and  Thomas 
Copeland,  Esq.,  of  Golden  Square,  were  elected  Fellows  of  this  So- 
ciety. 

An  extract  of  a  letter  was  read  from  Lieutenant  William  Glennie, 
R.N.,  dated  Mexico,  May  6th,  1827,  entitled  "The  Ascent  of  Popo- 
catapetl." 

Many  contradictory  reports  having  long  existed  respecting  the 
volcanic  nature  of  this  mountain,  the  author  felt  desirous  of  ascer- 
taining its  actual  condition  in  person. 

The  ascent  commenced  during  the  month  of  April  1827,  from  the 
village  of  Ameca,  situated  in  the  province  of  Puebla,  and  near  the 
N.W.  foot  of  the  volcano,  at  an  elevation  of  8216  feet  above  the 
level  of  the  sea,  and  distant  1 4  leagues  from  Mexico. 

The  author  describes  the  sides  of  the  mountain  as  thickly  wooded 
with  forests  of  pines,  extending  to  the  height  of  near  12,693 
feet,  beyond  which  altitude  vegetation  ceased  entirely.  The  ground 
consisted  of  loose  black  sand  of  considerable  depth,  on  which  nume- 
rous fragments  of  basalt  and  pumice-stone  were  dispersed.  At  a 
greater  elevation,  several  projecting  ridges,  composed  of  loose  frag- 
ments of  basalt,  arranged  one  above  another,  and  overhanging  preci- 
pices 600  or  700  feet  deep,  presented  formidable  impediments  to  the 
author's  progress ;  and,  in  one  direction  only,  a  ravine  was  observed 
to  pass  through  these  ridges,  having  its  surface  covered  with  loose 
black  sand,  down  which  fragments  of  rocks  ejected  from  the  crater 
continually  descended. 

After  twelve  hours  of  incessant  fatigue  the  author  gained  the  highest 
point  of  the  mountain  on  the  western  side  of  the  crater,  1 7,884  feet 
above  the  sea •.  at  which  station  the  mercury  in  the  barometer  sub- 
sided to  15*63  inches,  and  the  temperature  indicated  by  the  attached 
and  detached  thermometers,  was  respectively  39°  and  33°  Fahr.  at 
5  o'clock  P.M.,  when  exposed  to  the  direct  rays  of  the  sun.  The 
plain  of  Mexico  was  enveloped  in  a  thick  haze,  and  the  only  distant 
objects  visible  at  that  time,  were  the  volcanoes  of  Orizaba  and  Iztac- 
cihuatl.  The  crater  of  Popocatapetl  appeared  to  extend  one  mile  in 
diameter,  and  its  edges  of  unequal  thickness  descended  towards  the 
east.  The  interior  walls  consisted  of  masses  of  rock  arranged  per- 
pendicularly, and  marked  by  numerous  vertical  channels,  in  many 
places  filled  with  black  sand.  Four  horizontal  circles  of  rock  diffe- 
rently coloured  were  also  noticed  within  the  crater ;  and  from  the 
edges  of  the  latter,  as  well  as  from  its  perpendicular  walls,  several 
small  columns  of  vapour  arose  smelling  strongly  of  sulphur.  The 
noise  was  incessant,  resembling  that  heard  at  a  short  distance  from 
the  sea  shore  during  a  storm  •  and  at  intervals  of  two  or  three  mi- 
nutes the  sound  increased,  followed  by  an  eruption  of  stones  of  va- 
rious dimensions  ;  the  smaller  were  projected  into  the  ravine  before 
mentioned,  the  larger  fell  again  within  the  crater. 

The  sensations  experienced  by  the  author  were  analogous  to  those 
usually  felt  by  travellers  at  considerable  elevations ;  viz.  weariness, 
difficult  respiration,  and  headache,  the  latter  inconvenience  having 


76 

been  first  perceived  at  a  height  of  16,895  feet.  Tobacco  smoke  and 
spirituous  liquors  were  also  found  to  produce  an  unusually  rapid  ef- 
fect upon  the  sensorium. 

At  the  same  meeting  a  letter  was  read  from  J.  B.  Pentland,  Esq., 
addressed  to  W.  H.  Fitton,  M.D.  P.G.S..  respecting  the  fossil  re- 
mains of  some  animals  from  the  N.E.  border  of  Bengal. 

The  author  has  discovered  among  the  mutilated  fragments  of  bones 
obtained  from  the  tertiary  deposits  on  the  Bramahpootra  River  in  the 
small  state  of  Cooch-Behar, — presented  to  the  Society  some  years  ago, 
by  David  Scott,  Esq.,  and  referred  to  in  a  former  volume  of  the 
Transactions*, — the  remains  of  four  distinct  species  of  mammalia, 
making  an  interesting  addition  to  the  list  already  published  by  Mr. 
Colebrooke,  viz. — 

1.  A  species  of  the  genus  Anthracotherium  of  Cuvier,  which  the 
author  proposes  to  distinguish  by  the  name  of  A.  Silistrense, — a  spe- 
cific denomination  derived  from  one  of  the  many  names  by  which  the 
great  Bramahpootra  river  appears  to  have  been  designated  by  ancient 
geographers. 

2.  A  small  species  of  the  order  Ruminantia  allied  to  the  genus 
Moschus. 

3.  A  small  species  of  herbivorous  animal  referable  to  the  Pachy- 
defmata,  but  more  diminutive  than  any  of  the  fossil  or  living  species 
of  that  family  at  present  known. 

4.  A  carnivorous  animal  of  the  genus  Viverra. 

*  Geol.  Trans.  2nd  Series,  vol.  i.  p.  135. 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE  GEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  LONDON. 

1827—1828.  No.  8. 


May  16. — Decimus  Burton,  Esq.  of  Spring  Gardens  ;  and  Major 
T.  Perronet  Thompson,  of  the  65th  Regiment,  were  elected  Fellows  of 
this  Society. 

The  reading  was  begun  of  a  Paper  entitled,  "  On  the  Old  Conglo- 
merates, and  other  secondary  deposits  on  the  north  coasts  of  Scot- 
land ;"  by  the  Rev.  Adam  Sedgwick,  Woodwardian  Professor,  Cam- 
bridge, V.P.G.S.  &c.  and  R.  I.  Murchison,  Esq.  For.  Sec.  G.S.  and 
F.R.S. 

June  6. — M.  H.  Ducrotay  de  Blainville,  Member  of  the  Institute 
of  France,  and  of  many  other  learned  and  scientific  Societies,  was 
elected  a  Foreign  Member  of  this  Society  ;  and  Richard  Taylor,  Esq. 
Sec.  L.S.  of  Middleton  Square  ;  Charles  Larkin  Francis,  Esq.  of  Nine 
Elms,  Surrey  j  and  Jeffry  Wyattville,  Esq.  R.A.  of  Lower  Brook 
Street, — were  elected  Fellows  of  this  Society. 

The  reading  of  the  Paper  of  Professor  Sedgwick,  and  R.  I.  Murchi- 
son, Esq.,  begun  at  the  last  Meeting,  was  concluded. 

§  1.  Introduction. — The  authors  here  give  a  brief  sketch  of  the  ge- 
neral structure  of  Scotland,  to  the  north  of  the  Forth  and  the  Clyde. 
They  consider  the  country  to  be  composed  of  two  entirely  distinct 
classes  of  deposits — primary  and  secondary}  but  with  the  primary  de- 
posits are  associated  many  mountain  masses  of  crystalline  rock,  which 
appear  to  have  been  protruded  since  the  deposition  of  the  newest  of  the 
secondary  series ;  and  hence  arises  great,  and  sometimes  insuperable, 
difficulty,  in  passing  from  one  class  of  deposits  to  the  other.  The  low- 
est of  the  secondary  strata  are  chiefly  composed  of  red-sandstone 
and  red-conglomerate  :  and  from  a  general  review  of  this  part  of  the 
subject,  the  authors  conclude,  that  the  conglomerate  system  on  the 
N.E.  coast  of  the  Highlands  is  identical  with  that  on  the  N.W.  coast ; 
and  that  both  the  systems  are  of  the  same  epoch  with  the  great  masses 
of  conglomerate  which  commence  at  Stonehaven,  and  range  along 
the  southern  flank  of  the  Grampian  chain. 

§  2.  Range  of  the  old-red-conglomerates  through  Caithness,  and  on 
the  shores  of  the  Murray  Firth,  Sfc. — These  rocks  are  stated  to  appear 
in  several  unconnected  masses  on  the  north  coast,  between  Cape 
Wrath  and  Port  Skerry  •  and  from  the  latter  place  they  range  into 
the  interior,  and  rise  into  a  mountain  chain  ( the  highest  parts  reach- 
ing the  elevation  of  3500  feet),  which  is  continued  to  the  granite  of 
the  Ord  of  Caithness.  Their  range  parallel  to  the  shores  of  the  Murray 
Firth,  is  also  given  with  many  details.     They  are  slated  to  be  deve- 


78 

loped  upon  an  enormous  scale,  and  sometimes  to  form  two  distinct 
chains  of  broken  mountains,  resting  unconformably  upon  the  primary 
strata.  On  the  south-eastern  shores  of  the  Murray  Firth  they  gra- 
dually thin  off  j  and  finally  disappear  near  Cullen  bay,  in  Banfshire. 

§  3.  On  the  general  structure  of  Caithness. — After  an  account  of 
the  external  appearance  of  the  county,  the  authors  describe  in  great 
detail  two  coast  sections.  The  first,  commencing  with  the  old  con- 
glomerates of  Port  Skerry,  which  rest  immediately  upon  the  gra- 
nite, exhibits  the  successive  deposits  in  ascending  order,  and  termi- 
nates with  the  newer  red-sandstone  on  the  shores  of  the  Pentland 
Firth.  The  second  section  exhibited  on  the  east  coast,  commences 
with  the  newer  red-sandstone,  and  passing  through  all  the  interme- 
diate deposits,  finally  exposes  the  old  conglomerate  system  in  a  part 
of  the  coast  between  Borridale  and  the  Ord.  From  a  general  review 
of  the  phenomena  exhibited  in  these  two  sections,  as  well  as  from 
other  details  derived  from  the  interior  of  the  county,  the  authors 
conclude  that  the  secondary  deposits  may  be  divided  into  three  great 
natural  groups  : — 

1 .  The  old  conglomerates, — which  contain  some  subordinate  masses 
of  red-sandstone,  red  marie,  and  calcareo-siliceous  flagstone ;  and 
which,  through  the  intervention  of  the  red-sandstone,  sometimes  gra- 
duate into  the  next  system. 

2.  A  great  formation,  occupying  all  the  lower  regions  of  the  county, 
and  composed  of  alternating  beds  of  sandstone,  siliceous  and  calcareo- 
siliceous  schist  and  flagstone,  dark  foliated  bituminous  limestone, 
pyritous  shale,  &c. ;  the  siliceous  beds  giving  the  type  to  the  lower 
part  of  the  formation,  and  the  calcareo-bituminous  beds  to  the  interme- 
diate part.  This  formation  again  becomes  more  siliceous  and  arena- 
ceous  in  the  upper  portion,  and  so  appears  to  graduate  into  the  next 
superior  division. 

3.  A  great  formation  of  red,  brown,  and  variegated  sandstone,  which 
composes  lofty  precipices  on  the  south  shores  of  the  Pentland  Firth. 
It  reappears  on  the  other  side  of  the  Firth  in  the  lofty  red  cliffs  of  the 
Orkneys,  and  there  also  reposes  upon  a  calcareo-bituminous  schist. 

§  4.  Fossil  fish  of  the  secondary  deposits  of  Caithness,  #c. — These 
seem  to  be  contained  almost  exclusively  in  the  calcareo-bituminous 
schist,  which  is  subordinate  to  the  middle  group  of  §  3.  They  do  not 
appear  to  be  confined  to  any  particular  part  of  it,  but  were  found  in 
various  localities,  some  in  the  lowest  and  others  in  the  highest  part  of 
the  series  ;  and  in  many  places  scales  and  imperfect  impressions  ex- 
ist in  the  greatest  abundance.  Some  imperfect  specimens  were  ex- 
amined during  a  preceding  year  by  the  Baron  Cuvier,  who  found  that 
they  all  exhibited  a  pointed  tail  (with  the  rays  exclusively  on  the  lower 
side, — as  in  the  fish  of  the  copper-slate  of  Thuringia),  and  notwith- 
standing the  great  imperfection  of  the  specimens,  he  concluded  that 
they  were  of  the  order  Malacopterygii  abdominales,  and  analogous  to 
the  bony  pike.  Since  that  time  much  more  perfect  specimens  have 
been  procured,  which  have  been  examined  by  Mr.  Pentland ;  who  has 
not  only  been  enabled  to  confirm  the  conjectures  of  Baron  Cuvier, 
but  has  ascertained  two  new  genera,  each  containing  two  species. 


79 

The  first  genus  (Dipterus)  has  a  double  dorsal  fin,  and  the  other  fins 
are  nearly  in  the  same  position  as  in  the  Esocii. — One  of  the  species 
(Dipterus  macrolepidon)  is  remarkable  for  the  size  of  its  scales,  which 
sometimes  exceed  half  an  inch  in  diameter.  The  second  genus  is 
nearly  allied  to  Amia  and  Lepisosteus.  The  body  is  covered  with 
hard  quadrangular  scales,  disposed  in  oblique  rows.  In  all  the  spe- 
cies the  peculiar  formation  of  the  tail,  before  alluded  to,  is  the  same. 

Along  with  the  fish  were  found  the  remains  of  aTestudo,  nearly  al- 
lied to  Trionyx,  and  one  specimen  of  a  vegetable  impression :  but  not 
a  single  fossil  shell  or  zoophyte  has  yet  been  discovered  in  any  part 
of  the  county.  It  adds  to  the  interest  of  this  singular  assemblage 
of  organic  remains,  that  they  all  resemble  the  inhabitants  of  fresh 
water. 

§  5.  Secondary  deposits  on  the  shores  of  the  Murray  Firth. — Several 
transverse  sections  through  these  deposits  are  described  in  great  de- 
tail ;  and  from  a  comparative  view  of  the  phenomena  exhibited  in  a 
section  from  the  conglomerate  mountains  in  East  Ross  to  the  north 
Sutor  of  Cromarty,  and  from  thence  to  Tarbet  Ness,  it  appears  that 
these  secondary  deposits  admit  of  three  natural  divisions,  like  those 
described  in  Caithness.  The  conglomerates  in  both  counties  are  the 
same.  The  formations  in  the  lower  region  of  East  Ross  contain  sub- 
ordinate beds  of  calcareo-bituminous  schist ;  and  though  fossils  are 
much  more  rare  than  in  Caithness,  yet  a  few  examples  of  fish-scales, 
and  a  fragment  of  a  Testudo  resembling  a  Trionyx,  have  been  found 
between  the  north  Sutor  and  Tarbet  Ness. — Lastly,  the  highest  beds 
of  the  whole  series  near  Tarbet  Ness,  may  be  compared  with  the 
newer  red-sandstone  of  the  Pentland  Firth. 

The  transverse  sections  exhibited  near  the  south  shores  of  the  Mur- 
ray Firth,  differ  considerably  in  their  details  from  what  has  been  de- 
scribed. The  bituminous  schists  seem  to  be  in  some  measure  replaced 
by  beds  of  concretionary  limestone,  resembling  thecornstone  of  Here- 
fordshire :  and  these  beds  are  surmounted  by  a  great  formation  of 
white  sandstone,  nearly  resembling  the  sandstone  associated  with  the 
coal  measures  between  the  old  and  new-red-conglomerates  in  the  Isle 
of  Arran. 

§  6.  Red-sandstone  and  conglomerate  series  on  the  N.W.  coast  of  Su- 
therland and  Ross-shire. — These  extend  almost  without  interruption 
from  Cape  Wrath  to  Applecross  ;  and  the  authors  (after  stating  a  few 
facts  in  addition  to  the  details  already  given  by  Dr.  MacCulloch)  as- 
sert that,  through  the  intervention  of  the  patches  of  conglomerate  on 
the  north  coast  of  Scotland,  they  are  most  intimately  connected  with 
the  conglomerates  which  extend  from  Port  Skerry  to  the  Ord  of  Caith- 
ness. The  two  systems  appear  also  to  be  identical  in  their  general 
character  and  relations.  There  are  some  difficulties  arising  out  of  the 
peculiar  modifications  of  the  quartz-rock,  which  sometimes  cannot  be 
distinguished,  mineralogically,  from  that  of  the  unconformable  red- 
sandstone  and  conglomerate  series.  The  authors  have,  however,  no 
hesitation  in  classing  the  great  red-sandstone  series,  which  extends 
from  Applecross  to  Cape  Wrath,  with  the  older  portions  of  the  se- 
condary deposits  of  Caithness  and  Sutherland. 


80 

§  7.  Conclusion. — The  deposits  previously  described  are  here  compared 
with  the  corresponding  formations  of  England. — 1.  The  old-red-con- 
glomerates are,  from  their  mineralogical  character  and  position,  iden- 
tified with  the  old-red-sandstone  of  English  geologists. — 2.  The  great 
central  deposit,  containing  the  ichthyolites,  does  not  appear  to  be 
perfectly  identical  with  any  formation  hitherto  described.  It  seems 
in  some  measure  to  occupy  the  place  of  the  coal  formation.  Many 
parts  of  it  resemble  grauwacke  in  mineralogical  character;  and  from 
its  enormous  development,  it  can  hardly  be  compared  with  the  cop- 
per-slate of  Germany.  Again,  none  of  the  fish  of  Caithness  are  iden- 
tical with  the  fish  of  the  copper-slate.  The  upper  part  of  the  Caith- 
ness schist  might  however,  in  accordance  with  the  Arran  section,  be 
compared  with  the  copper-slate ;  in  which  case  the  red-sandstone  of  the 
Pentland  Firth  might  be  considered  as  the  representative  of  the  new- 
red-vsandstone  of  England.  There  is  however  a  break  in  the  series, 
and  it  is  perhaps  impossible  to  determine  where  the  interruption  takes 
place. — 3.  The  red-sandstone  on  the  shores  of  the  Pentland  Firth 
most  nearly  resembles  the  red-sandstone  of  Arran,  which  is  interposed 
between  the  coal  measures  and  the  conglomerates  of  the  new-red- 
sandstone. 

A  Paper  was  read  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Buckland,  on  the  Cycadeoidese, 
a  new  family  of  fossil  plants,  specimens  of  which  occur  silicified  in  the 
Free-stone  quarries  of  the  Isle  of  Portland. 

These  fossils  have  as  yet  been  noticed  only  in  the  Isle  of  Portland ; 
their  existence  has  long  been  known  to  many  persons,  and  to  the  au- 
thor, who  acknowledges  the  assistance  of  Mr.  Brown  and  Mr.  Lod- 
diges,  in  assigning  to  them  their  place  in  the  vegetable  kingdom, 
where  they  stand  near  the  living  Genera  Zamia  and  Cycas. 

Their  external  form  approaches  to  that  of  the  fruit  of  a  pine-apple, 
and  is  still  more  like  the  trunk  of  a  living  Zamia,  varying  from  five  to 
fifteen  inches  in  height,  and  from  eight  to  fifteen  inches  in  width.  The 
stems  are  nearly  cylindrical,  and  terminate  downwards  in  abroad  fiat 
bottom,  without  any  indication  of  roots  :  they  have  no  true  bark,  but 
are  inclosed  in  a  thick  case,  composed  of  the  permanent  bases  of  de- 
cayed leaves,  having  a  structure  like  that  of  the  bases  of  the  leaves  of 
the  recent  Zamia  ;  they  are  terminated  externally  by  lozenge-shaped 
impressions,  or  scars,  of  which  a  continuous  series  winds  spirally,  like 
the  scales  on  a  fir  cone,  round  the  whole  exterior  of  the  plant. 

As  yet  no  leaves  have  been  found  adherent  to  any  of  these  fossils, 
but  at  the  upper  end  there  is  a  cavity,  from  which  the  crown  and  last 
leaves  appear  to  have  been  removed,  before  the  petrifaction  of  the 
stems. 

The  author  describes  and  gives  engravings  of  two  species  of  these 
fossils,  with  comparative  sections  of  the  recent  Zamia  and  Cycas. 

1.  In  the  larger  species,  which  he  calls  Cycadeoidea  megalophylla, 
the  bases  of  the  leaves  are  two  inches  long,  and  have  nearly  the  form 
and  size  of  those  of  the  Zamia  horrida.  The  trunk  is  short,  and  has 
a  deep  central  cavity,  like  the  interior  of  a  bird's  nest, — in  which  a 
number  of  siliceous  plates  intersect  one  another,  and  form  an  irre- 


81    ' 

gular  plexus,  unlike  any  vegetable  structure,  but  resembling  the 
coarse  cellular  appearance  that  is  common  in  fossil  wood.  Nearer 
the  circumference  there  appear  distinct  organic  radiations,  disposed 
in  an  insulated  circle, — like  that  in  the  trunk  of  a  recent  Zamia,  but 
differing,  in  that  it  is  much  broader,  and  placed  nearer  the  circumfer- 
ence of  the  stem.  The  larger  plates  of  this  circle  are  made  up  of 
smaller  plates,  almost  invisible  to  the  naked  eye.  Between  this  radi- 
ating circle  and  the  outer  case  or  leaf  stalks,  is  a  narrow  band,  com- 
posed of  a  minutely  cellular,  and  nearly  amorphous  substance,  but 
analogous  in  structure  and  position  to  a  much  broader  band  that  is 
exterior  to  the  radiating  circle  of  the  recent  Zamia. 

2.  In  the  second  and  smaller  species  (Cycadeoidea  microphylla), 
the  bases  of  the  leaves  are  about  an  inch  in  length,  but  small  and 
numerous,  much  like  those  of  the  Xanthorrhoea,  or  Gum  Plant,  of  New 
South  Wales.  The  trunk  is  more  elongated,  and  the  cavity  at  the 
summit  less  deep,  whilst  the  transverse  section  exhibits  the  same  irre- 
gular net-work  at  the  centre,  but  near  the  circumference  has  two 
concentric  circles  composed  of  radiating  plates ;  and  exterior  to  each 
of  these  a  narrow  ring  devoid  of  plates, — analogous  to  the  two  lami- 
nated circles  within  two  cellular  circles  in  a  recent  Cycas. 

In  external  and  internal  structure,  these  plants  approach  more 
closely  to  the  existing  family  of  Cycadeae  than  to  any  other  j  and 
they  supply,  from  the  fossil  world,  a  link  to  fill  the  distant  void  which 
separates  the  Cycadeae  from  the  nearest  existing  family,  the  Coniferee. 
Their  occurrence  in  the  Portland  oolite  adds  another  to  the  many 
facts  which  indicate  the  climate  of  these  regions,  during  the  period  of 
the  oolitic  formations,  to  have  been  similar  to  that  of  our  tropics. 

A  letter  to  the  President  was  read,  from  Gideon  Mantell,  Esq. 
F.G.S.  &c.  enclosing  a  list  of  the  fossils  of  the  county  of  Sussex. 

This  list,  which  is  taken  principally  from  specimens  in  the  author's 
own  collection,  enumerates  the  fossils,  first,  of  the  alluvial  and  dilu- 
vial deposits  ;  and,  successively,  those  of  the  London  clay,  the  plas- 
tic clay,  chalk,  chalk-marle,  firestone,  gault,  Shanklin  sand,  and  Hast- 
ings deposits,  including  the  Ashburnham  beds. 

Subjoined  is  a  comparative  table  ;  one  of  the  most  remarkable  fea- 
tures of  which,  is  the  preponderance  of  the  number  of  species  in  the 
marine  formations  over  those  of  the  beds  assumed  to  be  of  fresh-water 
origin,  in  a  ratio  of  not  less  than  six  to  one  ;  the  testaceous  mollusca 
forming  two-thirds  of  the  whole,  while  in  the  fresh-water  strata,  the 
proportion  is  reversed.  Thus  the  marine  deposits  contain  upwards 
of  two  hundred  and  forty  species  of  shells,  and  the  two  fresh-water 
formations  but  twenty-two  species.  In  the  other  classes  and  orders, 
equally  striking  differences  are  observable. 

On  the  other  hand  the  marine  formations  are  destitute  of  the  cha- 
racteristic fossils  of  the  fresh-water  formations,  viz.  birds,  terrestrial 
and  fresh-water  reptiles,  shells  and  vegetables.  The  author,  in  short, 
concludes  that  a  comparison  of  the  living  inhabitants  of  our  lakes  and 
rivers,  with  those  of  the  ocean,  would  not  offer  more  striking  discre- 
pancies. 


82 

June  20. — John,  Earl  of  Shrewsbury,  of  Great  Stanhope  Street, 
May  Fair,  and  of  Alton  Abbey,  Staffordshire  ;  Robert  Allan,  Esq.  of 
Charlotte  Square,  Edinburgh ;  W.  S.  Henwood,  Esq.  of  Perran  Wharf, 
Truro,  Cornwall ;  and  the  Rev.  John  Ward,  Vicar  of  Great  Bedwin, 
Wilts, —  were  elected  Fellows  of  this  Society. 

A  Paper  was  read  "  On  the  Geology  of  Bundelcund,  Boghelcund, 
and  the  districts  of  Saugor  and  Jabalpoor  in  central  India."  By 
Captain  James  Franklin,  of  the  Bengal  Army,  F.R.S.  F.A.S. 

The  tract  of  country  described  by  the  author  is  a  portion  of  the 
lowest  northern  steps  of  the  Vindaya  mountains,  situated  between  the 
latitudes  22°  40",  and  25°  20''  N.,  and  the  longitudes  78°  30", 
and  83°  E. ;  having  on  its  north-eastern  extremity  the  towns  of  Mir- 
zapoor  and  Allahabad,  and  near  its  southern  limit,  those  of  Tendu- 
kaira,  Singpoor  and  Mundla. 

In  this  extent  of  country  the  principal  situations  examined  by  Cap- 
tain Franklin  were,  the  pass  of  Tara  in  the  first  range  of  hills  ;  the 
pass  of  Kattra  in  the  second  range ;  the  cataracts  of  Billohi,  Bauti, 
Kenti,  Chachye,  and  of  the  Tonse  river ;  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
villages  of  Simmereah,  Hathee,  Birsingpur,  Sohawel,  Nagound,  and 
Lohargaon  ;  the  bed  of  the  Cane"  river  near  Tigra ;  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Hatta,  Narsing-hagarh,  Patteriya,  Saugor,  Tendukaira ;  the 
valley  of  the  Nermada  river ;  Garha-kota,  Great  Deori ;  the  Bandair 
and  Kymur  hills ;  Jabalpoor,  and  the  waterfall  of  Beragurh. 

The  succession  of  formations  observed  by  the  author  consisted, 
in  a  descending  order  : — 1.  Of  diluvial  deposits. — 2.  Of  overlying 
rocks  of  the  trap  formation. — 3.  Of  a  compact  limestone. — 4.  Of 
red-sandstone. — And,  lastly,  5.  Of  primitive  rocks,  including  granite, 
gneiss,  &c.  The  Paper  is  illustrated  by  a  geological  map  and  sec- 
tion of  the  country  ;  and  the  author  particularly  wishes  to  direct  the 
attention  of  geologists  to  the  limestone  of  the  second  range  of  hills, 
which  he  is  of  opinion  corresponds  with  the  lias-limestone  of  En- 
gland, a  formation  which  has  not  hitherto  been  shown  to  exist  in 
India. 

Having  commenced  his  route  at  Mirzapoor  on  the  Ganges, — in  a 
district  covered  with  alluvium  reposing  in  some  places  on  beds  of 
"  Canker,"  in  others  on  sandstone,  the  author  ascended  the  first 
range  of  hills  at  the  pass  of  Tara.  These  hills  are  composed  of  fine- 
grained sandstone  horizontally  stratified,  and  more  or  less  coloured 
by  red  oxide  of  iron  ;  the  rock  appears  to  be  saliferous,  and  is  in 
many  places  quarried  for  architectural  purposes ;  and  it  seems  to  cor- 
respond with  the  central  portion  of  the  new-red-sandstone  of  En- 
gland. 

At  the  pass  of  Kattra,  near  the  summit  of  the  second  range  of  hills, 
a  friable  variegated  sandstone  appears,  in  which  thin  laminae  of  sand- 
stone alternate  with  red  clay,  resembling  the  red  marie  of  England, 
both  reposing  on  slaty  marie  coloured  by  chlorite,  which  rests,  appa- 
rently, on  massive  horizontal  strata,  resembling  clay-slate  or  grau- 
wacke. 

At  the  bottom  of  the  cataract  of  Billohi,  398  feet  in  height,  argilhu 
ceous  sandstone  was  found,  tinged  deeply  by  red  oxide  of  iron,  and 


83 

containing  disseminated  mica, — on  which  reposed  a  siliceous  sand- 
stone of  a  more  compact  texture. 

Greenish  white  arenaceous  sandstone  not  quite  so  compact  was 
found  at  the  cataract  of  Bauti,  420  feet  below  the  summit,  varying 
in  colour  as  it  ascended :  and  twenty-four  miles  further  westward,  at 
the  cataract  of  Kenti,  and  at  a  depth  of  272  feet,  as  well  as  at  the  ca- 
taracts of  Chachye  and  of  the  Tonse  river,  sandstone  of  the  same 
general  character  was  observed  rising  to  the  surface. 

The  sandstone  of  Simmereah  is  sometimes  ferruginous,  at  others 
slaty,  and  interspersed  with  mica ;  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Hathee  it 
is  succeeded  by  what  the  author  considers  as  the  equivalent  of  the 
lias-limestone. 

At  Birsingpur,  in  the  bed  of  a  small  river,  is  a  stratum  of  red  marie 
or  sandstone,  containing  laminae  of  calc-spar  j  at  Sohawel  the  red 
marie  underlies  the  limestone  above  mentioned  ;  and  at  Nagound  in 
the  bed  of  the  Omeron  river,  the  lower  and  central  beds  of  limestone 
are  exposed  to  view,  containing  fragments  of  fossil  wood,  stems  of 
ferns,— and,  as  the  author  states,  the  gryphite  which  is  characteristic 
of  this  formation  in  Europe. 

This  limestone  appears  also  at  Hatta  and  Narsinghagarh  reposing 
on  red  marie,  and  in  the  latter  situation  is  tinged  green  by  chlorite. 
At  Patteriya,  where  the  limestone  comes  into  contact  with  trap,  the 
strata  assume  in  some  places  the  form  of  chert. 

The  aspect  of  this  limestone  is  dull  and  earthy;  its  stratification  ho- 
rizontal or  nearly  so,  and  always  conformable  to  the  red  marie  on 
which  it  reposes. 

Between  the  pass  of  Patteriya  and  Saugor,  the  author  met  with  no 
other  rock  than  trap,  generally  in  the  form  of  boulders  imbedded  in 
friable  wacken,  and  composed  of  concentric  layers :  beneath  the  bould- 
ers is  a  bed  of  indurated  wacken  and  basalt ;  and  under  the  latter  a 
stratum  of  impure  limestone,  in  some  parts  containing  a  large  pro- 
portion of  alumine  ;  below  the  limestone  is  a  stratum  of  amygdaloid, 
containing  calc-spar  and  a  few  zeolites,  which  at  Saugor  reposes 
on  sandstone. 

The  trap  of  Saugor  continues  without  fnterruption  to  Tendukaira  : 
it  contains  abundance  of  chalcedony,  semiopal,  mealy  zeolite,  ca- 
chalong,  agates,  jaspars  and  heliotrope. 

At  about  the  distance  of  three  miles  from  the  foot  of  the  hills  near 
Tendukaira,  in  the  valley  of  the  Nermada  river,  the  older  rocks  are 
exposed  to  view,  in  strata  which  are  highly  inclined, — in  some  in- 
stances nearly  vertical,  and  in  all  cases  unconformable  to  those  already 
noticed. 

On  his  route  from  Tendukaira  to  Garha-Kota,  captain  Franklin 
was  enabled  to  ascertain  the  eastern  boundary  of  the  trap  formation, 
which  is  throughout  intimately  associated  with  earthy  limestone  ; 
the  whole  series  reposing  on  red  marie  and  sandstone. 

Trap  in  horizontal  strata  was  also  observed  for  an  extent  of  three 
miles  near  Great  Deori,  previous  to  the  appearance  of  the  sandstone 
of  the  Bandair  hills,  which  last-mentioned  rock  the  author  is  of  opinion 


84 

corresponds  with  the  new-red-sandstone  of  England;  the  same  chain 
of  hills  is  composed  of  sandstone  opposite  Nagound,  Lohargaon,  Tigra, 
and  Gurreha.  The  Kymur  range  in  some  parts  appears  to  be  composed 
of  quartz-rock,  varying  to  siliceous  grit,  in  strata  nearly  vertical ; 
but  to  the  S.W.  near  Hirapur,  the  rock  becomes  more  compact ; 
and  still  further  west,  opposite  Googni,  it  is  intermixed  with  clay- 
slate  and  schistose  limestone. 

A  broad  valley  covered  with  diluvium,  intervenes  between  the  Ky- 
mur range  of  hills  and  Jabalpoor;  and  near  that  town  another  range  is 
situated,  composed  of  granite  containing  flesh-coloured  felspar,  smoky 
quartz,  black  mica  and  hornblende  ; — and  in  which,  also  almost 
every  rock  commonly  associated  with  granite  is  to  be  found. 

Snow-white  dolomite,  traversed  occasionally  by  chlorite  schist,  is 
to  be  seen  near  the  waterfall  of  Beragurh,  intimately  associated  with 
quartz  j  it  is  here  capable  of  taking  a  fine  polish,  and  scarcely  effer- 
vesces with  acids  j  but  a  few  miles  further  west,  near  Bograi,  it  is  ex- 
ceedingly friable,  and  effervesces  freely  :  it  moreover  contains  crystals 
of  Tremolite. 

Captain  Franklin  observes  that  a  part  of  the  southern  barrier  of  the 
valley  of  the  Nermada  river,  like  the  northern  barrier  opposite  Ten- 
dukaira,  is  composed  of  trap-rocks,  the  contour  of  which,  to  the 
extent  of  80  miles,  he  has  laid  down  on  his  map.  The  eastern 
deposit  of  overlying  rocks  extends  southwards  as  far  as  Chuparah, 
and  thence  eastward  towards  Mandela,  Omercuntuc,  and  Sohagpoor  j 
but  whether  it  is  united  with  the  great  central  mass,  he  was  unable 
to  ascertain. 

The  Paper  concludes  with  some  inferences  from  the  observations ; 
and  after  stating  the  opinion  of  the  late  Dr.  Voysey,  that  "the  basis 
of  the  whole  peninsula  of  India  is  granite,"  (Asiatic  Researches,  Vol. 
XV.  page  123.)  the  author  observes, — 1.  That  although  granite  is 
very  near  the  surface  in  many  parts  of  the  tract  which  fell  under  his 
examination,  yet  there  is  here,  as  in  other  countries,  a  series  of  pri- 
mary stratified  rocks  intervening  between  the  granite  and  secondary 
formations  ;  which  series  however,  there  is  reason  to  conclude,  is 
thin  and  often  wanting. 

2.  The  sandstone  formation  has  a  visible  thickness  of  420  feet  at  the 
cataract  of  Bouti,  and  is  considerably  thicker  no  doubt  near  Chachye 
and  the  Bandair  hills,  &c.  The  limestone  formation  on  the  contrary, 
which  in  other  countries  sometimes  forms  mountain  tracts,  and  occu- 
pies extensive  portions  of  the  earth's  surface,  is  in  India  a  mere 
plastering,  as  it  were,  over  the  red  marie  or  sandstone  ;  and  Captain 
Franklin  doubts  whether  it  ever  attains  a  thickness  of  1 00  feet ;  50 
feet  being  perhaps  a  fair  average.  He  never  met  with  it  in  any  other 
situation  than  on  the  summit  of  the  second  range  of  hills. 

3.  The  overlying  trap-rocks  are  not  only  the  most  extensive,  but, 
considering  them  in  a  geological  view,  the  most  important  formation 
in  this  part  of  India.  The  thickness  of  this  formation  is  variable  : 
it  reposes  on  every  rock  indiscriminately,  from  granite  upwards  ;  and 
at  Saugor  it  maybe  seen  on  sandstone,  where  its  inferior  boundary  is 


&bout  1350  feet  above  the  sea.  In  the  centre  of  India  it  occupies  the 
summits- of  the  highest  mountains  ;  and  at  Bombay  it  descends  to  the 
level  of  the  sea. 

There  are  two  kinds  of  basaltic  rock  in  the  district  of  Jabalpoor, 
clearly  of  distinct  formations  ;  the  older  variety  penetrates  the  grau- 
wacke  stratum,  in  the  bed  of  Nermada  river,  near  Lamaita ;  the 
younger  is  an  overlying  rock  like  that  at  Saugor, — but  reposing  on 
granite,  and  containing  a  greater  proportion  of  augite  and  olivine. 

Captain  Franklin  also  describes  a  calcareous  conglomerate,  found 
in  the  beds  of  most  of  the  rivers  whose  sources  or  channels  are  in  the 
trap,  and  of  sufficient  cohesion  for  architectural  purposes  :  its  strati- 
fication is  always  horizontal,  and  in  point  of  age  he  thinks  it  must  be 
classed  with  the  tufas  and  concretionary  formations  so  prevalent  in 
India. 

An  appendix  to  this  Paper  contains  the  results  of  barometrical  and 
thermometrical  observations  made  between  Nov.  1826,  and  Feb. 
1 827,  on  the  route  from  Mirzapoor  to  Saugor,  and  thence  to  Ten- 
dukaira  and  Jabalpoor ;  with  the  heights  of  fifty-four  places  above 
the  sea,  and  the  latitudes  and  longitudes  of  the  respective  stations. 

'  An  extract  was  read  of  a  letter  from  Samuel  Hobson,  Esq.  to  Dr. 
Roget,  F.G.S.  Sec.  R.S.  &c.  (dated  at  New  Orleans,  6th  April,  1827,) 
and  enclosing  an  account  of  some  gigantic  bones, — by  Samuel  W. 
Logan,  M.D. 

The  place  where  these  bones  had  been  found  is  not  mentioned ; 
but  at  the  date  of  the  letter,  they  were  exhibited  publicly  at  New 
Orleans.  Dr.  Logan  describes  them  as  consisting  of  one  of  the  bones 
of  the  cranium,  fifteen  or  twenty  vertebrae,  two  entire  ribs  and  a  part 
of  a  third,  one  thigh-bone,  two  bones  of  the  leg,  and  several  large 
masses  of  a  cancellated  structure. 

The  cranial  bone  was  twenty  feet  and  some  inches  in  its  greatest 
length,  about  four  feet  in  extreme  width  (for  the  bone  tapers  to  a 
point),  and  it  weighed  twelve  hundred  pounds.  Dr.  Logan  inclines 
to  think  that  this  is  the  temporal  bone. 

The  vertebrae,  consisting  of  a  body,  oblique  transverse,  and  spinous 
processes,  gave  sixteen  inches  as  the  mean  diameter,  and  twelve 
inches  as  the  depth  of  the  bodies;  while  the  passage  for  the  spinal 
cord  measured  nine  inches  by  six.  The  spinous  processes  stand  off 
backwards  and  downwards,  fourteen  inches  in  the  dorsal,  and  some- 
what less  in  the  lumbar  vertebrae,  three  of  which  latter  are  entire. 

The  ribs,  well  formed  and  in  a  perfect  state  of  preservation,  mea- 
sured nine  feet  along  the  curve,  and  about  three  inches  in  thickness. 

The  thigh-bone,  measured  in  length,  gave  only  one  foot  six  inches, 
but  is  very  thick.  The  bones  of  the  leg  are  of  similar  dimensions, 
but  perhaps  a  little  more  slender. 

It  had  been  conjectured  that  the  animal  to  which  these  remains  be- 
longed, was  amphibious,  and  perhaps  of  the  crocodile  family ;  and 
the  conjecture  appeared  to  Dr.  Logan  to  be  justified  by  the  great 
length  and  flatness  of  the  head  (judging  from  the  single  specimen  of 
the  cranial  bone),  and  the  shortness  of  the  limbs.     It  was  also  sup- 


86 

posed  that  the  animal,  when  alive,  must  have  measured  five  and  twenty 
feet  around  the  body,  and  about  one  hundred  and  thirty  feet  in 
length. 

An  Extract  was  read  of  a  letter  from  his  Grace  the  Duke  of  Buck- 
ingham, to  Professor  Buckland,  V.P.G.S.  dated  at  Naples,  3rd  April, 
1828,  giving  an  account  of  certain  phenomena,  which  attended  the 
late  eruption  of  Vesuvius.  The  author  states  that  the  Solfaterra  was 
in  no  degree  affected  by  the  eruption. 

A  Letter  was  read  from  Charles  Stokes,  Esq.  F.G.S.  F.R.S.  to  W.  J. 
Broderip,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  explanatory  of  three  drawings  of  Echini,  re- 
presenting,— 1.  A  specimen  of  Galeorites  albo-galerus  (Lam.),  from 
the  chalk,  in  which  the  plates  of  the  mouth,  consisting  of  five  pairs,  are 
preserved  in  situ  ; — 2.  A  Cidaris,  also  from  the  chalk,  in  which  por- 
tions of  the  plates  of  the  mouth  and  the  teeth  are  visible  :  they  are 
displaced,  but  exhibit  a  system  quite  analogous  to  that  of  the  recent 
cidaris  ; — and,  3.  A  Cidaris  from  Stonesfield,  in  which  the  anal  plates 
are  in  the  best  preservation. 

At  the  close  of  this  Meeting,  which  terminated  the  Session,  the 
Society  adjourned  till  Friday  Evening,  the  7th  of  November 5  when 
they  will  meet  at  their  Apartments  in  Somerset  House. 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE  GEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OP  LONDON. 

1828—1829.  No.  9. 

November  7. — The  Society  having  assembled  this  evening  for  the 
session : — 

The  reading  of  a  Paper  "  On  the  Geology  of  Nice,"  by  H.  T.  De 
la  Beche,  Esq.  F.R.S.  L.S.  &  G.S.  was  begun. 

Nov.  21. — The  reading  of  Mr.  De  la  Beche's  Paper  "On  the  Geo- 
logy of  Nice"  was  concluded. 

The  author,  after  describing  the  situation  of  Nice,  enters  into  a 
detailed  account  of  the  diluvium  and  the  strata  in  its  neighbourhood. 

I. — The  diluvium  (if  indeed  it  can  be  so  considered)  is  peculiar ;  in 
general  it  takes  the  form  of  breccia,  either  diffused  irregularly  or  oc- 
cupying clefts  :  appearing  however  in  both  situations  to  be  intimately 
connected. 

1 .  Most  of  the  diffused  fragments  correspond  mineralogically  with 
the  rocks  on  which  they  rest ;  some  few  are  rounded,  and  seem  to 
have  been  transported  from  a  distance.  The  cement  varies  in  hard- 
ness and  colour  with  the  substratum.  Where  the  breccia  reposes  on 
dolomite  or  light-coloured  limestone,  it  is  so  hard  as  to  be  blasted  by 
gunpowder,  is  reddish  and  vesicular ;  the  vesicles  being  lined  with 
calcareous  crystals. — Where  it  rests  upon  gray  secondary  limestone, 
or  on  any  of  the  tertiary  beds,  it  is  soft,  friable,  and  almost  white. 
Between  Ville-franche  and  Hospice,  the  substratum  is  a  sand,  full  of 
shells  so  like  those  of  the  Mediterranean  as  to  have  been  called  sub- 
fossil  :  some  of  these  shells  retain  traces  of  their  native  colour ;  the 
rest  are  bleached.  This  sand-bed  at  Ville-franche  is  ten  feet  at  least 
above  the  sea  :  at  Baussi  Raussi,  where  it  descends  to  that  level,  the 
breccia  exhibits  pebbles  of  serpentine  as  well  as  limestone  : — the 
limestone  pebbles  being  perforated  by  lithodomi,  and  the  cement  con- 
taining sub-fossil  shells.     None  of  these  breccias  contain  bones. 

2.  The  other  variety  of  the  diluvium  is  lodged  in  fissures.  A  vein 
on  the  south-east  of  the  Castle  Hill  has  its  northern  side  perforated 
by  lithodomi,  and  yields  two  different  kinds  of  pebbles, — in  the  blue 
limestone  of  the  lower  part,  and  the  magnesian  above.  This  spot, 
therefore,  affords  evidence  of  four  distinct  epochs. — 1.  When  the  sea, 
higher  than  at  present,  introduced  lithodomi  into  the  fissure. — 
2.  When  the  lower  part  of  the  fissure  was  filled  with  pebbles  trans- 
ported from  a  distance. — 3.  When  its  upper  part  was  filled  with  the 
broken  bones  of  animals,  shells  terrestrial  and  marine,  and  with  frag- 
ments, principally  but  not  solely,  of  contiguous  rocks. — 4.  When  the 
sea  attained  its  present  level. 


88 

3.  The  fossils  under  the  breccia  seem  to  have  been  quietly  deposited 
by  a  sea  that  stood  several  feet  higher  than  the  present  Mediterra- 
nean. To  explain  this  difficulty,  some  authors  imagine  that  the  Me- 
diterranean has  sunk,  by  forcing  its  passage  through  the  Straits  of 
Gibraltar ;  but  this  supposition  the  author  conceives  to  be  impro- 
bable. 

II.  1 . — Tertiary  rocks  consisting  of  sand,  sandstone,  and  a  conglo- 
merate of  various  rolled  pebbles,  shell  marl,  calcareous  gritstone 
and  breccia,  and  gray  marl,  occupy  an  extensive  area  on  the  west 
and  north-west  of  Nice. 

The  shell  marl  here  mentioned  is  that  which  Brocchi  has  described ; 
and  it  contains,  in  the  Sub-Alps,  the  same  fossils  as  in  the  Sub-Appe- 
nines. 

In  the  calcareous  breccia  are  angular  pieces  of  the  contiguous 
limestone  and  dolomite  perforated  by  lithodomi  j  adhering  to  which 
are  sometimes  found  the  lower  valves  of  spondyli,  quite  perfect,  not- 
withstanding the  delicate  texture  of  their  edges.  The  cement  con- 
tains three  species  of  pecten  ; — with  remains,  perhaps,  of  a  Saurian. 
Care  must  be  taken  not  to  confound  this  latter  breccia,  which  rises 
more  than  a  thousand  feet  above  the  sea,  with  the  diluvial  breccia 
above  described. 

On  reviewing  the  tertiary  beds,  the  author  remarks  in  their  probable 
history  three  distinct  epochs  ;  viz.  two  of  repose,  and  one  of  violent 
disturbance. 

2.  The  Secondary  rocks  of  Nice  consist  of  two  great  formations  ; 
the  upper  one  composed  of  siliceous,  argillaceous,  and  calcareous  par- 
ticles intimately  mixed,  but  in  very  variable  proportions ;  some  of  the 
beds  abounding  in  green  grains ;  which  circumstance,  together  with 
the  nature  of  their  fossils,  induces  the  author  to  rank  the  formation 
to  which  they  belong  with  the  green-sand  of  England.  Nummulites, 
however,  which  are  rarely  found  in  the  green-sand  of  this  country, 
are  found  plentifully  in  that  of  Nice.  The  strata  are  very  much  dis- 
turbed and  contorted  •  so  that  an  unguarded  observer  might  often 
suppose  them  to  be  inferior  to  rocks  on  which  they  are  in  reality  in- 
cumbent. 

The  green-sand  is  succeeded  by  a  lower  formation,  which  the  author 
refers  to  the  Jura-limestone  or  oolite.  In  this  he  has  found,  occasion- 
ally, terebratulse ;  in  addition  to  which,  Mr.  Allan  states  that  it 
contains  ammonites,  pectens,  an  echinus,  and,  near  the  lighthouse  at 
St.  Hospice,  numerous  corals.  In  mineralogical  character,  this  stra- 
tum is  very  unlike  the  English  rocks  which  it  is  supposed  to  repre- 
sent; its  principal  members  being  compact  limestone,  with  occasion- 
ally, flint,  dolomite,  and  gypsum.  The  dolomite  and  compact  lime- 
stone are  intimately  connected ;  but  the  connection  of  these  two 
beds  with  the  gypsum  is  less  evident.  At  Sospello  the  gypsum 
affords  numerous  small  crystals  of  carbonate  of  magnesia  or  dolo- 
mite ;  but  both  these  substances  are  found  in  too  many  formations 
to  be  considered  as  characteristic. 

The  strata  to  which  the  compact  limestone,  dolomite  and  gypsum 
of  Nice  are  most  analogous,  are  those  of  the  Tyrol,  Carinthia,  Stiria, 


89 

and  the  North  of  Italy  j  in  regard  to  the  history  of  which,  M.  Von 
Buch  has  supposed  that  what  is  now  dolomite,  was  in  the  first  instance 
ordinary  limestone ;  the  magnesia  which  they  contain  at  present 
having  been  absorbed  from  pyroxenic  lava,  by  the  forcible  intrusion 
of  which  both  this  and  the  contiguous  rocks  were  elevated,  dislocated 
and  contorted.  The  author  assents  to  this  theory ;  and  as  the  phe- 
nomena of  the  tract  described  by  M.  Von  Buch  agree  with  those  of 
the  vicinity  of  Nice,  he  ascribes  the  interchange  of  magnesian  and 
non-magnesian  limestones,  and  the  violent  disturbances  which  both 
have  undergone  in  the  latter  instance,  to  the  same  cause  which 
M.  Von  Buch  adduces,  viz.  the  proximity  of  pyroxenic  lava.  Trap- 
rocks,  however,  have  not  been  observed  very  near  Nice :  but  there 
may  be  such,  he  conceives,  within  a  short  distance  in  depth  ;  and  the 
probability  that  there  are,  is  strengthened  by  the  prevalence  of  rocks 
of  this  class  in  the  mountains  of  S.  Troper  and  1'Estrelles,  and  by 
the  frequency  of  pebbles  both  of  trap  and  porphyry  in  the  tertiary 
conglomerates  above  described. 

The  occurrence  of  dolomite  and  gypsum  in  what  the  author  consi- 
ders as  the  oolite  formation,  and  the  impracticability  of  recognizing 
in  this  formation  near  Nice  any  of  the  individual  beds  of  which  it  is 
composed  in  England,  are  new  proofs  of  the  danger  of  judging  of 
large  tracts  of  country,  by  rules  derived  from  the  study  of  detached 
specimens. — The  same  stratum,  in  different  parts  of  Europe,  assumes 
very  different  appearances ;  and  extreme  nicety  of  discrimination  in- 
judiciously applied,  is  more  apt  to  mislead  the  geologist  than  to  in- 
struct him. 

Dec.  5. — -The  reading  was  begun,  of  a  Paper  "  On  the  Excavation 
of  Valleys,  as  illustrated  by  the  Volcanic  rocks  of  Central  France," 
by  Charles  Lyell,  Esq.  V.P.  G.S.  F.R.S.  &c.  and  R.  I.  Murchison,  Esq. 
For.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 

Dec.  1 6. — Messrs.  Lyell  and  Murchison's  Paper,  begun  at  the  last 
Meeting,  was  concluded. 

The  theory,  long  since  enounced,  which  ascribes  the  excavation  of 
valleys  to  the  long-continued  erosion  of  streams,  has  been  supposed 
to  derive  remarkable  support  from  the  appearances  of  the  volcanic 
tracts  in  the  interior  of  France  j  and  the  authors,  referring  especially 
to  the  works  of  M.  De  Montlosier,  and  the  illustrations  of  that  district 
recently  published  by  Mr.  Scrope,  conceive  that  what  they  have  seen 
themselves  in  Auvergne  and  the  Vivarrais,  strongly  confirms  the  views 
of  these  and  other  preceding  writers. 

1.  In  the  commencement  of  this  paper,  several  peculiarities  are 
stated  in  the  original  form  of  the  lava-currents,  or  "cheires,"  of 
Auvergne  j  which,  if  overlooked,  might  lead  to  an  exaggerated  es- 
timate of  the  quantity  of  matter  removed  by  the  action  of  rivers.  The 
abruptness,  especially,  of  the  lateral  termination  of  many  of  these 
currents,  is  very  remarkable ;  even  where  the  lavas  flowed  in  open 
spaces,  and  where  the  surface  has  remained  entire  and  apparently 
unaltered  since  the  time  of  their  consolidation.    But  the  authors  still 


90 

conceive,  that  the  waste  exclusively  attributable  to  running  water 
and  its  detritus  in  Central  France,  must  in  the  course  of  ages  have 
exerted  a  most  powerful  influence  on  the  external  form  of  the  country. 

2.  In  the  new  Valley,  about  250  feet  in  depth,  opened  at  the  Etang 
de  Fung  by  the  waters  of  the  Sioule,  after  the  stream  had  been  di- 
verted from  its  course  by  the  lava  of  Come,  the  matter  removed, 
and  still  continually  carried  away  by  the  river,  consists  of  alluvial 
clay  and  sand,  and  in  some  cases  of  the  subjacent  gneiss,  which  has 
thus  been  excavated  to  the  depth  of  forty  feet.  That  no  general 
inundation  contributed  to  this  effect,  is  inferred  from  the  total  absence 
of  sand,  mud,  or  pebbles,  on  the  surface  of  the  lava  of  Come ;  although 
that  current  has  occupied  a  low  and  exposed  situation,  ever  since  the 
period  when  the  Sioule  began  to  open  for  itself  its  present  channel. 

3.  Near  the  volcano  of  Chaluzet,  the  Sioule  has  not  only  cut 
through  more  than  100  feet  of  compact  basalt,  but  also  the  gneiss 
beneath,  to  the  depth  of  at  least  50  feet ;  the  ancient  channel  of  the 
river  being  marked  by  a  bed  of  pebbles,  intervening  between  the  gneiss 
and  the  basalt,  and  now  at  a  considerable  height  above  the  actual 
stream.  And  here  the  authors  discovered  an  ancient  mining  gallery, 
driven  in  horizontally  between  the  basalt  and  gneiss,  so  as  to  exhibit 
the  pebble  bed  to  the  distance  of  fifty  or  sixty  feet ;  a  proof  that  this 
deposit  was  a  true  river  alluvion,  and  not  merely  an  external  accu- 
mulation of  debris  covering  superficially  a  mountain  slope.  The  state 
of  the  cone  and  lava  of  Chaluzet  demonstrates  further,  that  no  flood 
has  passed  over  the  country  since  the  commencement  of  the  exca- 
vation ;  and  similar  inferences  are  drawn  from  the  condition  of  the 
cone  of  Montpezat  in  the  Vivarrais.  At  Thueyts,  in  the  same  tract, 
the  gneiss  is  worn  into  by  the  ArdSche,  in  one  instance  to  seventy  feet 
below  an  ancient  alluvion  overlaid  by  basalt.  And  in  this  valley  an 
undulating  band  of  pitchstone,  at  right  angles  to  the  vertical  columns, 
occurs  between  the  prismatic  basalt  and  the  subjacent  gneiss ;  afford- 
ing an  exact  parallel  to  the  external  portions  of  the  dykes  which 
traverse  the  oolitic  strata  in  the  Hebrides. 

4.  The  lavas  of  the  Vivarrais  have  suffered  more  from  the  action 
of  rivers  than  the  recent  currents  in  Auvergne  :  but  the  greater  ve- 
locity and  volume  of  the  waters,  in  the  narrow  and  steep  valleys  of 
the  former  country,  may  account  for  this,  without  supposing  the 
lavas  to  be  much  more  ancient.  In  Auvergne,  there  are  currents 
of  ages  unquestionably  intermediate  between  the  oldest  and  most 
modern  ;  the  remains  of  which  are  in  many  cases  seen  to  follow  the 
direction  of  the  valleys,  reposing  upon  ancient  alluvions,  and  elevated 
above  the  modern  lavas  and  the  present  rivers.  The  authors,  how- 
ever, do  not  admit  that  relative  altitude  can  be  considered  as  an  in- 
variable criterion  of  the  relative  antiquity  of  basaltic  plateaus,  as 
some  writers  have  supposed. 

5.  In  conclusion,  a  detailed  account  is  given  of  the  deposits  at 
Mont-Perrier  or  Boulade ;  where  the  fossil  remains  of  various  extinct 
quadrupeds  are  found,  alternating  with  beds  of  transported  materials 
of  different  kinds,  which  rest  against  the  sloping  side  of  a  hill  to  the 
height  of  between  200  and  300  feet.     This  hill  itself  is  essentially 


91 

composed  of  tertiary  marls,  capped  with  basalt  $  but  the  basalt  does 
not  here  overlie  the  alluvions,  as  has  been  asserted. 

Phenomena  perfectly  analogous  to  those  of  Perrier  are  exhibited 
on  the  Allier  at  St.  Maurice,  and  in  the  hill  of  Monton,  not  far  di- 
stant: and  these  three  sections,  as  well  as  that  above  mentioned  at 
the  new  passage  of  the  Sioule,  all  concur  in  proving  that  many  val- 
leys in  Auvergne,  anciently  excavated  through  gneiss  and  lacustrine 
marls  capped  with  old  basalt,  have  at  some  remote  periods  been 
filled  up  with  transported  matter,  and  afterwards  been  excavated  a 
second  time, — generally  to  a  depth  below  their  original  bottom. 

6.  The  authors  conceive,  with  the  writers  already  mentioned, 
that  a  satisfactory  explanation  of  these  phenomena  may  be  derived 
from  the  effects  of  the  latest  volcanic  eruptions  of  Central  France. 
For  the  more  recent  lavas  appear  to  have  dammed  up  the  channels 
of  several  rivers,  and  converted  ancient  valleys  into  lakes  ;  wherein, 
as  at  Aidat  and  Chambon,  alluvial  matter  is  continually  accumulating 
at  present.  The  modern  lava  of  Montpezat,  in  the  Vivarrais,  has 
thus  obstructed  the  course  of  the  Fontaulier,  and  given  origin  to  a 
lake,  since  filled  with  river  alluvion  and  volcanic  ashes;  and  these 
deposits  themselves,  together  with  a  part  of  the  volcanic  barrier, 
have  been  subsequently  cut  through,  by  the  action  of  the  river  and 
the  waters  of  the  lake.  The  early  and  more  copious  lava-currents 
of  Auvergne  must  have  occasioned  larger  lakes  than  those  of  recent 
formation ;  and  these,  as  has  been  stated  by  other  authors,  seem  to 
have  been  gradually  filled  up,  with  materials  introduced  by  rivers, 
and  occasionally  by  floods  from  the  sides  or  craters  of  volcanoes, 
probably  during  their  moments  of  eruption  ;  through  which  accu- 
mulations new  valleys  were  excavated  by  the  continued  action  of 
the  rivers  : — as  at  Mont-Perrier,  to  the  depth  of  about  100  feet ;  and 
at  Maurice  on  the  Allier,  to  400  feet,  below  their  original  bottoms. 
The  high  antiquity  of  these  alluvial  depositions  is  inferred  from  the 
fact,  that  their  lowest  remnants  occupy  as  elevated  a  position  on  the 
sides  of  the  valleys,  as  the  lava-currents  of  intermediate  age  in  Au- 
vergne ;  and  from  the  compactness  and  enormous  mass  of  the  tra- 
chytic  breccias,  which  overlie  and  alternate  with  the  alluvions. 

7.  Lastly,  since  the  sand  and  gravel  containing  the  fossil  bones, 
found  on  two  different  sides  of  the  mountain  of  Perrier,  are  overlaid 
by  a  vast  mass  of  trachytie  breccia,  it  is  concluded,  that  the  ele- 
phant, rhinoceros,  hippopotamus,  hysena,  tiger,  wild  cat  and  other 
quadrupeds,  whose  remains  have  been  recently  disinterred,  must 
have  been  inhabitants  of  this  district,  before  the  most  recent  cones 
and  lavas  of  Auvergne  had  appeared,  or  the  valleys  had  been  exca- 
vated to  their  present  depth  ;  and  even  before  the  fires  of  Mont 
Dor  were  extinguished. 

Jan.  2,  1829. — A  letter  was  read,  addressed  to  R.  I.  Murchison, 
Esq.  For.  Sec.  G.S.  &c.  by  G.  W.  Featherstonhaugh,  Esq.  F.G.S. 
"  On  the  Series  of  Rocks  in  the  United  States." 

Mr.  Eaton  has  published,  in  Silliman's  Journal  of  Science,  (vol.  xiv.) 
a  Synopsis  of  the  rocks  of  North  America.    In  the  commencement  of 


92 

the  present  Paper,  the  author,  after  having  made  himself  acquainted 
by  personal  observation  with  the  rocks  of  England, — states  his  opi- 
nion, that  the  rocks  in  North  America,  which  would  appear  from  Mr. 
Eaton's  Synopsis  to  succeed  one  another  in  an  order  perfectly  irre- 
concileable  with  that  which  has  been  observed  in  the  British  Islands, 
do  in  reality  follow  the  same  order. 

A  comparative  view  of  the  respective  systems,  of  Mr.  Eaton  and 
the  author  of  this  letter,  will  be  conveyed  in  the  following  table  : — 

Series  of  North  American  Rocks. 

(According  to  Mr.  Eaton.)  (Mr.  Featherstonehaugh.) 

Superficial  Analluvion. 
Stratified  Analluvion. 
Post  Diluvion. 

Ante  Diluvion Diluvium  ?  ? 

Basalt Basalt. 

3rd  Grau-  f  Pyritiferous  Grit  ")       ^     ,  ,.  ,„     .      . 

waeke.  {  Pyritiferous  Slate  /  :  ■  Coal  measures  of  EnSland" 

Cornitiferous  Lime  Roclo 

Geodiferous  Lime  Rock    > Carboniferous  Limestone. 

,  .       f  Calcareous  Grit   J 

1  Calcareous  Slate  I  T  T-       .        C)   , 

t,     -r  d    ,  > Lower  Limestone  Shale. 

t  ernlerous  Rock J 

Saliferous  Rock   ")        f  Old  red-stone,  similar  to  that  of 

Millstone  Grit J  "   I     Monmouth. 

2nd  Grauwacke   Grauwacke  Slate. 

Metalliferous  Lime  Rock. .  -)  i  Transition  Limestone ;  with  En- 

Calciferous  Sand  Rock    ..   >....  <  crinites,Madrepores,Corals,Tri- 

Sparry  Lime  Rock J  f   lobites,  Products,  Spirifera,  &c. 

1st  Grauwacke    Whetstone-Slate,  and  Alum-Slate. 

Argillite Clay-Slate,  and  Flinty  Slate. 

Granular  Lime  Rock Primitive  Limestone. 

Granular  Quartz. 

Talcose  Slate Talcose  Slate. 

Hornblende  Rock. 

Mica  Slate Mica  Slate. 

Granite    Granite. 

It  is  stated,  moreover,  to  be  the  opinion  of  Mr.  Eaton,  that  the 

coal  measures  of  North  America  are  analogous  to  those  found  at 

Cloughton  on  the  Coast  of  Yorkshire  ;  and  consequently  that  the 

English  oolite,  in  which  that  coal  is  included,  is  represented  by  what 

he  calls  the  third  Grauwacke.    The  author  dissents  altogether  from 

this  doctrine.    His  opinion  is,  that  neither  the  oolite,  nor  indeed  any 

of  the  beds  which  are  in  England  higher  in  the  series  than  the  coal 

measures,  are  to  be  found  in  North  America,  at  least,  north  of 

40°  north  latitude  ;  unless,  perhaps,  a  very  thick  and  extensive  bed 

of  marl,  destitute  of  fossils,  but  containing  Septaria,  and  not  unfre- 

quently  pebbles,  (designated  by  Mr.  Eaton  by  the  term  antediluvion)  j 

— which,  though  the  author  has  not  been  able  as  yet  to  refer  them  to 

any  of  the  regular  formations,  may  hereafter  be  found  to  belong  1o 

some  stratum  in  the  English  Series. 


93 

In  confirmation  of  the  opinions  here  advanced,  the  author  gives 
a  detailed  account  of  observations  made  by  himself,  in  the  course 
of  an  excursion  from  the  City  of  Albany  to  the  Hilderberg  moun- 
tains, over  a  plain  which  extends  about  thirty  miles  from  north  to  south, 
and  sixteen  miles  from  east  to  west.  The  surface  of  this  plain,  which  is 
324  feet  above  the  level  of  the  Hudson  River,  consists  of  sand  incum- 
bent upon  a  very  thick  deposit  of  the  marl  above  noticed,  which  is 
found  also  in  various  parts  of  the  United  States,  as  far  south  as 
Louisiana.  Near  the  Hudson  River  this  marl  is  incumbent  upon 
transition  rocks ;  but  at  the  Hilderberg  mountains,  it  rests  on  carbo- 
niferous limestone,  containing  the  fossils  usually  found  in  that  forma- 
tion, and  imperfect  seams  of  black  chert  or  flint.  This  range  is  re- 
markable for  its  fissures  and  caves,  one  of  which,  more  than  1500 
feet  long,  situated  in  the  town  of  Bethlehem,  is  minutely  described  by 
the  author.  Within  this  cavern  is  a  pool  of  water,  along  which  one 
of  the  attendants  paddled  himself  in  a  small  skiff,  to  the  distance  of 
800  feet,  in  a  course  parallel  to  that  pursued  by  the  author,  and 
separated  by  a  screen  of  natural  pilasters  with  occasional  openings  : 
this  pool  forms  the  head  of  a  rivulet  about  one  third  of  a  mile  from 
the  entrance  of  the  cave. — The  author  was  unsuccessful  in  his  endea- 
vours to  discover  bones  within  the  cavern,  though  it  abounds  in 
diluvial  matter,  which  in  some  places  presents  a  section  of  at  least 
seven  feet  in  height. — There  is  another  cave  in  the  same  neighbour- 
hood, said  to  be  still  more  extensive,  which  he  proposes  to  explore. 

No  regular  search  for  bones  has  yet  been  made  in  the  caves  of  the 
United  States.  The  only  fossil  bones  hitherto  found  in  any  cave  in 
that  country,  are  those  of  the  megalonyx ;  although  the  bones  of  the 
megatherium,  elephant,  mastodon,  ox  and  horse,  have  been  discovered 
in  other  situations.  But  so  little  attention  has  been  paid  to  the  cir- 
cumstances under  which  these  remains  occurred,  that  it  is  impossible 
to  decide  whether  they  were  lodged  in  alluvial  or  diluvial  deposits. 
In  the  author's  opinion,  no  fossil  remains  of  the  hyaena,  rhinoceros, 
hippopotamus,  bear,  or  tiger,  have  ever  yet  been  found  in  the  United 
States. 

A  letter  was  read,  addressed  to  Dr.  Fitton,  President  of  the  Geo- 
logical Society,  by  Samuel  Woodward,  Esq.,  respecting  some  re^ 
markable  fossil  remains  found  near  Cromer,  in  Norfolk. 

The  author  notices  the  limited  extent  of  the  marine  formation  of 
Eastern  Norfolk,  and  is  of  opinion  that  its  rejectamenta  may  point 
out  the  boundary  of  a  former  sea  in  that  district. 

The  marine  remains,  denominated  Crag,  are  found  at  Cromer,  and 
westward  of  that  town,  at  Coltishall,  and  around  Norwich.  To  the 
eastward  of  these  situations,  instead  of  marine  shells,  a  layer  of  lig- 
neous and  mammalian  remains  is  found  reposing  on  the  chalk. — • 
The  author  considers  that  a  line  drawn  from  Cromer,  or  a  little  east 
of  it,  and  passing  in  a  south-east  direction  towards  Lake  Lothing  by 
Lowestoff,  will  very  nearly  describe  the  course  of  the  antediluvian 
shore  j — to  the  eastward  of  which,  immense  numbers  of  the  fossil  re- 
mains of  the  elephant,  horse,  deer,  &c.  mingled  with  the  trunks, 
branches  and  leaves  of  trees,  have  been  found,  even  to  the  distance 


94 

of  twenty  miles  out  at  sea;  and  on  the  Knoll-sand  the  tusk  of  a  Mam- 
moth (drawings  of  which  are  annexed  to  this  letter)  was  found  in  the 
year  1826,  resembling  those  recently  brought  to  England  from 
Behring's  Straits. 

Jan.  16. — An  Appendix  was  read  to  Mr.  De  laBeche's  Paper,  on  the 
Geology  of  Nice,  by  the  Rev.  W.  Buckland,  D.D.  &c.  &c.  &c. 

After  bearing  testimony  to  the  correctness  of  the  description  given 
by  Mr.  De  la  Beche  of  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of  Nice,  the 
author  communicates  his  own  observations  made  along  the  high  road 
from  that  city  to  the  Col  deTende,  for  the  distance  of  about  fifty  miles. 

The  hill  on  the  south  of  Scarena,  twelve  miles  N.E.  of  Nice,  pre- 
sents a  section  of  the  green-sand  formation,  with  nummulites,  turri- 
lites,  and  its  other  usual  fossils,  alternately  with  compact  gray-lime- 
stone destitute  of  fossils.  At  Mont  Brause  the  same  beds  of  green- 
sand  occur  loaded  with  ammonites  and  belemnites. 

On  the  descent  to  Sospello  are  found,  in  a  regular  descending  se- 
ries, green-sand,  Jura,  oolitic  (or  younger  Alpine)  limestone,  lias,  red- 
marle,  and  older  Alpine  limestone  or  dolomite,  abounding  in  rauch- 
wacke,  and  with  vast  beds  of  gypsum  ;  on  the  N.  of  Brais  mountain, 
is  a  similar  section,  at  least  1500  feet  in  thickness. 

In  approaching  the  primitive  chain  we  find  in  the  vale  of  the  Roya 
various  beds  of  the  new-red-sandstone  formation,  loaded,  near  Scorglio, 
with  pebbles,  (rothe-todte-liegende) ;  and  three  miles  beyond,  at  La 
Fontana,  this  conglomerate  rests  on  a  coarse  red  micaceous  grau- 
wacke,  which  is  succeeded  by  primitive  rocks. 

From  hence  the  author  infers,  that  the  lower  part  of  the  calcareous 
deposit  near  Nice,  is  the  older  Alpine  limestone;  as  is  the  opinion  of 
M.  Risso.  On  the  authority  of  that  gentleman,  Professor  Buckland 
remarks,  that  near  the  source  of  the  Var  the  older  Alpine  limestone 
contains  gypsum,  with  sulphur  and  salt  springs;  and  he  thinks  it 
probable,  that  the  gypsum  found  near  Vinaigre  and  Requiez,  and  at 
Cimiez,  belongs  to  this  formation,  rather  than  to  the  younger  Alpine 
limestone,  to  which  Mr.  De  la  Beche  refers  it.  A  similar  develope- 
ment  of  the  new  red  sandstone  is  seen  between  Toulon  and  Frejus, 
accompanied  with  gypsum,  saccharine  dolomite,  rauch-wacke,  and 
conglomerate. 

The  author  repeats,  what  he  has  advanced  elsewhere,  that  although 
limestone  of  all  ages  is  occasionally  more  or  less  dolomitic,  yet  it  is 
peculiar  to  that  of  the  new-red-sandstone  formation,  to  be  so  very 
decidedly,  and  almost  invariably.  He  dissents  altogether  from  the 
theory  which  ascribes  the  magnesia  contained  in  the  calcareous  beds 
of  the  Tyrol  to  the  proximity  of  trap  rocks  ;  since  he  cannot  conceive 
that  strata  many  hundred  feet  thick,  and  many  miles  distant,  so  far 
as  is  known,  from  any  pyroxenic  rock,  have  derived  from  such  rocks 
their  magnesian  character ; — particularly  as  the  beds,  which  are  mag- 
nesian,  are  found  not  unfrequently  to  alternate  with  calcareous  beds 
that  are  not  so. 

Jan.  16. — A  Letter  was  read,  addressed  to  the  President  of  the 
Society,  by  MM.  Von  Oeynhausen  and  Von   Dechen,  containing 


95 

Observations  on  the  mountain  Ben  Nevis,  and  on  some  other  places 
in  Scotland. 

The  authors  of  this  communication,  two  Prussian  naturalists,  have 
here  presented  their  observations  on  someot  the  more  interesting  por- 
tions of  Scotland,  which  they  visited  about  three  years  ago,  with  a  view 
to  a  comparison  of  the  rocks  of  Great  Britain  with  those  of  the  continent. 

1.  The  Paper  commences  with  a  description  of  the  great  barrier  of 
the  Caledonian  Canal :  High  mountains  of  crystalline  rocks  form  its 
western  boundary}  conglomerate  and  sandstone,  with  subordinate  beds 
of  black  calcareous  shale,  reach  from  the  east  to  the  upper  end  of 
Lochness ;  on  the  banks  of  the  river  of  that  name,  is  a  flat  pebble 
beach  150  feet  higher  than  the  sea,  portions  of  which  form  islands  that 
have  the  aspect  of  old  fortifications. 

Ben-Nevis  is  wholly  crystalline :  its  summit  consists  of  felspar- 
porphyry  ;  its  sides  of  granite,  which  rises  to  the  height  of  3000  feet 
above  the  sea,  and  is  bordered  by  gneiss  and  mica-slate. 

Near  Invertochy  Castle,  a  low  rock  projecting  above  the  surface 
of  the  bog,  consists  of  mica-slate,  alternating,  as  in  the  valley  of  the 
Spean,  with  gray  granular  limestone. 

On  the  N.  of  Ben-Nevis,  sienite  containing  mica  and  hornblende, 
both  of  them  black,  and  therefore  easily  confounded,  forms  below  the 
granitic  declivity  a  narrow  ridge  nearly  1000  feet  high. 

On  the  right  bank  of  Glen-Nevis,  the  schistose  rocks  are  lower 
towards  the  west,  and  repose  on  the  steep  side  of  the  granite,  small 
hollows,  however,  intervening}  they  soon  disappear  on  the  north, 
but  gain  ground  eastward. 

A  single  summit  only,  of  Glen-Nevis,  consists  of  mica-slate ;  beneath 
are  chlorite  slate,  and  a  rock  composed  of  alternate  lamina?  of  com- 
pact white  felspar  and  green  mica ;  in  the  hollow  below  is  contorted 
gneiss,  connected  intimately  with  the  rock  just  described,  or  rather 
passing  into  it. 

Compact  white,  and  pale-green  felspar  occurs  frequently  in  the 
slates,  at  and  near  their  junction  with  the  granite. 

The  granite  at  the  sides  of  Ben-Nevis  is  large-grained,  composed 
of  flesh-coloured  felspar,  albite,  gray-quartz,  and  black  mica  in  equal 
proportions ;  higher  up,  it  loses  the  albite  and  quartz,  acquires  a  few 
specks  of  hornblende,  and  passes  into  a  kind  of  felspar-porphyry  j 
which  last-mentioned  substance  constitutes  the  summit. 

The  junction  of  the  granite  and  porphyry  is  laid  bare  on  the  E.  and 
S.  sides  of  the  mountain  5  but  on  the  N.  and  W.  is  concealed  by 
scattered  blocks  of  porphyry. 

At  the  head  of  Glen  Ptarmigan,  is  a  steep  cliffof  porphyry,  at  least 
1500  feet  high.  Its  shape  is  that  of  an  oblique  four-sided  pyramid, 
irregular  and  truncated,  rising  on  the  east  and  south,  through  the 
granite ;  and  not  merely  overlying  it,  as  M.  Boue  supposed.  This 
fact  the  authors  consider  themselves  as  having  fully  established. 

With  equal  confidence  they  affirm,  that  the  gneiss  and  mica-slate 
are  not  conformable  to  the  granite ;  and  that  the  latter  has  forced  its 
way  through  them :  the  granite  traverses  them  also  in  the  form  of  veins. 

They  remark  further,  the  frequent  occurrence  of  compact  felspar, 
where  these  substances  adjoin  the  granite. 


96 

2.  The  mountains  N.  of  Ben-Nevis  are  chiefly  mica-slate  :  S.E.  of 
Loch  Lochy  this  rock  passes  into  gneiss ;  on  the  sides  of  Glen  Gloy, 
Glen  Tuntick,  and  Glen  Roy,  it  contains  garnets,  and  alternates  with 
quartz  rock;  in  the  valley  of  the  Spean  it  is  interstratified  with 
granular  limestone. 

Felspar,  porphyry,  and  greenstone  occur,  in  the  mica-slate,  in  Glen 
Gloy,  in  Glen  Roy,  at  Caldivan,  and  in  the  valley  of  the  Spean. 

The  S.  shore  of  Glen-Nevis,  near  Ballahulish,  is  a  granitic  aggregate 
of  felspar  and  mica ;  with  concretions  of  mica  and  hornblende :  granite 
occupies  the  low  ground;  gneiss  succeeds,  passing  eastward,  in  to  mica- 
slate  and  clay-slate,  in  which  are  beds  of  roof-slate  alternating  with, 
and  traversed  by,  greenstone  dykes,  and  interstratified  with  granular 
limestone. 

In  Glen  Coe  mica-slate  is  cut  through  obliquely  by  compact  felspar- 
porphyry  ;  in  the  bed  of  the  river  is  a  fine-grained  granite,  with  con- 
cretions like  those  of  Ballahulish ;  the  granite  is  succeeded  by  gneiss 
at  a  lower  level,  and  at  a  higher,  by  compact  felspar,  speckled  and 
veined  with  epidote. 

3.  On  the  Isle  of  Sky  the  authors  offer  the  following  observations  : 
The  syenite  lies  upon  the  hyperstene  rock ;  the  passage  into  which 

is  not  gradual,  but  abrupt ;  the  hyperstene  rock  passes  into  compact 
greenstone,  and  often  skirts  the  syenitic  mountains ;  the  lias  rests  on 
syenite,  or  forms  detached  outliers ;  and  this  observation  holds  good 
invariably. 

.  There  is  no  such  thing  as  a  vein  of  syenite  in  the  lias.  The  trans- 
mutation of  lias  into  white  granular  and  compact  limestone  is  more 
constant  at  its  junction  with  syenite,  than  Vvith  greenstone  or  trap ; 
in  the  latter  case  it  sometimes  varies,  sometimes  not, — a  circumstance 
difficult  to  account  for. 

The  hyperstene  rock  seldom  adjoins  the  lias ;  when  it  does,  like 
greenstone  or  trap,  it  both  intersects  and  covers  it. 

Although  the  authors  make  a  distinction  between  the  rocks  of 
syenite  and  those  of  trap  and  hyperstene,  on  account  of  their  position 
relatively  to  the  stratified  rocks,  they  do  not  ascribe  to  the  former  a 
higher  antiquity  than  to  the  latter ;  for  the  syenite  must  be  the  pro- 
duction of  a  later  sera  than  the  lias,  since  it  has  materially  altered  it. 

Feb.  6th. — A  Paper  was  read,  "  On  the  discovery  of  a  new  species 
of  Pterodactyle  ;  and  also  of  the  Faeces  of  the  Ichthyosaurus ;  and  of  a 
black  substance  resembling  Sepia,  or  Indian  Ink,  in  the  Lias  at  Lyme 
Regis  ;  " — by  the  Rev.  W.  Buckland,  D.D.  F.R.S.  Professor  of  Mine, 
ralogy  and  Geology  in  the  University  of  Oxford. 

1. — This  specimen  of  Pterodactyle  was  discovered,  in  December 
last,  by  Miss  Mary  Anning,  and  was  found  to  belong  to  a  new  species 
of  that  extinct  genus,  hitherto  recognized  only  in  the  lithographic 
Jura-limestone  of  Sollenhofen, — which  the  author  considers  as  nearly 
coeval  with  the  English  chalk. 

The  head  of  this  new  species  is  wanting,  but  the  rest  of  the  ske- 
leton, though  dislocated,  is  nearly  entire ;  and  the  length  of  the  claws 
so  much  exceeds  that  of  the  claws  of  the  Pterodactylus-longirostris 
and  brevirostris,  of  which  the  only  two  known  specimens  are  mi- 


97 

nutely  described  by  Cuvier,  as  to  show  that  it  belongs  to  another 
species, — for  which  the  name  of  Pterodactylus  macronyx  is  proposed. 
A  drawing  of  this  fossil  by  Mr.  Clift  accompanies  the  paper.  The 
author  had  for  some  time  past  conjectured,  that  certain  small  bones 
found  in  the  lias  at  Lyme  Regis,  and  referred  to  birds,  belong  rather 
to  the  genus  Pterodactyle.  This  conjecture  is  now  verified.  It  was 
also  suggested  to  him,  in  1823,  by  Mr.  J.  S.  Miller  of  Bristol,  that 
the  bones  in  the  Stonesfield-slate,  which  have  been  usually  con- 
sidered as  derived  from  birds,  ought  to  be  attributed  to  this  extraor- 
dinary family  of  flying  reptiles  :  Dr.  Buckland  is  now  inclined  to 
adopt  this  opinion,  and  is  disposed  to  think  still  further,  that  the  co- 
leopterous insects,  whose  elytra  occur  in  the  Stonesfield-slate,  may 
have  formed  the  food  of  those  insectivorous  Pterodactyles.  He  con- 
ceives also,  that  many  of  the  bones  from  Tilgate  Forest,  hitherto  re- 
ferred to  birds,  may  belong  to  this  extinct  family  of  anomalous  reptiles : 
and,  from  its  presence  in  these  various  localities,  he  infers  that  the 
genus  Pterodactyle  was  in  existence,  throughout  the  entire  period  of 
the  deposition  of  the  great  Jura-limestone  formation,  from  the  lias  to 
the  chalk  ;  expressing  doubts  as  to  the  occurrence  of  any  remains  of 
birds  before  the  commencement  of  the  tertiary  strata. 

2. — Fossil  Faces  of  the  Ichthyosaurus. — The  author  concludes  from 
an  extensive  series  of  specimens,  that  the  fossils,  locally  called  Bezoar- 
stones,  which  abound  at  Lyme,  in  the  same  beds  of  lias  with  the  bones 
of  Ichthyosaurus,  are  the  faeces  of  that  animal.  In  variety  of  size  and 
form  they  resemble  elongated  pebbles,  or  kidney-potatoes,  varying  ge- 
nerally from  two  to  four  inches  in  length,  and  from  one  to  two  inches 
in  diameter ;  some  few  being  larger,  others  much  smaller.  Their 
colour  is  dark  gray;  their  substance,  like  indurated  clay,  of  a  com- 
pact earthy  texture  ;  and  their  chemical  analysis  approaches  to  that 
of  album  grsecum.  Undigested  bones  and  scales  of  fishes  occur  abun- 
dantly in  these  faecal  masses.  The  scales  are  referable  to  the  Dapedium 
politum,  and  other  fish  that  occur  in  the  lias  ;  the  bones  are  those 
of  fish,  and  also  of  small  Ichthyosauri.  The  interior  of  these  bezoars 
is  arranged  in  spiral  folds ;  their  exterior  also  bears  impressions  re- 
ceived from  the  convolutions  of  the  intestines  of  the  living  animals. 
In  many  of  the  entire  skeletons  of  young  Ichthyosauri,  the  bezoars 
are  seen  within  the  ribs  and  near  the  pelvis  :  these  must  probably 
have  been  included  within  the  animal's  body  at  the  moment  of  his 
death.  The  author  found,  three  years  ago,  a  similar  ball  of  faecal 
matter,  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Man  tell,  from  the  strata  of  Tilgate 
Forest,  which  abound  in  bones  of  Ichthyosauri  and  other  large  reptiles ; 
and  he  conjectures  that  these  bezoars  exist  wherever  the  remains  of 
Saurians  are  abundant. 

3. — Fossil  Sepia. — An  indurated  black  animal  substance,  like  that 
in  the  ink-bag  of  the  cuttle-fish,  occurs  in  the  lias  at  Lyme  Regis  ; 
and  a  drawing  made  with  this  fossil  pigment,  three  years  ago,  was 
pronounced  by  an  eminent  artist  to  have  been  tinted  with  Sepia.  It 
is  nearly  of  the  colour  and  consistence  of  jet,  and  very  fragile,  with 
a  bright  splintery  fracture ;  its  powder  is  brown,  like  that  of  the 
painter's  Sepia  j  it  occurs  in  single  masses,  nearly  of  the  shape  and 
size  of  a  small  gall-bladder,  broadest  at  the  base  and  gradually  con- 


98 

tracted towards  the  neck ;  these  masses  are  always  surrounded  by  athin 
nacreous  case,  brilliant  as  the  most  vivid  Lumachella ;  the  nacre  seems 
to  have  formed  the  lining  of  a  fibrous  thin  shelly  substance,  which 
together  with  this  nacreous  lining  was  prolonged  into  a  hollow  cone 
like  that  of  a  belemnite,  beyond  the  neck  of  the  ink-bag  ;  close  to 
the  base  of  the  ink-bag  there  is  a  series  of  circular  transverse  plates 
and  narrow  chambers,  resembling  the  chambered  alveolus  within  the 
cone  of  a  belemnite  ;  but  beyond  the  apex  of  this  alveolus,  no  spa- 
those  body  has  been  found. 

The  author  infers,  that  the  animal  from  which  these  fossil  ink-bags 
are  derived,  was  some  unknown  cephalopode,  nearly  allied  in  its  in- 
ternal structure  to  the  inhabitant  of  the  belemnite  5  the  circular  form 
of  the  septa  showing  that  they  cannot  be  referred  to  the  molluscous 
inhabitant  of  any  nautilus  or  Cornu-ammonis. 

Feb.  6th. — A  paper  was  read  "  On  the  Oolitic  District  of  Bath," 
by  William  Lonsdale,  Esq.,  of  Bath-Easton. 

The  tract  described  in  this  paper  comprehends  a  space  included 
between  lines  passing,' — on  the  north,  from  Wicke  north-west  of 
Bath,  through  Marshfield,  Kingston-St.  Michael,  and  Lynham,  to  the 
Chalk-downs  north  of  Calne  and  Cherhillj  and  on  the  south  and 
south-east, — from  the  south  of  Radstock,  through  Frome  andWestbuiy 
to  Devizes.  The  author  refers  to  the  works  of  Mr.  Smith,  and  of 
Messrs.  Conybeare,  De  la  Beche,  and  Phillips,  as  the  principal  pub- 
lished authorities  on  the  district ;  and  states  his  obligations  for  much 
valuable  information  to  the  Rev.  B.  Richardson  of  Farleigh,  near  Bath. 

The  geological  boundaries  of  this  tract  are,  on  the  west  and  north- 
west, the  lias  5  on  the  south-east  and  east,  the  Chalk-downs,  extend- 
ing from  Salisbury  Plain  near  Westbury  to  near  Urchford,  and  thence 
to  Cherhill-hill  on  the  east  of  Calne.  The  series  of  strata  which  it 
includes,  being  the  following,  in  a  descending  order. — 

Strata.                    Thickness.  Strata.                    lliickness. 

Feet.  Feet. 

Lower  chalk  Forest  marble  (continued) 

Chalk  marl 150  clay   10 

Upper  green-sand 75  coarse  oolite 25 

Gault   150  sandy  clay  and  grit        10 

Lower  green-sand 50  Bradford-clay    ....     50 

Kimmeridge-clay. . . 150?  Great  Oolite    140 

Upper  calcareous  grit 10  Fuller's-earth    ....    150 

Coral  rag 40  Inferior  Oolite 

clay 40  sandy  oolite 60 

calcareous  grit  ....     50  sand  and  grit 70 

Oxford  clay 300?  —  130 

Kelloway  rock 5  marlstone  . . .- 10 

Cornbrash    16  Lias ;  upper  marl 200 

Forest  marble  .  blue  lias 50 

clay 15  white  lias 10, 

sand  and  grit    ....     40  lower  marl. ...     20 

■  280? 

The  surface  of  the  country  described  in  this  paper  is  characterized 


99 

by  three  ranges  of  hills  connected  by  two  plains. — 1 .  The  most  western 
ridge  is  that  of  the  great  oolite,  the  highest  part  of  which  is  813  feet 
above  the  sea.  It  is  separated,  by  the  plain  of  the  Oxford  clay,  from 
—2.  The  range  of  the  coral-rag ;  which  again  is  detached,  by  the 
valley  and  plain  of  the  Kimmeridge-clay  and  gault,  from — 3.  The 
range  of  Chalk-hills. 

The  author  describes  in  succession  the  several  members  of  the  se- 
ries above  mentioned  :  giving  for  each  stratum  an  account  of  the 
range  and  boundaries,  a  general  type  of  the  succession  and  propor- 
tion of  the  component  beds,  with  a  detail  of  the  physical  characters 
and  local  peculiarities  and  names,  and  an  enumeration  of  the  orga- 
nized remains,  detailing  the  species  of  the  fossils,  with  their  localities 
and  references  to  published  figures.  These  copious  details  do  not 
admit  of  abridgement. 

The  paper  is  illustrated  by  the  corresponding  sheets  of  the  Ordnance- 
map,  so  far  as  they  have  been  hitherto  engraved,  coloured  geologi- 
cally ;  and  by  several  sections  explanatory  of  the  succession  of  the 
strata,  and  of  the  forms  of  the  surface. 


The  following  Persons  have  been  elected  Fellows,  and  Foreign  Members, 
since  the  commencement  of  the  present  Session. 

Fellows. 

1828.  Nov.  7th.— Joseph  Henry  Green,  Esq.  F.R.S.  Mem.  Royal 
Coll.  of  Surgeons,  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields  ;  William  Petrie  Crau- 
furd,  Esq.,  Horse  Guards  ;  and  Joshua  King,  Esq.  M.A.  Fellow 
and  Tutor  of  Queen's  College,  Cambridge. 

Nov.  21st. — Frederick  Page,  Esq.  of  Goldwell  House,  near  New- 
bury. 

Dec.  5th. — John  Auldjo,  Esq.  of  Lancaster  Place,  Waterloo  Bridge  3 
George  Ormerod,  Esq.  LL.D.  F.R.S.  &c,  of  Tildesley  in  Lanca- 
shire, and  of  Sedbury  Park,  Gloucestershire;  and  the  Rev.  David 
Williams,  Rector  of  Bleadon,  Somersetshire. 

Dec.  19th. — William  Frederick  Hertzog,  Esq.  Assistant  Surveyor- 
General  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope. 

1829.  Jan.  2nd. — William  Gladdish,  Esq.  of  Gravesend;  and  Daniel 

Chambers  Macreight,  M.D.  of  37  Somerset  Street,  Portman 
Square. 

Jan.  16th. — Philip  de  Malpas  Egerton,  Esq.  of  Oulton  Park,  Che- 
shire 5  Thomas  Alderson,  Esq.  of  Great  Marlborough  Street ; 
and  Richard  Cowlishaw  Sale,  Esq.  of  Surrey  Street,  Strand. 

Feb.  6th.— Sydney  Smirke,  Esq.  of  Carlton  Chambers,  Regent  Street. 

Foreign  Members. 

1828.  Dec.  5th. — M.  Leonce  Eliede  Beaumont,  ProfesseurSuppleant 
de  Geologie  a  1'Ecoledes  Mines,  Paris. 

Dec.  19th. — Frangois  Dominique  de  Reynaud,  Comte  de  Montlo- 
sier,  President  de  la  Societe  des  Sciences,  &c.  &c,  Clermont,  Puy 
deDome;  and  M.J.  M.  Bertrandde  Doue,  President  dela  Societe 
d' Agriculture,  Sciences,  Arts,  et  Commerce  du  Puy,  Haute-Loire. 


PROCEEDINGS 


OF 


THE  GEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  LONDON. 

1828—1829.  No.  10. 

AT    THE 

ANNUAL  GENERAL  MEETING, 

20th  February  1829; 

A  Report  from  the  Council  was  read,  of  which  the  following  is  an 
abstract : — 

"  Comparative  Statement  of  the  number  of  the  Society,  at  the 
last  Anniversary,  and  at  the  close  of  the  year  1828. 

Fellows.  15th  Feb.  1828.         31st  Dec.  1828. 

Having  compounded 44 48 

Contributing 150. 147 

Non-resident 211 223 

405 418 

Honorary  Members 55 51 

Foreign  Members 47 52 


Total  507 521 

"  The  Names  of  the  Fellows  deceased,  within  the  past  year,  are 

as  follow  : — 

r«mn«-.,„ii0«  /  William  Hyde  Wollaston,  M.D. 

Compounders <    wii-       ™/    j    t^ 

r  [  William  Wood,  Esq. 

f  R.  Stark  Macmurdo,  Esq. 
Contributing  Fellows. .   J    William  Phillips,  Esq. 

{_  Henry  Holland  Stutzer,  Esq. 

Non-resident J  £ohn  ?r^d^k'  Es^ 

\  Rev.  E.  E.  Chaundy. 

Foreign <(    (None.) 

f  J.  R.  Barclay,  M.D. 

■«r-w K^™- 

L  John  Lord  Oriel. 


102 
"  Sums  actually  Received  and  Expended, 
Receipts. 

Balances  in  hand  Jan.  1,  1828 :  £      s.    d.    £      s.   d. 

Banker    432     2     0 

Clerk 30     2     3 

462     4     3 

Arrears :  £      s.    d. 

of  Admission  Fees 23     2     0 

of  Contributions     59  17     0 

of  Rents     82  10    0 

165     9    0 

Ordinary  Income :  £      s.    d. 

Annual  Contributions,  1828 414  10    6 

Admission-Fees:  £    s.  d. 

Resident 69  6  0 

Non-resident 168  0  0 

237     6    0 

651   16    6 

Compositions  (seven)    217     7     0 


Rents,  to  the  end  of  the  Society's  occu-1  QS     o    0 

pation  of  Bedford  Street    /""*/' 

£   s.    d. 
Premium  for  lease  of  Bedford  Street . .    25     0  0 

Valuation  of  Fixtures,  &c 63  13  0 

88  13     0 

Transactions  sold 217     5    0 


[N.B.  The  receipts  from  the  Subscription  for  fitting  up  the 
Apartments  in  Somerset  House,  are  placed  to  the  Account  of 
the  "  Repairing  Fund ;"  which  still  remains  open,  and  will 
be  stated  at  the  close  of  the  current  year.  ] 


£1897  14    9 


103 

during  the  year  ending  31s/  December  1828." 

Payments.  £      s.    d. 

Bills  of  1827  ;  outstanding  January  1,  1828    181     7     8 

General  Expenditure :  £  s.  d.  £     s.    d. 

House  repairs,  Bedford  St.  18  5  3 

Charges  on  removal  from  do.  30  14  9 

Taxes  and  Parish  charges    ..  91  19  2 

Do.  Somerset  House    4  10  2 

Insurance 9  11  5 

Furniture    36     G  9 

191     7    6 

Salaries  and  Wages :  £  s.  d. 

Clerk 87  18  0 

Collector's  Poundage   15     O  O 

Occasional  Clerk 52     1  2 

Porter  and  Servants      ...'...   61     4  8 

216     3  10 

£   s.    d. 

Coals 32  15     0 

Oil,     lamps,      candles,    and?       .    to  9 
sundries    . .  $ 

64     8    2 

£    s.  d. 

Stationery 24     3  0 

Miscellaneous  printing     ....   26     2  0 

Books     17  19  0 

Bookbinding      4  12  9 

Arranging  part  of  collection    11   11  O 

84     7     9 

Miscellaneous :  £     s.  d. 

Petty  expenses 65     5     6 

Tea  (for  Meetings)  and  waiters  20  13     3 
Sundry  earthenware,  &c 14  12  11 

100  11     8 

656  18  11 

Rents  paid,  to  the  end  of  the  Society's  occupation!     .  _,_   . 

of  Bedford  Street J    LiJi    lU    U 


Cost  of  Publications :  £    s.    d. 

Transactions 1 95     8     2 

Proceedings    31   14     8 

227      2   10 

Contributions  repaid 9    9    0 

£1232     8    0 
Balances  in  hand ;  1st  Jan.  1829.  £     s.    d. 

Banker 607     4     9 

Clerk 26  12     0 

Collector     31   10     0 

665    6    9 

£1897  14    9 


w 

1> 

00 

"S  o 

o 

«c  Ci 

CM 

^g 

CO 

*5 


H 
M 

w 


tc 


i*> 


^^ 

CD 

-a  c 

hn 

C    03 

ca 

C3 
en 

s 

4->         ^ 

3     CO 
O.S 

o 

JS,  ea 

r=  "5 

CO  CO 

CO 

M 

J> 

CO 

— 

o 

<3> 
CM 
GO 

ea 

PQ 


5n 


CO 


55 

O 

H 
< 

P 

►J 

> 


CO 


c 


6 

Oh 


{j»    — H    CO 

^  r-  oo 


CD      Cj    M 
CO      O    CD 

—  CO   <u   2 


O  'co  -Q 


CD 
O 

<* 

CD 


T3  ~  s 


K}  jg 


£    fcjo 


05 


.o 

o 

i 

« 

£5 

-- 

"s 

*J 

*u 

^1 

-; 

K- 

■fi 

<o 

> 

.r, 

-rr 

as 

<u 

u 

s 

o 

^) 

■e 

V 

^ 

Q 

C 

.~ 

13 

| 

1 

s? 

u 

<o 


:^« 


«  <; 


u 


en 

CM 

00 


«rt 


en 


CM   ^, 


*« 


o  o 


w 

<  i-H 


w 


CM 

00 


oop 
o  o  -, 


«n 


S3 

/N^*>«N 

*a  ^3 

CO 

ea     [ 

co     ^ 

i-H       CO 

CT5    « 

CO 

CC    CD 

bo 

S   3 

66  as 

3 

o  o 

•2£ 

s 
cu 

oE 

C  ^3 

w  ^ 

Ctf 

to    55 
~    co 
g.g 
r>  cs 

a. 
W 
13 

cu 

CO 

3 

Addition 
Somen 
Repairs 
Taxes  .'. 

u 

c 
s 

a 

B 

HI 

co  J2i 

53 

O 

■goo 

e 

E 

o  o 

o  o 

82 

cs 


o  ©  o 

o 

CM  ©  CM 

■* 

r-  O  io 

CM  CD  CO 

i-H 

CM 
CD 

»s 


o 


.2  «  ii 

w  >.    i. 

3 
PL, 


«ft 


c 


<« 


T3 
3  i* 

e    t> 

O    ° 

.2&o 

cs  cu 
G.2 
o  +3 
Q  C4_ 

vT  ° 

*•    t- 

o  o 

s-s 

£  g 

CU  us 

S  13 


o 
o 


CM 


o 

CO 


M 


T3  O 

C   l-H 
3  .-l 

C    O 

o  w 

s  . 
o  c 
o  o 


cu  © 

cu  cu 
"2* 


P 


106 

"  The  Museum  has  received  many  valuable  donations  since  the 
last  Anniversary,  of  which  the  following  are  the  most  important : — 

I.  British  Specimens. 

"  A  Collection  of  Fossil  bones,  from  the  Diluvium  near  Brentford; 
^  presented  by  the  Rev.  J.  H.  Randolph,  F.G.S. 
Fossils  of  the  mountain  limestone,  from  Closeburn,  Dumfriesshire; 

presented  by  J.  S.  Menteith,  Esq. 
Various  specimens  of  sandstone,  conglomerate,  and  organic  remains 

from  Caithness;  presented  by  the  Rev.  A.  Sedgwick,  V.P.G.S. 

Woodwardian  Professor,  Cambridge;  and  R.  I.  Murchison,  Esq. 

For.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 
Specimen  of  Ichthyosaurus  intermedius;  presented  by  H.  T.  De  la 

Beche,  Esq.  F.R.S.  G.S.  &c. 
Specimens  of  Fossil  vegetables  in  Coal-shale,  from  Merthyr  Tydfil 

in  Glamorganshire;  presented  by  Charles  Stokes,  Esq.  F.R.S. 

S.A.  G.S.  &c. 
Organic  remains,  found  in  digging  the  New  Basin  of  the  London 

Docks;  presented  by  Henry  Palmer,  Esq.  Engineer  to  the  London 

Docks. 
Specimens  of  Fossil  antlers,  and  remains  of  a  species  of  Deer,  and 

Fossil  remains  of  a  species  of  Ox,  found  above  the  Chalk  at  Graves- 
end  :  presented  by  the  Earl  of  Darnley,  and  William  Gladdish, 

Esq.  F.G.S.  &c. 
Two  specimens  of  antlers  of  the  Irish  Elk ;  presented  by  the  Rev. 

W.  Buckland,  D.D.  V.P.G.S.  F.R.S.  Professor  of  Mineralogy  in 

the  University  of  Oxford. 
Fossils  of  the  London  Clay,  &c.  from  Highgate;  presented  by  Ber- 
nard Geary  Snow,  Esq.  F.G.S. 
Casts  of  Bones  of  Fossil  Crocodiles ;  presented  by  the  Rev.  W.  D. 

Conybeare,  F.R.S.  G.S.  &c. 
Specimens  of  Fossil  shells,  rocks,  &c. ;  presented  by  Sir  Alexander 

Cricbton,  M.D.  F.R.S.  G.S.  &c. 

II.  Foreign  Specimens. 

"  Modern  columnar  Lava, — from  the  coulee  of  Jaujac,  at  the  bridge 
of  Naigles,  Ardeche;  presented  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Buckland, 
V.P.G.S.  &c. 

Casts  of  Fossil  bones  of  various  animals,  particularly  of  the  Plesio- 
saurus  and  Mososaurus ;  presented  by  the  Baron  Cuvier,  For. 
Mem.  R.S.  and  G.S.  &c.  &c.  &c. 

Fossil  bones  from  the  Caverns  of  Echenoz,  near  Vesoul ;  presented 
by  J.  B.  Pentland,  Esq. 

Specimens  from  the  vicinity  of  Christiania ;  presented  by  M.  Otto 
Tank. 

Specimens  from  the  River  Colombia,  N.W.  coast  of  America;  pre- 
sented by  Mr.  Alexander  Douglas. 

Specimens  to  illustrate  a  Paper  on  the  Volcanic  Districts  of  Central 
France;  presented  by  C.  Lyell,  Esq.  V.P.G.S.  F.R.S.  &c,  and 
R.  I.  Murchison,  Esq.  For.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 


101 

t(  The  Library  has  been  increased  by  the  donation  of  74  vo- 
lumes and  smaller  pamphlets. 

"  The  third  Part  of  a  Second  Volume  of  the  Society's  Trans- 
actions, (Second  Series),  has  been  published  since  the  last  Anni- 
versary. 

"  Papers  readatthe  Meetings  of  the  Society,  since  the  last  Anniversary. 

On  the  Geological  Relations  and  internal  structure  of  the  Magnesian 
Limestone,  and  the  lower  portions   of  the  new  red-Sandstone 
Series;  by  the  Rev.  A.  Sedgwick,  M.A.  F.R.S.  V.P.G.S.  Wood- 
wardian  Professor,  Cambridge. 
Topographical  and  Geological  Notice,  from  information  collected 
during  the  Expedition  to  the  North-west  coast  of  America,  under 
the  command  of  Capt.  Franklin;  by  John  Richardson,  M.D. 
F.R.S.  &c. 
On  the  Fossil  remains  of  two  new  Species  of  Mastodon,  &c.  found 
on  the  left  Bank  of  the  Irawadi;  by  William  Clift,  Esq.  F.G.S. 
F.R.S.  &c. 
On  a  Collection  of  Vegetable  and  Animal  remains  and  Rocks,  from 
the  Burmese  Country,  presented  to  the  Geological  Society  by 
J.  Crawfurd,  Esq.;  by  the  Rev.  William  Buckland,  D.D.  V.P.G.S. 
F.R.S.  Professor  of  Mineralogy  and  Geology  in  the  University  of 
Oxford. 
Extract  of  a  Letter  from  Lieut.  William  Glennie,   R.N.  entitled, 

"  The  Ascent  of  Popocatapetl." 
A  Letter  from  J.  B.  Pentland,  Esq.  toWT.  H.  Fitton,  M.D.Pres.  G.S. 
F.R.S.  &c.  respecting  the  Fossil  remains  of  some  Animals  from 
the  N.E.  coast  of  Bengal. 
On  the  Old  Conglomerates,  and  other  Secondary  Deposits,  of  the 
North  coasts  of  Scotland;  by  the  Rev.  A.  Sedgwick,  V.P.G.S. 
&c.  and  R.  I.  Murchison,  Esq.  For.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 
On  the  Cycadeoidese,  a  new  family  of  Fossil  Plants ;  by  the  Rev. 

W.  Buckland,  D.D.  V.P.G.S.  &c. 
A  Letter  to  the  President,  with  a  list  of  the  Fossils  of  Sussex ;  by 

Gideon  Mantell,  Esq.  F.G.S. 
On  the  Geology  of  Bundelcund,  Boghelcund,  and  the  Districts  of 
Saugor  and  Jabalpoor  in  Central  India;  by  Capt.  James  Franklin, 
of  the  Bengal  Army,  F.R.S.  G.S.  &c. 
A  Letter  from  Samuel  Hobson,  Esq.  to  Dr.  Roget,  F.G.S.  Sec.  R.S. 
&c.  enclosing  an  account  of  some  gigantic  Bones;  by  Samuel 
W.  Logan,  M.D.  &c. 
A  Letter  from  His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Buckingham  ;  with  an  account 

of  the  late  Eruption  of  Vesuvius. 
A  Letter  from  Charles  Stokes,  Esq.  F.R.S. G.S.  &c.  to  W.  J.Broderip, 
Esq.   Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S.  &c.  explanatory   of  three  drawings  of 
Echini. 
On  the  Geology  of  Nice  ;  by   H.  T.  De  la  Beche,  Esq.   F.G.S. 
F.R.S.  &c. 

b2 


108 

On  the  Excavation  of  Valleys,  as  illustrated  by  the  Volcanic  Rocks 

of  Central  France ;  by  Charles  Lyell,  Esq.  V.P.G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 

and  R.  I.  Murchison,  Esq.  For.  Sec.  G.S.  &c. 
Letter  addressed  to  R.  I.  Murchison,  Esq.  For.  Sec.  G.S.  &c,  by 

G.  W.  Featherstonhaugh,  Esq.  F.G.S.  On  the  Series  of  Rocks 

in  the  United  States. 
Letter  addressed  to  the  President,  by  Samuel  Woodward,  Esq. 

respecting  some  remarkable  Fossil  remains  found  near  Cromer. 
An  Appendix  to  Mr.  De  la  Beche's  Paper  on  the  Geology  of  Nice ; 

by  the  Rev.  W.  Buckland,  D.D.  V.P.G.S.  &c.  &c. 
Letter  addressed  to  the  President,  by  MM.  Von  Oeynhausen,  and 

Von  Uechen,  on  the  Geological  Structure  of  Ben  Nevis,  and  the 

neighbouring  Country. 
On  the  Discovery  of  a  new  Species  of  Pterodactyle ;  and  also  of  the 

Faeces  of  the  Ichthyosaurus;  and  of  a  black  substance  resembling 

Sepia,  or  Indian  Ink,  in  the  Lias  at  Lyme  Regis ;  by  the  Rev. 

William  Buckland,  D.D.  F.R.S.  &c.  &c. 
On  the  Oolitic  District  of  Bath ;  by  William  Lonsdale,  Esq.  of  Bath- 

Easton. 


The  following  List  contains  the  Names  of  all  the  Persons,  from 
whom  Donations  to  the  Library  and  Museum  have  been  received, 
during  the  past  year. 


American  Phil.  Society. 
Astronomical  Society  of  London. 

Beaumont,  M.  Elie  de,  Inge- 
nieur  des  Mines,  For.  Mem. 
G.S.  &c. 

Bostock,  John,  M.D.  FR.S. 
G.S.  &c. 

Bouillet,  M.  J.  B.,  Membredela 
Societe  pour  l'lndustrie  Natio- 
nale,  &c. 

Bowen,  Captain. 

Bristol  Institution. 

Broderip,  W.  J.,  Esq.,  Sec.  G.S. 
F.R.S.  L.S.  &c. 

Brongniart,  M.  Adolphe. 

Brongniart,  M.  Alexandre,  de 
l'Academie  Royale  des  Sci- 
ences, &c. 

Brookes,  Joshua,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 
L.S. 

Buckland,Rev.W.,D.D.V.P.G.S. 
F.R.S.  Professor  of  Mineralogy 
and  Geology,  in  the  University 
of  Oxford. 


Charles,  M.  des  Moulins,  Pres. 

de  la  Societe  Linneenne  de 

Bourdeaux,  &c. 
Conybeare,  Rev.  W.  D.,  F.R.S. 

V.P.G.S. 
Coxe,  L.  S.,  Esq.,  F.G.S. 
Crichton,   Sir  Alexander,  M.D. 

F.R.S.  L.S.  G.S. 
Croizet,  M.  L'Abbe. 
Cuvier,  M.  le  Baron,  For.  Mem. 

L.S.  G.S.  &c. 

Darnley,  Earl  of. 

De  la  Beche,  H.  T.,  Esq.,  F.R.S. 

L.S.  G.S. 
De  Pierola,  M.  N. 
De  Rivero,  M.  M.  E.,  Director 

Jeneral  de  Mineria,  &c. 
Deveze,  M.  I.  S.  de  Chabriol. 
Directors  of  the  Honourable  East 

India  Company. 
Douglas,  Alexander,  Esq. 
Ducrotay,  M.  H.  De  Blainville, 

For.  Mem.  G.S.  &c. 


109 


Dufrenoy,    M.,    Ingenieur    des  I  Pentland,  J.  B.,  Esq. 

Mines.  Philadelphia  Maclurian  Lyceum. 


Engelspach,  M.  la  Riviere. 

Fiedler,  Dr.  Carl.  Gustav. 
Franklin,   Captain   John,   R.N. 
F.R.S.  &c. 

Gamier,    M.   F.,   Ingenieur   au 

Corps  Royal  des  Mines. 
Gerolt,  M.  Frederico  de. 
Gladdish,  William,  Esq.,  FG.S. 
Gray,  John  Edw.,Esq.,F.G.S.&c. 

Harding  and  Lepard,  Messrs. 

Hericart,  de  Thury,  M.  le  Vis- 
comte,  Conseiller  d'Etat,  Mem- 
bre  de  l'Academie  des  Sci- 
ences, &c. 

Honinghaus,  F.  G.,  Esq. 

Horticultural  Society  of  London. 

Leeds  Phil,  and  Literary  Society. 
Linnean  Society  of  London. 
Loudon,  J.  C,  Esq.,  F.G.S. 
Lushington,  J.  E.,  Esq. 
Lyell,  Charles,  Esq.,   V.P.G.S. 
F.R.S.  &c. 

MantelLGideon,  Esq.,  F.G.S.  &c. 
Marcel,  de  Serres,  Membre  Cor- 

respondant  de  la  Societe  Lin- 

neenne  a  Montpelier. 
Martin,  G.  P.,  Esq. 
Martin,  P.  J.,  Esq. 
Menteith,  J.  S.,  Esq. 
Moses,  Moses,  Esq. 
Mousinho  d' Albuquerque,  M. 
Murchison,  R.  I.,  Esq.,  For.  Sec. 

G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 
Murray,  John,  Jun.,  Esq.,  F.G.S. 


Nelson,  B.,  Esq. 
Nordenskiold,  Nils,    Esq.: 

fessor   of  Mineralogy? 

For.  Mem.  G.S. 


Pro- 
Abo. 


Palmer,  Henry,  Esq. 
Parkinson,  J.,    Esq.,  Consul  at 
Pernambuco. 


Randolph,  Rev.  J.  H.,  F.G.S. 

Rang,  M.,  Lieut,  de  Vaisseau. 
Richardson,  John,  M.D.  F.R.S. 

L.S.  &c. 
Roget,  P.  M.,  M.D.  Sec.  R.S. 

F.G.S.  &c. 
Royal  Academy  of  Sciences  of 

France. 
Royal  Asiatic  Society. 
Royal  Institution. 
Royal  Society  of  London. 
Royal  Society  of  Edinburgh. 
Rozet,    M.,   Officier   au    Corps 

Royal    des   Ingenieurs    Geo- 

graphes. 

Scrope,  G.  P.,  Esq.,  F.R.S.  G.S. 

Sedgwick,Rev.A.,M. A.  V.P.G.S. 
F.R.S.  Woodwardian  Profes- 
sor, Cambridge. 

Silliman,  Benjamin,  M.D.  L.L.D. 
Professor  of  Chemistry  and 
Mineralogy  in  Yale  College, 
North  America. 

Snow,BernardGeary,Esq., F.G.S. 

Stanhope,  the  Earl. 

Stokes,  Charles,Esq.,  F.R.S.  S.  A. 
L.S.  G.S. 

Tank,  M.  Otto. 

Taylor,  John,  Esq.,  Treas.  G.S. 

F.R.S. 
Taylor,  R.  C,  Esq.,  F.G.S. 
Taylor,Richard,Esq.,F.L.S.  G.S. 
Trevelyan,  W.  C,  Esq.,  F.L.S* 

G.S. 
Twopenny,  Mrs. 

Whewell,  Rev.  W.,M.A.  F.R.S. 
Professor  of  Mineralogy  in  the 
University  of  Cambridge. 

White,  John,  Esq. 

Yarrell, William,  Esq.,  F.L.S.  &c. 
Yates,  Rev.  James,  F.L.S.  G.S. 
Yorkshire  Philosophical  Society. 

Zoological  Society. 


110 

The  Council  on  the  10th  of  December  last,  received  from  the  late 
Dr.  Wollaston,  a  communication  to  the  following  effect : 

«  Dorset  Street,  December  8,  1828. 

"  I  have  this  day  invested  one  thousand  pounds  three  per  cent, 
reduced  Bank  annuities  in  the  joint  names  of  myself  and  the  Geo- 
logical Society  of  London,  in  trust,  that  the  said  trustees  shall, 
during  my  life,  pay  to  me  the  dividends  on  the  said  stock;  and  after 
my  decease,  that  the  said  Society,  as  surviving  trustee,  shall  apply 
the  said  dividends  in  promoting  researches  concerning  the  mineral 
structure  of  the  earth ;  or  in  rewarding  those  by  whom  such  re- 
searches may  hereafter  be  made,  or  in  such  other  manner  as  shall 
appear  to  the  Council  of  the  said  Society  for  the  time  being,  con- 
ducive to  the  interests  of  the  Society  in  particular,  or  of  the  science 
of  Geology  in  general ;  such  latter  application  however,  of  the 
dividends  to  the  purposes  of  science  will,  in  my  opinion,  be  most 
creditable  to  the  Council. 

"  And  I  hereby  empower  the  Council  of  the  said  Society,  in 
furtherance  of  the  above  declared  objects  of  this  trust,  to  apply  the 
said  dividends  in  aiding  or  rewarding  the  researches  of  any  indivi- 
dual or  individuals,  of  any  country;  saving  only  that  no  member  of 
the  Council  for  the  time  being  shall  be  entitled  to  receive  or  par- 
take of  such  aid  or  reward. 

"  And  1  hereby  enjoin  the  said  Society  not  to  hoard  the  said 
dividends  parsimoniously;  but  to  expend  them  liberally,  and  as 
nearly  as  may  be  annually,  in  furthering  the  objects  of  the  trust. 

"  And  I  request  the  Society  to  entitle  the  fund  hereby  to  be 
created,  '  The  Donation  Fund;'  in  full  confidence,  that  as  there 
never  have  been  wanting  in  the  Society  members  who,  in  cases  of 
emergency,  have  been  willing  to  contribute  in  aid  of  the  ordinary 
funds  of  the  Society ;  so  there  now  are,  and  hereafter  will  be 
members  who  will  make  additional  contributions  to  this  '  Donation 
Fund.' 

(Signed)  "  W.  H.  Wollaston." 

"  Witness,  Henry  Warburton. 

Whereupon  it  was  resolved, — 

"  That  the  Council,  on  behalf  of  the  Geological  Society,  do  accept 
the  trust,  on  the  conditions  mentioned  in  the  communication  of  Dr. 
Wollaston,  with  gratitude  and  respect;  and  they  beg  to  assure  him, 
that  however  important  this  accession  to  their  funds  may  be,  both 
in  itself,  and  in  the  effect  which  they  are  convinced  it  will  have  in 
obtaining  similar  contributions  from  other  Fellows;  hey  attach  still 
greater  importance  to  it  from  the  testimony  which  it  conveys  of  his 
approbation,  and  of  the  interest  which  he  takes  in  their  pursuits." 

The  deeply  lamented  death  of  Dr.  Wollaston  since  the  date  of 
the  preceding  document,  having  placed  the  property  above  men- 
tioned entirely  at  the  disposal  of  the  Society,  it  will  be  the  business 
of  the  Council  for  the  ensuing  year,  to  make  such  arrangements  as 
shall  be  thought  expedient,  in  order  to  carry  his  wishes,  in  the 
establishment  of  this  "  Donation  Fund,"  into  effect. 


Ill 

The  Society,  at  a  special  meeting  on  the  18th  of  April,  1828, 
was  informed  of  the  grant  from  the  Lords  Commissioners  of  his 
Majesty's  Treasury,  through  the  mediation  of  the  President  and 
Council  of  the  Royal  Society,  of  apartments  in  Somerset-house;  at 
which  time  a  subscription  was  opened  for  the  purpose  of  repairing 
and  fitting  up  the  apartments,  whereby  the  sum  of  923/,  85.  6d.  has 
been  pi'oduced. 

From  that  time  till  the  entrance  of  the  Society  into  their  apart- 
ments, the  attention  of  the  Council  was  occupied  unremittingly  in 
making  arrangements  connected  with  the  removal  from  Bedford- 
street,  and  in  superintending  the  progress  of  the  works  necessary 
for  the  reception  of  the  Society  at  Somerset-house.  They  disposed 
of  the  lease  of  the  late  premises  in  Bedford-street  on  satisfactory 
terms ;  and,  under  the  direction  of  Mr.  Decimus  Burton,  they  were 
enabled  to  adapt  the  present  apartments  to  their  new  purposes, 
much  more  effectually  than  at  first  was  thought  practicable.  The 
Council  hope  that,  considering  the  limited  space  for  the  reception 
arid  display  of  the  collections,  what  has  been  done  with  these  objects 
will  be  approved  of  by  the  Society,  and  be  found  effective  and  con- 
venient. 

The  Council  has  the  satisfaction  of  stating,  that  all  the  debts 
incurred  to  the  present  time,  in  repairing  and  fitting  up  the  new 
apartments,  have  been  entirely  discharged;  including  the  cost  of  a 
stove  for  heating  the  house  with  warm  air,  and  of  apparatus  for 
supplying  the  lower  rooms  and  staircase  with  gas  light ;  and  the 
purchase  of  several  new  cabinets  and  articles  of  furniture.  The 
amount  of  these  demands,  from  various  and  inevitable  causes,  has 
been  found  considerably  to  exceed  what  at  first  was  hoped  or  ex- 
pected. But  the  Council  has,  nevertheless,  thought  it  expedient 
to  pay  off  the  whole,  by  taking  from  the  ordinary  funds  of  the  So- 
ciety a  sufficient  sum  to  make  up  the  present  deficiency  of  the 
subscription  :  leaving  open,  however,  for  the  present,  the  subscrip- 
tion fund,  and  the  account  of  the  expenditure  on  the  repairs ;  in 
order  that  such  Fellows  as  have  not  yet  subscribed,  may  have  an 
opportunity,  if  they  think  proper,  of  adding  their  names  to  the 
subscription  list;  and  thus,  in  effect,  increasing  the  sum  which 
will  then  be  applicable  to  the  essential  purposes  of  carrying  on  the 
publications,  and  improving  the  Museum. 

The  Council  cannot  close  what  they  have  to  state  on  this  subject 
without  informing  the  Society,  that  Mr.  Decimus  Burton,  having 
throughout  the  progress  of  these  operations,  devoted  to  them  his 
well-known  skill  and  taste  as  an  architect,  has  declined  receiving 
any  pecuniary  compensation ;  stating  that  his  satisfaction  in  being 
useful  to  the  Society  was  much  more  acceptable  to  him  than  any 
such  reward. 

Jn  the  early  part  of  the  past  year  the  arrangement  of  the  Museum 
was  improved,  particularly  of  that  part  which  relates  to  the  English 
and  Scotch  series.  All  the  specimens  not  yet  introduced  into  the 
cabinets  were  examined,  and  numerous  duplicates  discarded.  Con- 
siderable progress  was  made  in  classing  the  fossil  bones,  and  at- 


112 

taching  to  them  their  proper  names  and  localities :  but  the  mea- 
sures for  completing  these  important  operations  were  found  to  be 
incompatible  with  the  transfer  of  the  cabinets  to  their  new  situations. 
The  Council,  however,  has  been  careful  to  provide  for  the  re- 
ception of  such  specimens  as  are  not  )ret  placed  in  the  cabinets ; 
and  they  have  provided  such  places  for  storing  them  as  will,  they 
trust,  prevent  confusion,  and  insure  facility  of  access  to  them. 
The  Council  has  no  doubt  that  the  further  measures  necessary  to 
render  the  collections  effectively  useful,  will  be  carried  into  exe- 
cution without  delay,  by  their  successors  in  office. 


The  Report  having  been  read,  it  was  Resolved, — 

1.  That  this  Report  be  received. 

2.  That  the  thanks  of  the  Society  be  given  to  W.  H.  Fitton,  M.D. 
retiring  from  the  office  of  President. 

3.  That  the  thanks  of  the  Society  be  given  to  Arthur  Aikin,  Esq. 
Charles  Lyell,  Esq.,  and  the  Rev.  A.  Sedgwick,  respectively  re- 
tiring from  the  office  of  Vice-presidents. 

4.  That  the  thanks  of  the  Society  be  given  to  Dr.  Burton,  retiring 
from  the  office  of  Secretary. 

5.  That  the  thanks  of  the  Society  be  given  to  R.  I.  Murchison, 
Esq.,  retiring  from  the  office  of  Foreign  Secretary. 

6.  That  the  thanks  of  the  Society  be  given  to  the  Rev.  W.  D. 
Conybeare,  John  Crawfurd,  Esq.,  J.  W.  F.  Herschel,  Esq., 
Henry  Heuland,  Esq.,  and  Sir  Richard  Rawlinson  Vyvyan,  Bart., 
retiring  from  the  Council. 

7.  That  the  thanks  of  this  Meeting  be  given  to  Decimus  Burton, 
Esq.  for  the  valuable  professional  assistance  which  he  has  render- 
ed, gratuitously,  to  the  Society. 


The  President  then  delivered  the  following  Address  from  the  chair. — 

Gentlemen  of  the  Geological  Society, 

You  have  heard  in  the  report  of  your  Council,  that  the  favour  of 
the  Government,  through  the  cordial  interference  of  the  Royal 
Society,  has  conferred  upon  us,  since  our  last  Anniversary,  the 
Apartments  in  which  we  have  now  the  satisfaction  of  being  assem- 
bled. Having  had  an  opportunity  of  becoming  acquainted  with  the 
sentiments  of  the  Council  of  the  Royal  Society  upon  this  subject, 
I  am  justified  in  assuring  you,  that  the  most  anxious  desire  has 
been  expressed  and  acted  upon  by  them,  to  promote  the  welfare 
and  advance  the  purposes  of  our  Institution ;  and  I  have  the  satis- 
faction of  adding,  that  the  mark  of  approbation  v/ith  which  the 
Lords  Commissioners  of  the  Treasury  have  honoured  us,  in  this 
instance,  is  supported  by  similar  proofs  of  confidence  in  other  de- 
partments of  the  public  service. 

The  best  return  for  these  marks  of  approbation,  will  be  to  con- 


113 

tinue  to  promote  the  researches  for  which  we  are  associated  ;  and 
to  render  as  useful  as  possible,  to  those  who  are  engaged  in  the 
study  of  Geology,  the  various  sources  of  information  afforded  by 
the  collections  and  papers,  which  the  liberality  of  your  members  and 
other  contributors  has  entrusted  to  your  charge.  The  Council 
has  this  day  informed  you  of  the  measures  which  it  considers  eligi- 
ble for  these  purposes;  and  I  need  not  remind  the  Fellows,  that 
the  prosperity  resulting  from  the  exertions  of  our  predecessors  can 
be  upheld  only  by  the  continued  activity  of  those  who  have  leisure 
to  assist,  periodically,  in  the  current  business  of  our  institution. 

Among  the  members  whom  we  have  lost  during  the  past  year, 
we  have  had  to  regret  the  death  of  Mr.  William  Phillips,  who  had 
been  for  several  years  distinguished  by  his  acquirements  and  pub- 
lications on  Mineralogy  and  Geology  ;  and  whose  name  stands 
very  creditably  prominent  in  the  list  of  persons,  fortunately  nu- 
merous in  England,  who,  though  constantly  occupied  in  commerce, 
increase  their  own  happiness,  and  promote  useful  knowledge,  by 
the  application  of  their  hours  of  leisure  to  the  pursuit  of  Natural 
Science. 

Mr.  Phillips  was  the  author  of  several  Papers  in  our  Transactions, 
all  of  them  containing  proofs  of  the  zeal  and  effect  with  which  he 
pursued  his  inquiries.  It  was  after  the  invention  of  Dr.  Wollaston's 
reflective  Goniometer,  that  his  assiduity  and  success  in  the  use  of 
that  beautiful  instrument  enabled  him  to  produce  his  most  valuable 
Crystallographic  Memoirs  ;  and  the  third  edition  of  his  elaborate 
work  on  Mineralogy*  contains  perhaps  the  most  remarkable  results 
ever  yet  produced  in  Crystallography,  from  the  application  of  mere 
goniometric  measurement,  without  the  aid  of  mathematics.  In  our 
fifth  volume  Mr.  Phillips  has  compared  some  of  the  strata  near 
Dover  with  those  of  the  opposite  coast  of  France  ;  and  has  proved, 
that  the  cliffs  on  the  two  sides  of  the  English  Channel,  though  evi- 
dently portions  of  strata  once  continuous,  must  always  have  been 
separated  by  a  considerable  space.  He  was  the  author  likewise  of 
several  detached  works,  which  have  materially  promoted  the  study 
of  Mineralogy  and  Geology.  But  the  service  for  which  he  principally 
claims  the  gratitude  of  English  Geologists,  is  his  having  been  the 
proposer  of  the  Geological  "  Outlines  of  England  and  Wales;"  in 
which  his  name  is  joined  with  that  of  the  Rev.  William  Conybeare  ; 
— a  book  too  well  known  to  require  any  new  commendation,  and  to 
the  completion  of  which  we  all  look  forward  with  increasing  interest 
and  expectation. 

You  have  heard,  in  the  Annual  Report,  the  document  by  which 
Dr.  Wollaston  acquainted  the  Society  with  a  donation  intended 
for  the  advancement  of  Geological  research.  This  Paper  was 
dated  on  the  8th  of  December  last :  the  tremulous  and  uncertain 


*  "  An  Elementary  Introduction  to  Mineralogy,  &c.  3rd  edition,  enlarged, 
with  numerous  Wood-cuts  of  Crystals." — London,  1823. 


114 

character  of  the  signature  too  evidently  testified  the  declining  state 
of  the  writer;  and  in  a  few  days  afterwards*,  not  our  Society,  nor 
England  only,  but  the  whole  scientific  world  had  to  lament  his 
death. 

In  this  place,  and  in  the  presence  of  so  many  to  whom  he  was 
personally  known,  I  could  not  trust  myself  to  speak  of  Dr.  Wollas- 
ton,  so  soon  after  the  melancholy  event  which  has  deprived  us  of 
him,  in  the  tone  that  might  be  suitable  to  a  public  meeting.  And  yet, 
if  there  ever  was  a  man,  in  the  estimate  of  whose  character  the 
feelings  of  private  attachment  might  be  allowed  to  mix  themselves 
with  scientific  approbation,  it  was  he:  his  personal  and  his  intel- 
lectual qualities  were  so  consistent ;  both  flowing  obviously  from  the 
same  independence  of  spirit  and  strict  love  of  truth;  and  both 
exhibiting,  on  all  occasions,  such  admirable  simplicity  and  good 
taste. 

The  greater  number  of  Dr.  Wollaston's  productions  belong  to 
departments  of  inquiry  which  do  not  come  within  the  object  of 
our  present  consideration,  and  are  recorded  in  the  Transac- 
tions of  that  distinguished  body,  of  which  for  many  years  he  was 
one  of  the  chief  ornaments.  His  private  life  and  character  will 
be  the  subject  of  a  Memoir,  by  a  gentleman  who  was  honoured 
with  his  intimate  friendship.  Our  own  Transactions  cannot  boast 
of  any  of  his  Papers;  but  he  was  well  acquainted  with  the 
scope  of  our  inquiries,  and  for  several  years  before  his  death, 
he  always  attended  to  the  geological  phenomena  of  the  countries 
which  he  visited  in  his  excursions.  He  became  a  member  of 
our  Society  in  1812;  was  frequently  upon  our  Council,  and  for 
some  time  one  of  our  Vice-Presidents ;  and  the  interest  which 
he  took  in  our  welfare  to  the  last,  is  fully  testified  by  his  recent 
liberal  donation,  and  by  the  suggestions  with  which  it  was  accom- 
panied. 

Indirectly,  however,  the  labours  and  example  of  Dr.  Wollaston, 
as  a  discoverer  and  a  cultivator  of  chemical  and  mineralogical 
knowledge,  have  contributed  in  a  most  important  degree  to  the 
recent  progress  of  Geology.  His  application  of  Chemistry  to  the 
examination  of  very  minute  quantities,  aided  only  by  instruments 
so  simple  as  scarcely  to  deserve  the  name  of  apparatus,  by  divest- 
ing chemical  inquiry  of  much  of  its  practical  difficulty,  has  contri- 
buted materially  to  the  progress  of  the  more  correct  Mineral- 
ogy of  our  time :  and  the  discovery  of  two  new  metals,  with 
great  and  various  additions  to  our  acquaintance  with  the  pro- 
perties and  uses  of  those  already  known,  formed  but  a  small  portion 
of  his  chemical  labours.  His  Camera  Lucida  is  an  instru- 
ment of  universal  application :  but  to  the  Geologist  it  is  an  ac- 
quisition of  peculiar  value,  enabling  those  who  are  unskilled  in 
drawing  to  preserve  the  remembrance  of  what  they  see,  and 
giving    an    accuracy   to    sketches    scarcely  attainable    by   other 

*  Dr.  Wollaston  died  on  the  22nd  of  December  1828.  He  was  born  on 
the  6th  of  August  1766. 


115 

means.  The  adaptation  of  measurement  by  reflection  to  Crystal- 
lography, by  Dr.  Wollaston's  Goniometer,  has  introduced  into  that 
department  of  science  a  degree  of  certainty  and  precision,  which, 
without  its  aid,  are  wholly  unattainable, — and  not  even  to  be  ap- 
proached, but  by  the  most  dexterous  and  practised  observers.  His 
own  success  also,  in  the  use  of  this  beautiful  instrument,  was  re- 
markable ;  and  his  Paper  on  the  distinctions  of  the  Carbonates  of 
Lime,  Magnesia,  and  Iron,  is  one  of  the  most  striking  instances 
that  can  be  mentioned,  of  the  advantage  arising  from  the  union  of 
crystallography  with  chemical  research.  He  was  in  fact  a  Mine- 
ralogist of  the  first  order, — if  the  power  of  deciding  accurately  on 
the  characters  and  composition  of  minerals,  by  the  combination  of 
physical  and  chemical  inquiry,  be  considered  as  the  standard  of 
skill. 

Possessing  such  variety  of  knowledge,  with  the  most  inventive 
quickness  and  sagacity  in  its  application  to  new  purposes,  Dr.  Wol- 
laston  was  at  all  times  accessible,  with  unaffected  facility,  to  those 
whom  he  believed  to  be  sincerely  occupied  in  useful  inquiry :  he 
seemed  indeed  himself  to  delight  in  such  communications;  and  his 
singular  dexterity  and  neatness  in  experiment  rendered  compara- 
tively easy  to  him  the  multiplied  investigations  arising  from  them, 
which  to  others  might  have  been  oppressive  or  impracticable.  His 
penetration  and  correct  judgement  upon  subjects  apparently  the 
most  remote  from  his  own  immediate  pursuits,  made  him  during 
many  of  the  latter  years  of  his  life  the  universal  arbiter  on  questions 
of  scientific  difficulty  ;  so  that  his  house  became  the  common  centre 
of  resort  to  all  who  cultivated  the  Physical  Sciences  in  England;  and 
the  instruction  derived  from  such  frank  and  easy  communication  with 
a  man  of  his  attainments,  has  had  an  effect  on  the  progress  of  know- 
ledge in  this  country,  and  on  the  conduct  of  various  public  un- 
dertakings,— the  value  of  which,  it  would  be  difficult  to  estimate, — 
and  the  loss  of  which  it  is  at  present,  and  long  will  be,  quite  impos- 
sible to  supply. 

These,  Gentlemen,  are  some  of  the  grounds  upon  which  the 
memory  of  Dr.  Wollaston  claims  our  gratitude  and  veneration,  as 
cultivators  of  natural  science:  but  to  those  who  have  known 
him  in  private  life,  he  has  left,  what  is  still  more  precious,  the  ex- 
ample of  his  personal  character.  Few  men  can  be  named  who  more 
happily  combined  the  qualities  of  a  genuine  English  gentleman  and 
philosopher;  or  whose  whole  life  better  deserves  the  praise  which 
the  first  of  our  orators  has  given,  as  the  highest  eulogium,  to  one  of 
our  most  distinguished  public  characters;  for  it  was  marked  through- 
out by  a  Constant  wish  and  endeavour  to  be  "  useful  to  mankind*." 

In  adverting  to  the  progress  which  Geological  research  has  made 
during  the  past  year  in  this  country,  I  shall  follow  the  descending 
order  of  the  strata  in  our  series  ;  and  I  may  refer  to  the  Tabular 
View  of  our  Stratification,  of  which  Mr.  De  la  Beche  has  recently 

*  Fox's  speech  on  the  death  of  the  Duke  of  Bedford,  1802. 


116 

published  a  second  edition*,  for  one  of  the  most  convenient  and 
succinct  views  of  the  present  state  of  our  knowledge  respecting  them. 

A  complete  ac6ount  of  the  deposits  which  appear  on  the  coast  of 
Suffolk,  and  other  parts  of  the  eastern  shores  of  England,  especially 
of  that  which  has  been  denominated  Crag,  is  still  a  desideratum 
of  importance  in  the  history  of  our  strata.  The  publications  of  Mr. 
Robberds  j-  and  Mr.  R.  C.  Taylor  J  have  given  some  information 
of  considerable  value  upon  this  tract :  but  a  general  account  of  it, 
combining  the  local  phsenomena  with  those  of  analogous  deposits 
in  other  quarters,  is  still  to  be  wished  for ;  and  from  the  connexion 
of  the  facts  which  our  eastern  shores  exhibit,  with  some  of  the 
great  questions  touching  the  true  theory  of  the  diluvial  accumula- 
tions, an  acquaintance  with  them  is  almost  necessary  to  the  removal 
of  some  of  the  numerous  difficulties  which  still  attend  that  subject. 

Mr.  Webster  has  announced  a  new  work  upon  the  Isle  of  Wight; 
in  which,  under  the  simple  form  of  a  guide  to  that  most  interesting 
island,  he  proposes  to  illustrate  fully  its  Topography  and  Geology ; 
particularly  the  relations  of  the  strata  immediately  above  the  chalk. 

The  true  order  of  the  beds  between  the  chalk  and  the  oolitic 
series,  which  has  been  the  subject  of  much  recent  inquiry  and  dis- 
cussion, appears  now  to  be  generally  recognized ;  and  considerable 
light  has  been  thrown  upon  that  remarkable  group,  united  princi- 
pally by  zoological  relations  (for,  mineralogically,  its  members  are 
sufficiently  distinct),  which  occurs  between  the  lowest  of  the  beds 
denominated  green-sand,  and  the  oolite  of  Portland.  The  suc- 
cession, though  the  beds  are  not  continuous,  has  been  shown  to  be 
uniform  throughout  England,  from  Norfolk  southwards, — and  to  be 
the  same  in  fact  with  that  long  since  enounced,  though  with  much 
variation  of  nomenclature,  by  Mr.  William  Smith,  in  his  Geological 
Maps  of  the  English  Counties. 

A  full  and  elaborate  Catalogue  of  the  Fossils  of  Sussex  has  been 
contributed  by  Mr.  Mantell ;  whose  labours  as  a  Geologist,  amidst 
the  duties  of  an  arduous  profession,  have  long  been  so  useful  to  the 
public,  and  so  creditable  to  himself. — This  valuable  paper  will  be 
published  in  the  next  portion  of  our  Transactions.  Mr.  Martin  of 
Pulborough  in  Sussex,  another  member  of  the  same  profession,  has 
published  a  detached  Memoir,  the  developement  of  a  Paper  read 
here  during  the  last  session  §  ;  which,  besides  an  account  of  the  strati- 
fication in  his  own  neighbourhood,  contains  much  ingenious  specu- 
lation on  the  phaenomena  which  seem  to  have  attended  the  elevation 
of  the  tract  beneath  the  chalk,  within  the  denudation  of  Sussex, 
Hampshire,  Surrey, "and  Kent. 

*  "A  Tabular  and  Proportional  View  of  the  Superior,  Supermedial,  and 
Medial  (Tertiary  and  Secondary)  Rocks  :  2nd  edition,  considerably  enlarged,'' 
by  H.  T.  De  la  Beche,  Esq.  F.R.S.  G.S.  &c.  London,  1828 ;  Treiittel  and  Co. 

f  "  Geological  and  Historical  Observations  on  the  Eastern  Valleys  of  Nor- 
folk," by  J.  W.  Robberds,  Jun.     Norwich,  1826. 

X  "  On  the  Geology  of  East  Norfolk,"  &c.  8vo.  1827  ;  by  R.  C.  Taylor, 
F.G.S. 

§  "  A  Geological  Memoir  on  a  part  of  Western  Sussex,"  &:c.  by  P.  I. 
Martin:  4to.  London,  1S28. 


117 

The  accessions  to  our  knowledge  respecting  the  oolitic  series, 
from  the  Portland  strata  down  to  the  new-red-sandstone,  have  also 
been  considerable  during  the  past  year.  Mr.  Lonsdale,  I  am  happy 
to  say,  has  presented  us  with  an  account  of  his  researches  on  that 
important  tract  in  the  centre  of  England,  included  between  the 
chalk  near  Calne  and  the  vicinity  of  Bath ;  the  maps  relating  to 
which  I  had  the  pleasure  of  laying  before  you  at  the  last  Anni- 
versary. This  valuable  work,  one  of  the  most  accurate  perhaps  yet 
produced  in  this  country,  may  be  considered  as  a  more  advanced 
stage  of  the  inquiries  respecting  the  oolitic  tracts,  begun  so  ably 
by  Mr.  Smith,  and  continued  in  Mr.  Conybeare's  Outlines :  and  it 
carries  on  the  transverse  section  of  England,  from  the  vicinity  of 
Bristol,  which  had  already  been  illustrated  by  Mr.  Conybeare  and 
Dr.  Buckland,  in  their  admirable  Memoir  published  in  the  first  part 
of  our  Second  Series. 

The  work  upon  the  Coast  of  Yorkshire,  announced  by  Mr.  Phillips 
of  the  York  Institution  *,  will  throw  light  upon  a  still  lower  portion 
of  our  oolites  ;  and  elucidate  especially  that  remarkable  group  of 
strata  which  includes  a  series  of  coal-measures  in  connection  with 
the  lower  oolite.  It  is  certainly  much  to  be  desired  that  all  our 
coasts  were  thus  examined  and  distinctly  represented ;  such  illus- 
tration being  valuable,  not  only  in  topographical  history,  but  as 
affording  the  best  evidence  as  to  the  succession  of  our  strata,  and 
the  greatest  facility  to  the  study  of  them,  both  by  foreigners  and 
our  own  countrymen. 

The  complex  and  important  groups  which  intervene  between  the 
Oolites  and  the  Transition  rocks,  have  been  illustrated  during  the 
past  year  by  Professor  Sedgwick, — separately  in  England,  and  con- 
jointly with  Mr.  Murchison,  in  the  Isle  of  Arran  and  the  north  of 
Scotland. 

Mr.  Sedgwick's  Memoir  on  the  magnesian  limestone,  and  the 
lower  part  of  the  new  red-sandstone,  in  the  north  of  England,  is 
unquestionably  one  of  the  most  valuable  contributions  we  have 
hitherto  received ;  not  only  supplying  a  desideratum  of  the  greatest 
interest  in  our  local  Geology,  but  placing  in  a  just  light  the  difficult 
and  obscure  relations  of  that  extensive  series  of  beds  which  it  de- 
scribes. Nothing  is  now  wanting,  but  the  acquisition  of  good 
maps  by  the  extension  of  the  Ordnance  Survey,  to  complete  our 
geological  acquaintance  with  the  large  portion  of  England  de- 
scribed in  this  Memoir. 

In  Mr.  Sedgwick's  Paper,  the  new-red-sandstone  is  considered  as 
constituting  one  great  complex  formation,  between  the  lias  and  the 
coal-measures,  with  two  calcareous  formations  subordinate  to  it; 
one  (the  muschel-kalkstein),  in  the  upper  part,  which  has  not  yet 
been  discovered  in  our  country ;  the  other  (the  magnesian  lime- 
stone), in  the  lower  part,  which  the  author  has  made  especially  the 
object  of  his  researches. 

*  This  work  has  been  published  since  this  Paper  was  put  to  the  press,  and 
fully  justifies  the  expectations  entertained  respecting  it. 


118 

But  although  the  Muschel-kalkstein  has  not  yet  been  detected, 
and  probably  may  not  exist  in  any  considerable  force  in  Eng- 
land,  it  would  be  premature  to  assert  that  its  equivalent  may 
not  still  be  detected  among  our  strata ;  and  this,  with  other  cir- 
cumstances, renders  a  good  monograph  of  the  new-red-sandstone 
formation,  in  the  central  and  southern  counties,  a  desideratum  of 
importance.     The  general  boundaries  of  the  formation  have  been 
correctly  traced ;  but  the  internal  details  remain  to  be  investi- 
gated :  and  besides  the  necessity  of  searching  in  the  upper  part  of 
the  formation  for  the  equivalent  of  those  beds  which  are  so  con- 
spicuous on  the  continent,  the  relations  of  the  porphyritic  masses 
of  Devonshire  and  other  places  (which,  it  is  remarkable,  are  found 
in  combination  with  the  saliferous  red  sandstone,  not  only  in  various 
parts  of  Europe,  but  even  in  India*)  are  still  very  obscure.     The 
publications  of  M.  Charbautf,  M.  Elie  de  Beaumont^,  and  Messrs. 
Oeynhausen,  Dechen,  and  De  la  Roche  §  will  be  found  to  assist 
materially  in  these  investigations. 

The  Magnesian-limestone  itself,   according  to  Mr.   Sedgwick, 
admits  of  natural  subdivision  into  five  portions,  which,  in  a  descend- 
ing order  are: — 1.  A  series  of  red  sandstone  and  marl,  superior  to  the 
dolomites,  and  subdivided  into  two  portions ;  the  equivalents  of  the 
keuper  and  the  hunter -sandstein. — 2.  Limestones,  containing  magne- 
sia and  beds  of  dolomite,  unequally  diffused,  but  in  much  less  pro- 
portion than  in  the  lower  parts  of  the  series. — 3.  Red  marl  and  gyp- 
sum, comparatively  of  small  extent. —4.  The  great  central  deposit 
of  yellow  limestone,  exhibiting  various  modifications  of  dolomite, 
frequently  concretional,  in  some  cases  oolitic ;    all  of  which  appa- 
rently result  from  internal  change  of  structure,  subsequent  to  the 
mechanical  deposition  of  the  mass.     These  last  formations  (4,  3,  and 
2)  represent  the  Ranchtvacke,  Asche,  and  foliated  StinJcstein,  the  brec- 
cias, and  gypsum  of  the  Thuringerwald. — 5.  Variegated  marls,  with 
irregular  beds  of  compact  limestone,  Zechstein.  This  formation  is  not 
co-extensive  with  the  yellow  limestone,  but  its  place  is  constant;  and 
its  subordinate  marl-slate  is  particularly  distinguished  by  its  Fossils; 
among  which  are  impressions  of  ferns,  and  the  remains  of  fishes, 
some  of  them  identical  with  those  of  the  copper-slate  of  Thuringia. 
— 6.  And  lastly,  an  extensive  deposit  of  coarse  siliceous  sandstone 
(rothe-todte-liegende),  of  very  unequal  thickness ;  the  upper  beds 
of  which  are  sometimes  unconformable  to  the  limestones  which  rest 
upon  them.     It  is  satisfactory  therefore  to  find,  that  the  great  mass 
of  strata,  from  the  oolites  down  to  the  coal,  admits  precisely  of  the 
same  subdivisions  in  the  north  of  England,  as  upon  the  continent. 

With  respect  to  the  theory  of  these  magnesian  formations,  Mr. 
Sedgwick  ascribes  their  production  to  the  mechanical  destruction 

*  Geological  Transactions,  Second  Series,  vol.  i.  page  l6o. 

f  "  Environs  de  Lons  le  Saunier.'' — Annales  des  Mines,  1819,   v.  5/9. 

J  "  Observations  sur  quelques  Terrains  secondares  du  Systeme  des 
Vosges  :"  Paris,  1828 ;  also  published  in  the  Annales  des  Mines  for  1827. 

§  "  Geognostische  Umrisse  den  Rheinlander,  zwischen  Basil  and 
Maintz:"  2  vols.  1825. 


119 

of  rocks  of  the  carboniferous  order ;  stating  however  two  facts,  as 
yet  imperfectly  explained ;  1st.  The  greater  abundance  of  magnesia 
in  the  limestone  formation  than  could  have  been  derived  from  the 
dolomites  of  the  carboniferous  order; — and,  2ndly,  The  larger  pro- 
portion of  magnesia  in  some  of  the  beds,  than  is  found  in  the  true 
dolomites ;  an  excess  which  M.  Elie  de  Beaumont  has  shown  to 
exist  also  in  the  corresponding  strata  of  the  Vosges. 

The  want  of  conformity  between  the  superior  members  of  our 
series  and  the  coal-measures,  forms,  it  is  well  known,  a  prominent 
feature  in  the  structure  of  the  west  of  England : — which,  besides 
its  great  importance  to  the  coal-miner,  has  been  supposed  to  mark 
an  epoch  in  the  order  and  circumstances  of  deposition;  since  a 
similar  want  of  conformity  exists  in  the  north-west  of  France  and 
Belgium, — and  from  recent  observation  has  been  found  also  on  the 
flanks  of  the  Vosges  mountains*;  where  the  shafts  for  obtaining 
coal  are  frequently  cut  through  the  superior  beds,  to  reach  the 
unconformable  strata  beneath.  It  was  a  question  therefore,  of  con- 
siderable interest,  to  determine  how  far  this  want  of  conformity 
might  extend :  and  Messrs.  Sedgwick  and  Murchison  have  shown 
that  in  Scotland,  especially  on  the  shores  of  the  Isle  of  Arran, 
where  a  very  distinct  section  is  disclosed,  the  coal-measures  are 
conformable  in  position  to  the  incumbent  strata ;  and  that  a  gradual 
transition  may  be  observed,  in  ascending,  from  the  old  red-sandstone, 
to  the  carboniferous  series,  with  plants  of  the  same  species  as  of  the 
English  coal-measures  ;  from  which  again  there  is  a  gradation  into 
a  series  of  conformable  strata,  supposed  to  be  identical  with  the 
new  red-sandstone  of  England.  Hence  it  is  not  improbable  that 
more  extended  inquiry  will  prove  the  conformable  arrangement  to  be 
the  more  general  one  ;  and  that  the  want  of  it,  within  the  tracts  above 
mentioned,  is  accidental,  and  comparatively  of  small  extent :  and 
this  may  be  accounted  for,  by  supposing,  either  that  some  local 
dislocation  may  have  deranged  a  portion  of  the  strata  which  would 
otherwise  have  been  conformably  disposed  ; — or,  that  an  interval 
occurred  between  the  deposition  of  the  now  discordant  members, 
of  such  duration,  and  attended  with  such  agencies,  as  to  admit  of 
considerable  change  of  surface  in  the  mass  of  strata  first  deposited. 

The  researches  of  Professor  Sedgwick  and  Mr.  Murchison  in 
Scotland,  contained  in  papers  one  of  which  has  been  already  pub- 
lished, throw  much  light  upon  the  relations  of  the  lower  part  of 
our  series  to  the  crystalline  masses  beneath ;  and  confirm  the  gene- 
ral diffusion  in  that  country  of  our  secondary  strata ; — though  in 
detached  portions,  and  generally  accompanied  by  indications  of 
disturbance,  obviously  proceeding  from  the  primary  masses  on 
which  they  at  present  repose.  It  would  exceed  the  limits  to  which 
I  am  here  confined,  to  detail  the  results  of  which  these  memoirs 
give  an  account :  the  general  inferences  are, — 1.  The  identity  with 
the  secondary  rocks  of  England,  of  the  strata  in  the  Western-Islands, 

*  Ann.  des  Mines,  1827,  i.  431. 


120 

and  throughout  a  large  portion  both  of  the  east  and  west  coasts  of 
Scotland,  is  established  on  the  evidence  of  fossils. — 2.  A  formation 
of  red  sandstone  has  been  observed  on  the  shores  of  the  Pentland 
Firth,  which  appears  to  occupy  a  space  between  the  coal-measures 
and  the  new  red  conglomerates. — 3.  A  great  deposit  of  sandstone, 
with  subordinate  beds  of  dark  bituminous  limestone,  occupying,  ap- 
parently, the  place  of  the  coal-formation,  has  been  designated, — but 
not  yet  perfectly  identified  with  any  formation  hitherto  described. 
The  great  thickness  of  this  deposit  and  the  ancient  character  of 
the  rocks  subordinate  to  it,  prevent  its  reference  to  the  German 
copper-slate  :  but  the  bituminous  beds  in  Caithness  contain  impres- 
sions of  fish  including  two  new  genera ;  with  other  fossils,  all  resem- 
bling those  of  the  inhabitants  of  fresh  water. — 4.  The  principal  rela- 
tions have  been  determined,  of  the  conglomerates  and  sandstones 
which  occur  upon  the  north-west  coasts,  and  the  north-east  of  the 
Highlands,  and  range  along  the  southern  flank  of  the  Grampian 
chain :  and  this  great  deposit  is  shown  to  be  identical  with  the  old 
red  sandstone  of  England. 

The  disturbance  of  some  of  the  newer  strata  in  Caithness,  is  refer- 
red by  the  authors  of  these  papers  to  the  elevation  of  the  granite  be- 
neath ;  the  amount  of  disturbance  being  in  all  cases  nearly  propor- 
tioned to  the  proximity  of  that  rock  :  and  it  is  rendered  probable 
that  the  crystalline  compound  was  upheaved,  not  in  a  fluid  state,  but 
after  its  consolidation;  since,  although  veins  are  numerous  in  other 
cases  of  contact  of  granite  with  incumbent  rocks,  neither  veins  or 
detached  portions  of  the  granite  are  in  these  instances  to  be  met  with 
in  the  shattered  secondary  strata  which  are  placed  upon  it.  There 
are  few  points  more  interesting  to  theory,  than  the  general  existence 
of  such  derangements  on  the  confines  of  the  primary  and  crystal- 
lized masses  and  of  the  stratified  rocks :  and  this,  without  any 
other  phenomena,  might  have  led  to  a  suspicion  that  the  former 
were  themselves  the  instruments,  by  which  these  dislocations  were 
effected. 

The  existence  in  theN.W.  of  Scotland,  of  portions  of  strata  pro- 
bably deposited  in  freshwater,  is  another  very  interesting  fact,  for 
which  we  are  indebted  to  Professor  Sedgwick  and  Mr.  Murchison : 
and  it  is  particularly  remarkable  that  the  masses  of  limestone  of 
this  description  discovered  by  these  observers  in  the  Isle  of  Skye, 
contain  several  of  the  same  fossils  (two  species  of  cyclas,  a  palu- 
dina,  and  an  ostrea)  which  occur  also  in  the  Weald-clay  of  our 
south-eastern  counties*. 

It  is  my  office  here  to  mention  what  has  been  done  by  our  con- 
tributors, or  by  members  of  this  Society,  with  a  view  to  publica- 
tion in  our  Transactions.    It  is  proper  to  add,  that  many  of  the 

*  It  deserves  to  be  mentioned,  that  a  species  of  cyclas  very  like  the 
medius  of  the  weald-clay  (Sowerby,  Min.  Conch,  tab.  527.  fig.  2.)  and  of 
Skye,  has  since  been  discovered  among  the  specimens  brought  by  Captain 
Franklin  from  the  N.  coast  of  America.  It  was  found  in  a  loose  mass  of 
grey  limestone  on  the  beach,  at  the  mouth  of  Babbage  river,  about  2°  30'  W. 
of  the  Mackenzie.  (Dr.  Richardson,  in  Appendix  to  Franklin's  Second  Jour- 
ney, p.  xxvii. — spec.  355.) 


121 

relations  of  the  rocks  of  Scotland  were  long  since  investigated 
by  Dr.  MacCulloch;  who  in  addition  to  his  previous  works  has 
recently  begun  to  publish,  in  the  Journal  of  the  Royal  Institution, 
the  result  of  his  observations  on  the  north  and  north-eastern  coasts : 
and  I  myself  have  seen  in  the  hands  of  that  gentleman,  some  years 
ago,  several  portions  of  an  elaborate  geological  map  of  Scotland*, 
of  the  greatest  value.  The  labours  of  Professor  Jameson  likewise 
have  been  unremitting;  and  you  are  well  acquainted  with  the  various 
memoirs  illustrating  his  native  country,  which  he  has  published  in 
the  Transactions  of  the  Wernerian  Society  and  the  other  Philoso- 
phical Journals  of  Edinburgh. 

From  the  situation  of  the  capitals  of  England  and  France,  at 
a  distance  from  primary  mountains,  the  study  of  the  crystalline 
formations  would  there  naturally  occupy  less  attention  than  that 
of  the  stratified  rocks ;  and  with  this  circumstance,  the  extra- 
ordinary interest  and  novelty  of  recent  zoological  discoveries  have 
concurred,  to  fix  upon  the  newer  strata, — not  more  attention  than 
they  deserve,  but  a  degree  of  interest  which  has  perhaps  in  some 
cases  been  too  exclusive.  The  naturalist,  however,  who  is  in  search 
of  general  laws,  should  exert  himself  to  keep  every  part  of  his  sub- 
ject in  view ;  and  should  never  cease  to  remember,  that,  as  in  the 
study  of  the  newer  formations  Zoology  and  Botany  are  his  best 
allies, — so  Mineralogy  is  indispensable  to  an  acquaintance  with  the 
more  ancient  rocks, — and  Chemistry  as  well  as  general  Physics,  to 
the  solution  of  the  problems  connected  with  them.  Mineralogy 
has,  from  various  causes,  been  of  late  less  vigorously  pursued  in 
England,  than  a  few  )'ears  ago  ;  and  it  is  probably  to  the  previous 
labour  which  this  subject  requires,  that  we  are,  in  part,  to  ascribe 
the  comparatively  backward  state  of  our  knowledge  respecting  the 
primary  portions  of  this  country.  But  though  nothing  has  within 
the  last  year  been  published  in  our  Transactions  upon  these  for- 
mations, they  have  not  been  unattended  to ;  and  the  Memoirs 
already  produced,  with  those  which  are  preparing  for  your  perusal, 
will  be  found  to  throw  great  light  upon  the  relations  of  our  transi- 
tion and  primary  rocks. 

A  memoir  by  Mr.  Phillips,  of  the  York  Institution,  describes  a 
tract  which  is  a  branch  from  the  great  central  mass  of  the  slaty 
and  primary  rocks  of  Cumberland ;  and  gives  in  detail  the  pheno- 
mena of  a  district  remarkable  for  the  numerous  and  striking  proofs 
which  it  exhibits  of  dislocation, — of  such  amount,  that  in  one  in- 
stance strata  have  been  brought  into  immediate  apposition,  which 
in  their  original  situation  were  separated  by  a  thickness  of  more 
than  500  feet. 

The  general  relations  of  the  mountain  district  of  Cumberland  had 
been  already  briefly  but  correctly  described  by  Otleyf ,  in  a  tract 
to  which  I  have  on  a  former  occasion  referred.  I  am  now  enabled, 
through  the  kindness  of  Professor  Sedgwick,  to  state  the  general 

*  See  Edinburgh  Philosophical  Journal,  vol.  i.  (1819),  p.  41S. 
f  Lonsdale  Magazine,  for  October,  1820. 
c 


122 

results  of  his  own  researches  in  that  district,  the  detail  of  which  I 
trust  will  soon  be  laid  before  you.  These  not  only  confirm  and  cor- 
rect our  knowledge  of  the  Cumberland  mountains,  but  determine 
some  of  the  chief  points  of  analogy  which  connect  them,  in  structure 
and  composition,  with  the  primary  and  transition  tracts  of  Wales 
and  Cornwall. 

In  Wales,  according  to  Professor  Sedgwick,  the  old  red-sand- 
stone seems  to  pass  gradually  into  the  upper  members  of  the  fol- 
lowing series. — 

1.  Grauwacke,  containing  in  its  upper  part  organic  remains, 
and  graduating  into, — 

2.  The  great  slate-formation,  containing  in  all  its  parts  indica- 
tions of  mechanical  origin. 

3.  A  vast  group,  differing  from  the  ordinary  character  of  the 
Welsh  mountains,  in  containing  a  very  large  proportion  of  fels- 
pathose  rocks  of  porphyritic  structure.  Of  this,  the  mountains  of 
Snowdonia  are  probably  the  lowest  portion. 

4.  In  Anglesea,  Professor  Henslow  describes*  a  still  lower  group 
of  slaty  rocks,  including  chlorite  and  mica-slates,  and  quartz  rock; 
the  whole  apparently  dislocated  by — 

5.  Protruding  masses  of  granite. 

In  Cornwall  and  Devon,  the  well  known  order  is — 

a.  Grauwacke,  with  calcareous  beds,  sometimes  containing  or- 
ganized remains. 

b.  In  two  places,  a  formation  of  serpentine,  which  in  the  Lizard 
contains  diallage-rock,  talc-slate,  hornblende,  and  mica-slates,  ap- 
pears to  occur  beneath  the  grauwacke.  Its  relations  are  obscure, 
but  it  is  superior  in  position  to  the  following  formation. 

c.  The  great  formation  of  metalliferous-slate  (killas) ;  with  many 
subordinate  beds  of  greenstone,  felspathic-slate,  &c. 

[There  is  in  Cornwall  no  proper  representative  of  the  porphy- 
ritic formations  of  Snowdonia  (3.)] 

d.  Granitic  rocks,  projecting  veins  into  the  incumbent  slate ;  the 
granite  itself  being  traversed  by  other  veins  of  porphyry,  called 
"  Elvans." 

In  Cumberland,  the  order  is  as  follows: — 

I.  The  grauwacke  system,  containing  calcareous  beds  with  or- 
ganized remains.  It  is  unconformable  to  the  overlying  old  red- 
sandstone. 

II.  An  enormous  formation  of  green-slate,  intimately  associated 
with  porphyry,  like  that  of  Snowdonia,  and  of  Ben-Nevis  in  Scot- 
land. 

III.  A  formation  of  clay-slate. 

IV.  A  series  of  crystalline  schistose  masses ;  forming  the  centre 
of  the  Skiddaw  region,  and  composed  of  chiastolite  and  hornblende- 
slates,  gneiss,  &c,  apparently  in  irregular  order. 

V.  Granite  f. 

*  Transactions  of  the  Cambridge  Philosophical  Society,  vol.  i. 
-|-  The  mineralogical  axis  of  all  this  tract  extends  from  the  centre  of  the 
Skiddaw  region  to  the  neighbourhood  of  Egremont.     On  the  north  of  this 


123 

No.  I,  the  grauwacke  of  Cumberland,  is  unquestionably  the  equi- 
valent of  the  upper  part  of  (a)  the  grauwacke-slate  of  Somerset, 
Devon,  and  Cornwall.  No.  II,  the  green-slate  of  Cumberland,  has 
no  representative  of  Cornwall ;  but  seems  to  be  identical  with  part 
of  the  Snowdonian  formation  of  Wales  (No.  3).  No.  Ill,  the  clay 
slate :  And  IV,  the  crystalline  schistose  rocks,  present  analogies  with 
(c)  the  metalliferous  killas  of  Cornwall.  And  on  the  whole,  the 
suite  of  the  transition  and  primary  rocks  in  Cumberland  assists  in 
bringing  together  the  phenomena  of  Wales  and  Cornwall;  and  in 
connecting  the  several  groups  in  the  distant  parts  of  England,  in  a 
series  of  similar  and  probably  contemporaneous  formations. 

We  have  received  from  our  foreign  members  Messrs.  Oeynhausen 
and  Dechen,  a  Paper  on  Ben-Nevis,  the  loftiest  summit  in  Scotland ; 
to  which  I  shall  have  occasion  to  refer,  in  connexion  with  a  point 
of  theory,  on  which  it  throws  important  light.  And  I  mention  this 
contribution  with  the  greater  pleasure,  because  I  know  that  it  is  a 
peculiar  gratification  to  the  Society  to  receive  the  Papers  of  foreign- 
ers ■;  and  that  if,  in  any  instance,  our  aid,  either  as  a  Society  or 
individually,  has  contributed  to  promote  the  inquiries  of  travellers 
in  England,  they  may  be  assured  that  no  return  can  be  more  grate- 
ful to  us,  than  the  illustration  of  our  own  country  by  their  publica- 
tions, or  the  application  of  the  knowledge  which  they  have  acquired 
here,  to  elucidate  the  corresponding  tracts  of  the  Continent. 

The  labours  of  the  Geological  Society  of  Cornwall  are  continued : 
and  a  work,  of  which  the  first  volume  has  been  published,  by  Mr. 
John  Taylor,  one  of  the  principal  miners  in  this  country,  promises 
considerable  additions  to  a  department  of  knowledge  comparatively 
new  to  our  scientific  literature,  but  intimately  connected  with  our 
pursuits.  This  work  is  entitled  "  Records  of  Mining*  ; "  and  it  pro- 
poses to  embrace  "  reports  and  statements  upon  particular  mines, 
and  the  produce  of  metals,  in  various  districts ;  notices  on  Geological 
facts  relating  to  mining  ;  discoveries  of  ores  and  minerals,  and  de- 
scriptions of  existing  processes  connected  with  the  treatment  of  ores, 
and  the  operations  of  smelting,  or  other  modes  of  reduction ;  with 
investigations  of  the  methods  of  working  now  usually  employed  in 

line  the  formations  are  repeated,  with  the  exception  of  No.  I.,  which  is  pro- 
bably buried  under  the  unconformable  old  red-sandstone  and  mountain  lime- 
stone ;  and  on  this  northern  side,  notwithstanding  its  less  extensive  de- 
velopement,  there  is  a  group  of  mountains,  almost  entirely  composed  of 
diallage-rock  (Euphotide)  and  other  minerals,  of  which  we  have  no  trace  on 
the  south.  These  occupy  the  base  of  the  green-slate  and  porphyry  series, 
(No.  3.)  of  Wales  ;  and  seem  to  be  in  the  exact  place  of  (b.)  the  serpentine 
of  the  Lizard  in  Cornwall. 

There  is  on  the  west  side  of  Cumberland,  another  formation  of  granite 
and  syenite,  which  underlies,  traverses,  and  overlies  the  clay-slate,  No.  III., 
and  is  considered  as  the  great  centre  of  elevation  of  the  region.  It  never 
overlies  No.  II. ;  but  is  probably  connected  with  syenitic  dykes,  and  other 
detached  masses  of  crystalline  rock,  which  do  not  belong  to  the  ordinary 
rocks  of  superposition. 

*  "Records  of  Mining,  edited  by  John  Taylor,  F.R.S.,  &c,"  4to.  with 
plates.  London  j  Murray,  1829. 

c  2 


124 

different  countries,  and  of  projected  improvements;  and  descriptions 
of  machinery  or  implements  destined  to  the  service  of  the  mines." 
The  editor  justly  adds,  that  many  facts  relating  to  these  subjects, 
continually  present  themselves  to  observation,  all  record  of  which  is 
lost,  for  want  of  a  proper  depository ;  and  that  not  only  is  a  quan- 
tity of  valuable  matter  constantly  occurring  in  the  reports  and  state- 
ments upon  our  British  mines,  but  that  much  more  may  be  expected 
to  reach  us  from  those  foreign  countries  in  which  English  capital  is 
now  employed. 

Mr.  Taylor  has  prefixed  to  this  first  series  of  tracts,  a  Prospectus 
of  a  School  of  Mines  in  Cornwall ;  which  contain  suggestions  well 
deserving  the  attention  of  those  engaged  in  this  important  depart- 
ment of  commercial  speculation. 

I  have  dwelt  the  longer  upon  that  portion  of  our  labours  which 
refers  to  England,  because  the  structure  of  this  country  is  the  pri- 
mary object  of  our  researches  ;  since  it  is  here,  at  home,  that  we 
can  best,  and  in  the  first  instance,  acquire  the  rudiments  of  our 
subject,  and  gain  that  correctness  of  eye,  and  of  judgment,  which 
confers  the  right,  as  it  were,  to  examine  the  geology  of  other  dis- 
tricts,— and  to  claim,  either  from  foreigners,  or  our  own  countrymen, 
that  confidence  in  our  accuracy,  without  which  all  attempts  at  com- 
parison are  vain.  But  in  proportion  as  this  country  is  known,  a 
comparison  with  other  regions  becomes  not  only  more  interesting, 
but  more  necessary;  and  few,  unfortunately,  can  be  found,  who, 
with  sufficient  knowledge  of  our  subject,  possess  also  the  opportu- 
nity of  travelling  with  geological  views.  In  the  mean  time  we 
must  be  grateful  for  all  those  contributions  from  remote  countries, 
which,  if  they  do  not  illustrate  the  relations  of  rocks,  enable  us  at 
least  to  answer  some  questions  respecting  their  local  diffusion  and 
comparative  composition, — leaving  their  relations  and  many  of  the 
phenomena  of  structure  to  future  inquiry. 

In  the  foreign  Geology  of  Europe, — we  have  the  gratification  of 
knowing  that  the  examination  of  France,  with  a  view  to  a  general 
map  of  the  strata,  is  steadily  proceeding. 

We  ourselves  have  had  Papers  on  the  environs  of  Nice,  from 
Mr.  De  la  Beche  and  Dr.  Buckland,  giving  a  comparison  of  the 
strata  in  that  neighbourhood,  with  those  of  England,  and  in  some 
cases  establishing  their  correspondence. 

The  proofs  of  the  identity  of  the  prevailing  rocks  in  the  more 
distant  parts  of  the  world,  are  continually  multiplied,  by  the  recep- 
tion of  authentic  specimens;  for  which  we  have  been  of  late  indebted 
to  the  Admiralty,  and  to  British  officers,  in  the  Navy  and  the  ser- 
vice of  the  East  India  Company :  and  the  donors  of  every  such  con- 
tribution,— even  of  the  smallest  specimen,  the  locality  of  which  in  a 
distant  quarter  is  correctly  ascertained, — will  have  the  satisfaction 
of  feeling,  that  they  bring  us  nearer  to  the  ultimate  solution  of  the 
interesting  problems  which  are  before  us. 

We  have  received  from  Captain  Beechey,  commander  of  the  late 
expedition  to  Behring's  Straits,  and  from  Lieut.  Belcher,  a  valuable 


125 

series  of  specimens,  collected  in  several  detached  points  durinc  the 
progress  of  that  voyage :  and,  the  notes  taken  by  Lieut.  Belcher 
and  Mr.  Colly  having  been  put  into  ray  hands  by  Captain  Beechey, 
I  shall  take  an  early  opportunity  of  placing  them  before  the  Society. 
The  only  subject  of  regret  relating  to  these  Papers,  is  their  brevity; 
for  the  notes,  and  the  sketches  connected  with  them,  would  do 
credit  to  the  most  experienced  geologists. 

A  Paper,  by  Mr.  Featherstonehaugh,  read  at  one  of  our  latest 
meetings,  gives  a  comparison  of  the  series  of  strata  in  the  American 
United  States,  with  that  of  England : — and  various  memoirs  of  Dr. 
Bigsby,  some  of  which  have  been  read  before  this  Society,  contain 
a  copious  statement  of  facts  respecting  Canada  and  a  large  portion 
of  the  adjacent  country. 

The  Memoir  of  Dr.  Richardson,  read  at  one  of  our  meetings, 
and  published  in  the  Appendix  to  the  account  of  Capt.  Franklin's 
second  journey,  contains  a  most  valuable  series  of  observations, 
made  under  great  disadvantages,  during  the  advance  and  return  of 
that  memorable  expedition  to  the  shores  of  the  Polar  Sea;  in  the 
course  of  which  a  space  of  about  5000  miles  was  for  the  first  time 
surveyed  and  laid  down, — the  total  distance  travelled  over  by  the 
party  in  America  being  not  less  than  14000  miles.  The  great  simi- 
larity of  the  rocks,  and  of  their  structure  and  external  features,  to 
those  of  Europe ; — the  uniformity  in  composition  of  vast  tracts  of  the 
country; — and  the  very  large  pi'oportibn  of  the  surface  occupied  by 
water,  especially  within  a  broad  calcareous  band,  that  intervenes 
between  the  rocky  mountains  and  another  primary  tract  which  has 
nearly  the  same  direction,  are  some  of  the  more  obvious  general 
results  that  may  be  collected  from  the  perusal  of  this  important 
Memoir,  a  full  abstract  of  which  will  be  found  in  our  Proceedings. 
And  the  whole  is  rendered  still  more  interesting  to  us,  by  the  libe- 
rality of  the  collectors,  who  have  placed  in  the  Museum  of  the  So- 
ciety a  complete  series  of  the  specimens  described  and  referred  to 
by  Dr.  Richardson. 

I  have  already  mentioned  to  you  the  contribution  of  Captain 
King  from  the  southern  extremity  of  America;  which  demonstrates 
the  existence  there  of  similar  rocks,  exhibiting  analogous  appear- 
ances, to  those  of  Europe:  and  we  have  great  reason  to  expect, 
from  the  number  and  activity  of  the  British  officers  and  agents,  whom 
our  numerous  mining  projects  have  distributed  in  South  America, 
considerable  additional  light  on  the  structure  and  phaenomena  of 
that  extensive  region. 

From  Africa  we  are  still  without  any  communication,  from  any 
of  the  Settlements  on  its  extensive  coasts. 

I  am  happy  to  say,  there  is  every  day  new  reason  to  hope  for 
the  extension  of  geological  inquiry  in  India;  where  the  liberality  of 
the  Company  in  carrying  on  the  magnificent  Trigonometrical  Sur- 
vey has  already  laid  the  best  foundation  for  such  researches.  A 
copy  of  the  portion  of  the  great  map  which  has  been  already  pub- 
lished has  been  presented  to  us  by  the  Directors;  and  there  is 
every  reason  to  suppose,  that  they  are  as  much  disposed  to  favour 
Geology,  as  they  have  shown  themselves  to  be  to  advance  the  pro- 


126 

gress  of  astronomy  and  scientific  topography.  We  owe,  under  this 
head,  considerable  obligation  to  the  exertions  of  our  own  distin- 
guished member  Mr.  Colebrooke,  whose  activity  and  varied  informa- 
tion have  enabled  him  to  contribute  so  much,  to  several  departments 
of  literature  and  science  in  connexion  with  the  East. 

The  Asiatic  Society,  also,  has  recently  taken  up  the  extension  of 
geological  inquiry  with  much  interest  and  zeal;  and  has  opened 
an  intercourse  with  India  upon  this  subject,  through  Sir  Alexander 
Johnstone,  the  chairman  of  their  committee  of  foreign  correspon- 
dence, from  whence  the  best  results  may  be  expected.  The  at- 
tention of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Calcutta  has  of  late  been  particu- 
larly devoted  to  this  department  of  natural  science ;  and  we  have,  in 
the  different  Settlements,  several  friends  and  fellows  of  this  Society, 
who  have  shown  their  desire  to  promote  our  views. 

From  Central  India,  Captain  James  Franklin  has  given  us  a  Me- 
moir on  the  vicinity  of  Bundelcund,  illustrated  with  an  excellent 
geological  map  and  sections. 

The  Papers  of  Dr.  Buckland  and  Mr.  Gift,  connected  with  the 
splendid  collection  of  fossil  remains  from  the  Burmese  territory, 
with  which  our  Museum  has  lately  been  enriched,  have  been  pub- 
lished in  the  last  part  of  the  Transactions :  and  the  Council  has 
endeavoured  to  diffuse  the  information  afforded  by  this  collection, 
by  causing  models  of  several  of  the  fossils  to  be  prepared,  and  distri- 
buted to  some  of  the  principal  museums  of  Natural  History.  The 
Memoir  of  Dr.  Buckland  on  the  specimens  from  Ava,  has  shown  the 
probability  that  the  representatives  of  no  fewer  than  eight  of  our 
formations*  exist  in  that  region ;  and  I  shall  presently  refer  to  the 
interesting  zoological  results  obtained  from  this  splendid  acquisition. 

The  Society  has  received  from  the  Admiralty,  in  the  course  of 
the  present  session,  a  small  collection  of  specimens,  from  the  site 
of  the  intended  settlement  in  the  vicinity  of  Swan  River,  on  the 
west  coast  of  Australia  ;  and  Captain  Stirling,  before  his  departure 
from  England,  in  the  capacity  of  its  Governor,  was  good  enough 
to  place  in  my  hands  some  brief  notes  relating  to  them,  which  I 
shall  take  an  early  opportunity  of  laying  before  the  Society.  From 
the  zeal  expressed  by  that  distinguished  officer,  we  may  regard  this 
contribution,  as  an  earnest  of  what  may  be  expected  hereafter  from 
the  colony  under  his  superintendence :  and  having  already  received 
from  the  eastern  shores  of  Australia  enough  to  prove  the  resem- 
blance of  the  rocks  to  ours,  and  even  to  point  out  the  relative  posi- 
tion and  structure  of  the  formations  on  some  points  of  the  coast,  we 
may  with  reason  expect  the  solution  of  some  of  the  great  questions 
respecting  that  region,  which  still  are  undetermined.  It  is  remark- 
able, for  example,  that  no  traces  have  yet  been  descried,  of  any  ac- 
tive volcano  along  the  whole  circuit  of  those  shores ;  although  the 
latitudes  nearer  to  the  Equator,  and  under  nearly  the  same  meri- 

*  1.  Alluvium.  2.  Diluvium.  3.  Freshwater  Marl.  4.  London  Clay 
and  Calcaire-grossier.  5.  Plastic  Clay.  6.  Transition  limestone.  7-  Grau- 
wacke.  8.  Primitive  Rocks ; — with  indications  also  of  the  New-red-sand- 
stone and  Magncsian  limestone. 


127 

dians,  are  the  scenes  of  some  of  the  most  tremendous  volcanic  phe- 
nomena on  record.  The  mode  in  which  the  waters  condensed 
upon  the  vast  continent  of  Australia  are  disposed  of, — whether  by 
evaporation  from  inland  seas  or  lakes,  or  conducted  to  the  ocean 
by  rivers,  whose  existence  has  hitherto  escaped  detection,  is  an- 
other great  question  connected  in  all  probability  with  its  geologi- 
cal structure.  But  there  is  no  subject  of  greater  interest  to  us,  at 
present,  than  the  fossil  organized  remains  of  that  country ;  a 
knowledge  of  which,  especially  of  the  remains  of  animals,  will  be  an 
addition  of  capital  importance  to  our  subject,  and  probably  not  less 
valuable  to  the  Zoologist.  The  diluvium,  therefore,  respecting 
which  we  have  at  present  no  information  whatever,  is  deserving  of 
the  greatest  attention :  and  since  the  existing  races  of  Australian 
animals  are  so  widely  different  from  those  of  every  other  portion 
of  the  earth,  the  identity,  on  the  one  hand,  of  these  animals  with 
those  occurring  in  a  fossil  state,  would  lead  to  some  of  the  most  im- 
portant inferences ;  while  on  the  other,  the  agreement  of  the  fossil 
remains  of  Australia  with  the  existing  races  of  other  regions,  now 
disjoined  from  that  country,  would  give  new  support  to  some  of  the 
most  popular  speculations  of  our  day.  With  a  view  to  these  in- 
quirieSj  scarcely  anything  that  can  be  collected  by  our  fellow  la- 
bourers in  that  quarter,  will  be  without  interest  to  their  friends  in 
Europe. 

The  popularity  which  the  study  of  Zoology  continues  to  ac- 
quire in  England,  opens  the  brightest  hopes  in  every  department 
of  inquiry  connected  with  that  important  branch  of  natural  history. 
Our  Papers  dui'ing  the  past  year  have  added  to  the  list  of  fossil 
animals  two  new  species  of  Mastodon,  connecting  very  beautifully 
the  structure  of  the  teeth  in  the  animals  of  that  genus  previously 
known,  with  that  of  the  Elephant.  And  Mr.  Pentland  has  given  an 
account  of  some  fossils  from  Bengal,  presented  through  the  kind- 
ness of  Mr.  Colebrooke  ;  which  include  the  remains  of  a  new  An- 
thracotherium,  and  appear  to  have  been  situated  in  a  deposit  re- 
sembling some  of  the  tertiary  strata  of  Europe. 

We  owe  to  Mr.  Broderip,  one  of  the  Secretaries  of  our  Society, 
a  Paper  in  the  Zoological  Journal*,  describing  the  Fossil  jaw  of  a 
Didelphis,  found  at  Stonesfield,  the  geological  situation  of  which 
had  been  the  subject  of  some  debate ;  with  a  statement  of  the  evi- 
dence by  which  its  true  place  in  our  series  of  strata  is  proved  to 
be  within  the  oolitic-slate  beneath  the  Oxford-clay,  probably  very 
near  the  site  of  the  forest-marble. 

From  Dr.  Buckland  we  have  had  a  description  of  the  remains  of 
a  new  species  of  Pterodactyle,  discovered  by  Miss  Anning  in  the 
lias  at  Lyme  Regis.  The  head  of  the  only  specimen  yet  found  is 
wanting;  but  the  remainder  of  the  skeleton  warrants  the  distinction 
of  it  from  the  two  species  described  by  M.  Cuvier.  The  length 
of  the  claws,  especially,  is  a  prominent  character ;  from  whence 
the  author  has  given  to  this  species  the  name  of  Macronyx.  Mr. 
Miller  of  Bristol,  several  years  ago,  suggested  that  the  bones  found 

*  Zoological  Journal,  vol.  iii.  p.  408,  &c. 


12S 

in  the  Stonesfield-slate  ought  to  be  ascribed  to  this  extinct  family 
of  reptiles  ;  and  Dr.  Buckland  entertains  the  same  opinion  respect- 
ing certain  bones  found  also  in  the  lias,  at  Lyme-Regis,  and  sup- 
posed to  have  been  those  of  birds.  The  Pterodactyles  consequently, 
would  appear  to  have  been  in  existence  throughout  the  entire  in- 
terval from  the  deposition  of  the  lias  to  that  of  the  chalk. 

The  author  has  connected  with  his  Paper  on  the  Pterodactyle, 
some  observations  on  a  substance  analogous  to  album-graecum,  pro- 
duced apparently  by  the  Saurian  animals,  whose  remains  are  de- 
posited in  the  lias  ;  and  on  a  dark  colouring  matter  possessing  the 
properties  of  Sepia  and  Indian  ink,  afforded  by  a  fossil  which  exhibits 
a  structure  like  that  of  the  cuttle-fish.  He  is  still  engaged  in  the 
inquiries  connected  with  these  subjects ;  and  has  already  obtained 
some  very  curious  and  unexpected  results. 

Mr.  R.  C.  Taylor,  one  of  our  Fellows,  has  prepared  a  valuable 
list  of  the  fossils  hitherto  discovered  in  the  British  strata  *,  drawn 
principally  from  the  works  and  authority  of  Mr.  Sowerby,  to  whose 
indefatigable  exertions  in  extending  our  acquaintance  with  the 
fossils  of  England  Geology  is  under  most  essential  obligation.  The 
List  details  the  genera  in  each  of  its  divisions  alphabetically;  giving 
for  each  genus  the  number  of  the  species  most  characteristic  or 
abundant  in  each  formation,  with  the  principal  localities  where  they 
occur.  It  is  not  susceptible  of  abridgement :  but  some  of  the  results 
which  can  be  expressed  by  numbers,  have  been  thrown  by  the 
author  into  Tables,  of  which  the  following  is  a  summary  :— 


13  <! 

JS 
CO 


r  ("Total  number  of  Species  known. 

Recent.  J       (from  Wood's  Index^  Testaceo- 


logicus) 
f  Total  number  of  Genera 


Fossil,    j 


^_Total  number  of  Species 


13 

a. 
es 

s- 
es 


r Carboniferous     Order,     of    Cony-") 
J      beare.     (Species)     J 

nt<|  Carboniferous  beds,  to  Lias.  (Species) 
Total  of  Species/ 


Strata. 


•  Ancient  strata,  to  Lias  inclusive. 


f  Inferior  Oolite  to  Chalk  inclusive.  \ 

More      j  (Species)* 

recent     4  Strata  above  the  Chalk  (Species)    . . 

Strata      I  " 

'  From  the  Lias  to  the  most  recent 

beds.     Total  of  Species 


I 


1*1 


1961 
58 

401 


36 

106 
t>.-)9 


565 


874 


67 

375 
516 


141 


51      83 


58 


12 


230 


134 
139 


0      147 

„ 1 

147 


as 


2893 
135 

1265 

140 
97 


237 

620 
408 


1028 


*  Now  published  in  Loudon's  Magazine  of  Natural  History,  for  March 
1829,  Vol.  II.  p.  26,  &c. 


129 

*  It  appears  therefore,  that  the  total  number  of  known  existing 
species  being  about  3000,  the  number  of  fossil  species  is  about  1300. 
And  the  author  states,  among  other  inferences  from  his  Tables,  that 
the  ancient  period  is  characterized  by  the  complex  shells,  the  middle 
by  bivalves,  the  upper  strata  by  the  simple  univalves ;  while,  as  we 
descend  in  the  series  of  strata,  we  recede  from  the  existing  forms  and 
proportions  of  numbers;  134?  complex  species  out  of  237  being 
found  in  the  ancient  beds,  and  only  147  out  of  1028  in  the  more 
recent.  These  numbers,  it  will  be  observed,  are  connected  with 
the  system  of  Linnaeus,  and  will  probably  be  found  to  differ  con- 
siderably from  an  enumeration  according  to  the  method  of  Lamarck: 
and  the  time  perhaps  is  still  remote,  when  any  such  comparison  of 
numbers  can  be  expected  to  come  near  the  truth.  The  proportion 
of  the  known  species  to  the  total  number,  either  of  the  existing  or 
the  fossil  shells,  is  the  result  of  circumstances  in  a  great  measure 
accidental, — the  industry  or  success  of  collectors,  and  the  greater 
or  less  extent  to  which  the  contents  of  the  conchiferous  strata  are 
brought  to  light  by  human  labour,  or  naturally  disclosed  :  and  all 
these  sources  of  inequality  must  for  a  long  time  affect  the  different 
strata  so  unequally,  that  any  general  inferences  now  derived  from 
the  enumeration  of  species  must  be  received  with  considerable  quali- 
fication. 

The  Council  has  mentioned  to  you  the  late  addition  to  the 
Museum,  of  a  splendid  series  of  casts  of  fossil  remains,  presented 
by  the  Baron  Cuvier,  and  doubly  valuable  from  their  connexion 
with  his  own  publications.  These,  in  fact,  are  but  continued 
proofs  of  the  interest  which  that  illustrious  naturalist  has  always 
taken  in  the  progress  of  this  Society ;  and  few  of  us  have  ever  visited 
the  French  capital,  without  partaking,  in  person,  of  his  hospitality, 
and  deriving  advantage  from  his  aid  in  our  inquiries.  When  the 
state  of  knowledge  which  many  of  us  can  remember,  is  contrasted 
with  what  we  know  at  present  respecting  fossil  organized  remains, — 
now  that  we  have  acquired  the  power  of  determining  from  a  single 
bone,  or  even  a  fragment,  almost  the  entire  structure  and  relations  of 
animals,  whose  races  are  no  longer  in  existence ; — and  when  we  re- 
collect, that  we  owe  to  the  same  person  the  most  complete  history 
of  fossil  remains  that  has  ever  yet  appeared,  in  richness  of  matter,  in 
arrangement,  and  in  style ;  and  that  all  this  is  but  a  part  of  what  one 
man  has  already  performed, — we  cannot  be  surprised  at  the  emi- 
nence which  he  occupies  in  public  opinion.  The  name  of  Cuvier 
is  in  fact  identified  with  our  subject ;  for,  unquestionably,  to  no  one 
now  living  is  Geology  so  much  indebted  as  to  him  :  and  he  enjoys 
the  enviable  good  fortune,  not  only  of  receiving  from  every  side 
the  tribute  of  admiration  and  gratitude  arising  from  his  works,  but 
of  witnessing  himself  the  influence  which  they  have  shed,  and  are 
every  day  producing,  on  all  the  kindred  departments  of  science,  and 
in  almost  every  quarter  of  the  globe. 

On  the  subject  of  Fossil  Plants,  we  have  heard,  during  the  last 
session,  a  valuable  Paper;  and  there  are,  at  present,  before  the 
Society,  several  new  specimens,  which  it  is  intended  to  figure  and 


130 

describe  without  delay.  The  number  of  such  specimens,  in  detached 
private  collections  throughout  this  country,  we  know  to  be  so  great, 
that  when  the  wish  of  the  Council  to  assist  in  describing  and  pub- 
lishing them  is  generally  known,  we  shall  probably  never  want  such 
a  supply,  as  will  enable  us  to  connect  with  every  future  part  of  our 
Transactions  some  contribution  to  fossil  Botany.  Great  benefit  will 
thus  be  produced,  by  circulating  information  at  present  locked  up 
and  unavailing  ;  and  the  specimens  lent  to  the  Society  for  illustra- 
tion, will  be  rendered  doubly  valuable  to_the  proprietors  themselves. 

The  Botanical  Paper,  in  the  last  part  of  our  Transactions,  is  that 
of  Dr.  Buckland,  on  the  Cycadeoidece  ;  a  new  family  of  fossil  plants, 
discovered  in  the  isle  of  Portland,  and  obtained  most  probably 
from  a  stratum  immediately  above  the  oolitic  beds,  which  contains 
also  lignite  with  the  silicified  trunks  of  dicotyledonous  trees. 

On  the  suggestion  of  Mr.  Brown,  these  fossils  have  been  con- 
sidered as  belonging  to  a  family  very  nearly  related  to,  but  perhaps 
sufficiently  distinct  from,  the  recent  Cycadeae :  and  the  observations 
of  this  distinguished  Botanist,  with  respect  to  the  stem  or  caudex  of 
this  family,  are  illustrated  by  sections  represented  in  the  plates 
which  accompany  Dr.  Buckland's  Paper, 

The  family  of  Cycadeae  consists  at  present  of  two  genera,  Zamia 
and  Cycas.  In  certain  Zamias,  Mr.  Brown  states,  there  is  one 
narrow  vascular  circle,  divisible  into  radiating  plates,  and  situated 
in  the  midst  of  the  cellular  substance  of  which  the  stem  is  in  a  great 
part  composed.  In  Cycas  revoluta,  a  second  circle  is  added  ex-  , 
ternally,  at  a  small  distance  from  the  first;  and  in  Cycas  circinalis, 
(according  to  the  only  section  of  this  plant  yet  published)  the  circles 
are  more  numerous, — the  outermost  being  still  considerably  re- 
moved from  the  circumference. 

The  fossil  stems,  which  are  the  immediate  subject  of  Dr.  Buck- 
land's  Paper,  like  the  recent  Cycadeae,  are  not  covered  with  true 
bark,  but  have  a  thick  case,  made  up  of  the  basis  of  decayed  leaves, 
which  externally  form  rhomboidal  compartments,  similar  to  those  of 
the  recent  plants.  The  internal  structure  in  the  fossils,  so  far  as 
hitherto  examined,  resembles  that  of  the  Cycadeae,  except  in  the 
more  external  position  and  greater  breadth  of  the  circle  or  circles 
visible  in  the  section  of  the  stem  ;  a  character  whereby,  Mr.  Brown 
is  of  opinion,  this  fossil  family  approaches  more  nearly,  than  the 
Cycadeae,  to  the  ordinary  structure  of  dicotyledonous  woods  ;  and 
consequently  may  be  considered  as  supplying,  from  the  fossil  world, 
a  link,  which  helps,  in  some  degree,  to  connect  the  still  distant 
structure  of  the  Cycadeae  with  that  of  the  nearest  existing  family, 
the  Coniferae. 

M.  Adolphe  Brongniart's  publications  on  the  History  of  Fossil 
Vegetables*,  though  produced  in  another  country,  are  too  im- 

*  "  Prodrome  d'une  Histoire  des  Ve"getaux  Fossiles  ;"  published  also  as 
the  article  "Vegetaux  Fossiles,"  intheDictionnaire  des  Sciences  Naturelles; 
Paris,  1828. — "  Considerations  Generates  sur  la  Nature  de  la  Vegetation," 
&c.  Ann.  des  Sciences  Naturelles;  December,  1828.— "Histoire  des  Vege- 
taux Fossiles,"  &c,  publishing  in  Numbers. 


131 

portant  to  our  inquiries  not  to  be  mentioned  here.     Some  fear, 
perhaps,  may  be  entertained,  that  his  data  are  not  yet  sufficiently 
extensive  to  form  an  adequate  base  for  his  deductions ;  but  there 
can  be  no  question  as  to  many  of  his  inferences,  nor  respecting  the 
impulse  which  the  subject  will  receive  from  such  an  accumulation 
of  facts  as  he  has  brought  together.     His  views  contrasting  the 
climate  of  the  globe  at  former  periods  and  at  the  present  time, — 
and  his  division  of  the  epochs  of  geological  deposition,  as  deduced 
from  the  study  of  fossil  plants,  in  comparison  with  those  which  mere 
geological  inquiry  points  out, — are  most  ingenious.     Even  if  re- 
garded as  no  more  than  the  conjectures  of  so  acute  and  indefa- 
tigable an  inquirer,  these  speculations  would  be  well  deserving  of 
attention ;  and  altogether,  his  works  on  Fossil  Plants  must  be  con- 
sidered as  constituting  one  of  the  most  valuable  contributions  to 
this  department  of  Geology  that  has  ever  appeared. 

The  Paper  of  Messrs.  Oeynhausen  and  Dechen,  on  the  structure 
of  Ben-Nevis  in  Scotland  ;  and  that  of  Messrs.  Lyell  and  Murchison 
on  the  formation  of  valleys  in  Central  France,  give  rise  to  some 
general  reflections  of  great  interest  to  theory  :  and  though  the  tracts, 
in  these  two  cases,  are  altogether  different  in  geological  character, 
the  inferences  derived  from  them,  combine  remarkably  to  support 
the  opinions  which  at  present  prevail. 

The  summit  of  Ben  Nevis,  the  highest  mountain  in  Scotland,  con- 
sists of  porphyry ;  the  flanks  are  granite,  on  which  again  is  incum- 
bent mica-slate.    Messrs.  Oeynhausen  and  Dechen  have  ascertained 
that  the  porphyry,  instead  of  being  an  overlying  mass,  as  has  been 
asserted  in  similar  cases,  comes  up  through  the  granite ;  and  that, 
as  veins  shooting  from  the  granite  are  found  to  penetrate  the  in- 
cumbent mica-slate,  so  veins  of  the  porphyry  shoot  into  the  granite 
itself,  and  thus  demonstrate   the   more  recent  protrusion  of  the 
former  compound.     It  has  long  been  known,  that  granite,  in  the 
Isle  of  Arran  and  at  Newry  in  Ireland,  is  traversed  by  veins  of 
pitchstone,  which  itself  is  only  a  variety  of  porphyry :    and  Mr. 
Knox's  detection  of  bitumen  in  pitchstone  of  every  age,  as  well  in 
various  other  rocks  of  the  trap  formation*,  coincides  with   this 
evidence,  in  demonstrating  the  igneous  origin  of  that  entire  series 
of  compounds.    The  light  which  the  observations  of  Messrs.  Oeyn- 
hausen and  Dechen    throw  upon   the    "  Elvans"  or  porphyritic 
veins  of  Cornwall,  was  alluded  to  in  the  conversation  which  followed 
the  reading  of  their  Paper  here ;  for  these  Elvans  are  in  fact  great 
veins  of  porphyry  :  and  since  it  would  be  inconsistent  and  unphi- 
losophical  to  assign  the  production  of  phenomena  of  the  same  cha- 
racter to  different  causes,  the  probable  origin  of  all  veins,  either  by 
injection  or  sublimation  from  below,  receives  from  these  facts  new 
and  independent  support. 

The  spirited  publications  of  Mr.  Scrope,  especially  his  plates 

*  Phil.  Trans.;  1822  and  1823. 


132 

in  illustration  of  the  volcanic  district  of  Central  France,  have 
renewed  the  attention  of  geologists  in  England  to  that  country, 
from  whence  so  many  luminous  views  may  be  obtained  on  various 
points  of  theory.  By  placing  the  phenomena  before  the  eye,  Mr. 
Scrope  has  enabled  his  readers  more  easily  to  appreciate  the  merit 
of  M.  De  Montlosier's  admirable  Essay  on  the  Extinct  Volcanoes 
of  Auvergne*;  a  work  published  more  than  thirty  years  ago,  and 
containing  most  correct  inductions  and  forcible  reasoning  on  the 
origin  of  valleys,  but  almost  unknown  amongst  us,  till  its  doctrines 
were  brought  under  our  attention  in  a  recent  Paper  of  Messrs.  Lyell 
and  Murchison,  which  confirms  M.  De  Montlosier's  views  by  various 
new  and  interesting  details.  We  are  enabled,  by  this  various  as- 
sistance, to  enter  into  the  evidence  derived  from  Auvergne,  in 
support  of  the  opinion  which  ascribes  the  origin  of  valleys,  in 
many  cases,  to  the  gradual  but  long  continued  action  of  the  streams 
of  which  they  are  now  the  channels: — a  theory  in  fact  brought 
forward  several  years  before  by  De  Saussure ;  to  whose  priority 
M.  De  Montlosier, — when  conducted  by  other  and  independent 
evidence,  to  views  precisely  the  same, — has  very  candidly  given  his 
testimony  f. 

1  select  these  names  from  many  of  eminence,  which  might  be 
mentioned,  in  connexion  with  this  doctrine,  and  with  the  geology 
of  Central  France,  because  it  is  to  De  Saussure  and  to  De  Montlosier 
that  we  owe  the  principle,  and  to  the  beautiful  drawings  of  Mr. 
Scrope,  decidedly  the  best  graphic  illustration  of  that  interesting 
tract.  And  I  avail  myself  of  this  occasion  to  add,  that  De  Mont- 
losier's work  affords  a  good  example  of  the  injury  arising  from  our 
being  too  generally  unacquainted  with  the  publications  of  the  con- 
tinent. A  few  years,  it  is  true,  have  materially  changed  the  cha- 
racter of  books  upon  Geology ;  but  there  is  much  in  the  topographi- 
cal description  of  almost  every  country,  which  none  of  us  ought  to 
neglect.  With  the  recent  productions  of  France  we  are  in  general 
familiar ;  but  we  know  much  less  than  we  ought  to  do,  even  of  the 

*  "  Essai  sur  la  Theorie  des  Volcans  d'Auvergne  :"  Riom  et  Clermont ; 
1802. — Anonymous. 

f  "  Essai,  &c.  Chap.  VI.  "Des  Revolutions  operees  par  les  eaux  nuvia- 
tiles."  The  volume  of  De  Saussure,  referred  to  by  M.  De  Montlosier,  bears 
the  date  of  1786 ;  the  passages  are  in  §  920  ;  vol.  i.  4to. 

As  M.  De  Montlosier's  work  of  1802  is  stated  to  be  only  a  reprint  of 
the  same  publication  in  1788,  (Cuvier's  eloge  of  Desmarest ; — Eloges,  II. 
p.  362,)  it  is  the  more  remarkable  that  Mr.  Playfair  (whose  illustrations  of 
the  Huttonian  theory  were  first  published  in  1802,)  does  not  appear  to  have 
been  acquainted  with  it ;  since  it  cannot  be  doubted  that  he  would  have 
availed  himself  of  such  evidence,  as  that  adduced  by  De  Montlosier,  from  a 
series  of  phaenomena  entirely  distinct  from  those  to  which  he  himself 
refers,  in  his  sections  on  the  proposition  that  "  rivers  have  hollowed  out 
their  valleys ;"  which  are  composed  with  admirable  force  and  eloquence.  (Il- 
lustrations, §§  315—329.)  The  perfect  coincidence,  therefore,  between  two 
such  writers,  without  communication,  and  from  facts  entirely  distinct,  is 
strongly  in  favour  of  the  correctness  of  their  views  in  both  cases. 


133 

modern  publications  of  Germany :  and  of  those  of  Italy,  which  in- 
clude a  great  number  of  tracts  on  topography  and  physical  geogra- 
phy, full  of  ingenious  speculation  and  valuable  detail,  there  are  but 
few  indeed  with  which  we  are  acquainted.  The  description  of  our 
own  country  is  but  a  step  to  what  Geology  is  yet  to  become ;  and 
for  the  generalization  which  is  wanting  to  render  it  worthy  of  alliance 
with  the  higher  departments  of  science,  the  study  of  foreign  pro- 
ductions is  not  only  expedient  as  an  economy  of  labour  and  time, 
but  is  demanded  by  justice  and  truth. 

Messrs.  Lyell  and  Murchison  concur  with  De  Montlosier  and 
Scrope,  in  testifying  that  the  valleys  in  Auvergne  and  the  Vivarrais 
have  been  produced  by  the  streams,  in  opposition  to  any  more 
general  or  violent  agency:  and  they  regard  the  animal  remains 
within  the  volcanic  districts,  as  having  been  deposited  in  the  bottom 
of  lakes,  filled  up  during  the  long  course  of  years;  their  contents 
being  again  dispersed  by  the  breaking  down  of  their  barriers,  and 
the  force  of  the  currents  thus  set  free.  While,  on  the  other  hand, 
there  is  not  upon  the  surface,  even  of  the  most  recent  lava-currents 
in  that  country,  any  trace  of  that  more  extensive  diluvial  action, 
nor  any  remnant  of  those  masses  of  rock  transported  from  great 
distances,  which  have  been  supposed  to  be  of  universal  occurrence 
over  the  entire  surface  of  the  globe. 

It  is  not  here  my  province  to  enter  into  the  discussion  of  these 
interesting  questions,  nor  to  pronounce  an  opinion  upon  them. 
It  will  be  sufficient  to  have  intimated,  that  much  still  remains  to  be 
done,  even  in  this  department  of  inquiry,  the  progress  of  which  has 
been  of  late  so  very  remarkable :  and  that  as  the  doctrine  of  Werner, 
which  ascribed  to  volcanic  power  an  almost  accidental  origin,  and 
an  unimportant  office,  has  long  since  expired ;  so  the  more  recent 
views,  which  regard  a  certain  class  of  causes  as  having  ceased  from 
acting,  will  probably  give  place  to  an  opinion  that  the  forces  from 
whence  the  present  appearances  have  resulted,  are  in  Geology,  as 
in  Astronomy  and  general  Physics,  permanently  connected  with 
the  constitution,  and  structure  of  the  Globe. 

Such,  Gentlemen,  is  a  brief  statement  of  the  product  of  our 
labours  during  the  past  year,  and  of  some  of  the  objects  which 
you  may  perhaps  regard  as  still  deserving  your  attention.  If,  on 
comparing  our  subject  with  some  other  departments  of  physical 
research,  we  lament  that  we  cannot  avail  ourselves  of  such  aid  as 
mathematical  science  furnishes  to  the  astronomer;  if  the  phenomena 
we  are  occupied  in  observing  be  inferior  in  sublimity  to  those  pre- 
sented by  the  heavenly  bodies,  and  the  laws  we  investigate  less 
strict  than  those  which  govern  their  motions, — still  do  our  inquiries 
claim  a  very  high  place  as  an  exercise  of  intellectual  power.  The 
geologist,  like  the  astronomer,  is  called  upon  to  trace  the  effects  of 
forces,  not  only  vast  beyond  conception  in  themselves,  but  ac- 
quiring almost  infinite  augmentation  of  effect,  from  the  number- 
less ages  during  which  they  have  been  unremittingly  exerted :  and 


134 

the  problem,  to  explain  the  condition  of  the  earth's  surface  at 
any  moment  of  this  career,  is  complicated  as  much  perhaps  as 
any  other  in  physics,  from  the  nature  of  the  agents ;  of  which  change 
and  irregularity  appear  to  be  essential  characteristics.  The  degrada- 
tion of  the  surface  by  the  atmosphere,  the  erosion  of  streams  and  tor- 
rents, the  encroachments  of  the  sea,  the  growth  and  decay  of  the  or- 
ganized beings  that  successively  inhabit  the  globe,  with  all  the  che- 
mical and  mechanical  changes  going  on  around  us,  though  con- 
stantly in  operation,  are  for  ever  varying  in  their  energies  and 
effects.  The  great  phenomena  of  volcanic  agency,  which  seems  as 
it  were  to  constitute  one  of  the  vital  powers  of  the  earth,  are  from 
their  very  nature  transitory  and  erratic.  Viewed,  nevertheless,  in 
relation  to  the  vast  periods  of  time,  during  which  phenomena  of  the 
same  kind  have  been  continually  recurring,  these  very  accidents  and 
apparent  irregularities  acquire  a  sort  of  uniformity.  They  intimate 
the  repetition  of  results  in  future,  resembling  those  which  seem  al- 
ready to  have  occurred  repeatedly  in  the  history  of  the  globe;  and 
that  part  of  the  Huttonian  theory,  where  the  progress  of  geological 
revolution  has  been  compared  to  the  cycles,  in  the  movements  of  the 
heavenly  bodies, — in  which,  after  a  long  series  of  periodical  devia- 
tions, the  same  order  is  certain  to  recur*,— seems  to  acquire  new 
probability  from  every  step  of  our  progress,  and  to  be  really  no 
less  just,  in  a  philosophic  view,  than  it  is  captivating  to  the  ima- 
gination. You  need  no  incitement  to  persevere  in  such  inquiries 
as  these ;  your  presence  here  is  proof  that  you  feel  the  attraction 
of  them:— and  if  the  conduct  of  your  affairs  calls  off  from  the  more 
seductive  occupation  of  research,  those  who  undertake  the  dis- 
charge of  your  official  duties,  they  are  consoled  by  the  hope  that 
they  may  have  been  of  service  to  you,  and  by  the  proofs  they 
continually  receive  of  your  confidence  and  indulgence.  Of  the  value 
of  these  rewards,  no  one  is  more  sensible  than  the  person  who  now 
addresses  you : — I  thank  you,  Gentlemen,  most  sincerely  for  the 
kindness  with  which  you  have  assisted  me  in  the  discharge  of  my 
duties  as  President ;  and,  in  transferring  my  office  to  the  able  hands 
by  which  it  will  be  directed  during  the  next  two  years,  I  bid  you, 
most  respectfully,  Farewell. 


The  Meeting  then  proceeded  to  the  election  of  the  Officers  and 

*  "  The  Geological  system  of  Dr.  Hutton  resembles,  in  many  respects,  that 
which  appears  to  preside  over  the  heavenly  motions.  In  both,  we  perceive 
continual  vicissitude  and  change ;  but  confined  within  certain  limits,  and 
never  departing  far  from  a  certain  mean  condition,  which  is  such,  that  in  the 
lapse  of  time  the  deviations  from  it  on  the  one  side  must  become  just  equal 
to  the  deviations  from  it  on  the  other.  In  both,  a  provision  is  made  for 
duration  of  unlimited  extent ;  and  the  lapse  of  time  has  no  effect  to  wear 
out  or  destroy  a  machine  constructed  with  so  much  wisdom." — Playfair's 
Illustrations: — §  387,  note  xx. 


135 

Council  for  the  ensuing  year ;  when  the  following  list  was  delivered 
in  by  the  Scrutineers : — viz. 

President. 
Rev.  Adam  Sedgwick,  M.A.  F.R.S.  Woodwardian  Professor, 
Cambridge. 

Vice-  Presidents. 
Rev.  William  Buckland,  D.D.  F.R.S.  Professor  of  Mineralogy 

and  Geology  in  the  University  of  Oxford. 
George  Bellas  Greenough,  Esq.  F.R.S.  L.S.  &  H.S. 
Leonard  Horner,  Esq.  F.R.S.  Warden  of  the  London  University. 
Henry  Warburton,  Esq.  M.P.  F.R.S. 

William  John  Broderip,  Esq.  F.R.S.'  L.S.  &  H.S. 
Roderick  Impey  Murchison,  Esq.  F.R.S.  &  L.S. 

Foreign  Secretary. 
Charles  Lyell,  Esq.  M.A.  F.R.S.  &  L.S. 

JL  TCdSUTCY 

John  Taylor,  Esq.  F.R.S.  &  H.S. 
Council. 

Arthur  Aikin,  Esq.  F.L.S.  Secretary  to  the  Society  of  Arts. 

James  Ebenezer  Bicheno,  Esq.  F.R.S.  Sec.  L.S. 

John  Bostock,  M.D.  F.R.S.  L.S.  &  H.S. 

Decimus  Burton,  Esq. 

Capt.  George  Everest,  F.R.S.  Superintendant  of  the  Great  Tri- 
gonometrical Survey  of  India. 

Michael  Faraday,  Esq.  F.R.S.  Cor.  Mem.  of  the  Academy  of 
Sciences  at  Paris. 

William  Henry  Fitton,  M.D.  F.R.S.  &  L.S. 

Davies  Gilbert,  Esq.  M.P.  Pres.  R.S.  F.S.A.  &c.  &c. 

John  Lindley,  Esq.  F.R.S.  &  L.S.  Professor  of  Botany  in  the 
London  University. 

Rev.  John  Honywood  Randolph,  M.A. 

Peter  Mark  Roget,  M.D.  Sec.  R.S.  F.L.S. 

Nicholas  Aylward  Vigors,  Esq.  M.A.  F.R.S.  Sec.  Zool.  Soc.  &c. 

Nathaniel  Wallich,  M.D.  F.L.S. 

Rev.  James  Yates. 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE  GEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF   LONDON. 

1829.  No.  11. 

March  6. — S.  P.  Pratt,  Esq.,  of  Lansdown  Place  West,  Bath  5  and 
the  Rev.  Robert  Everest,  M.A.,  of  Devereux-Court,  Temple,  were 
elected  Fellows  of  this  Society. 

An  account  of  a  remarkable  fossil-plant  in  the  coal-formation  of 
Yorkshire ;  by  John  Lindley,  Esq.,  F.G.S.,  F.R.S.,  &c,  and  Professor 
of  Botany  in  the  University  of  London,  was  read. 

This  plant  was  described  as  a  fern,  resembling,  in  most  respects,  the 
Trichomanes  reniforme,  a  recent  species  found  in  New  Zealand,  but 
differing  in  the  nature  of  its  venation.  It  was  said  to  exhibit  distinct 
and  unequivocal  traces  of  the  marginal  fructification  peculiar  to  the 
genus  Trichomanes.  After  comparing  it  with  the  fossils  comprehended 
by  M.  Adolphe  Brongniart  in  his  genus  Cyclopteris,  and  showing 
that  it  was  not  referable  to  any  known  species  of  that  group,  the  au- 
thor concluded  by  assigning  to  it  a  specific  character,  and  the  name 
of  Trichomanes  rotundatum. 

The  reading  of  a  paper  "  On  the  remains  of  Quadrupeds  which 
have  been  discovered  in  the  Marine  and  Freshwater  Formations  of  the 
Peninsula  of  Italy  ;"  by  J.  B.  Pentland,  Esq.,  was  begun. 

March  20  th.— R.W.  Blencowe,  Esq. ,  M.A.,  of  1 0,  Gloucester- Place  j 
R.  Otway  Cave,  Esq.,  M.P.,  of  30,  Upper  Grosvenor-street ;  Captain 
Samuel  Edward  Cook,  R.N.,  of  Newton,  Northumberland  ;  Robert 
Daubeny,  Esq.,  of  Cork-street ;  George  Lowe,  Esq.,  of  Highgate;  and 
J.  P.  Fearon,  Esq.,  of  1,  Crown-Office-Row,  Temple, — were  elected 
Fellows  of  this  Society. 

A  paper  was  read,  "On  the  Tertiary  and  Secondary  Rocks  forming 
the  Southern  Flank  of  the  Tyrolese  Alps,  near  Bassano;"  by  Rode- 
rick Impey  Murchison,  Esq.,  Sec.  G.S.,  F.R.S.,  &c. 

The  tertiary,  or  sub-alpine  rocks  which  fringe  the  southern  extre- 
mity of  the  Tyrolese  Alps,  between  the  rivers  Brenta  and  Piave,  may 
be  said  to  divide  themselves  into  two  great  natural  groups  of  very 
different  ages. 

1st. — An  outer,  or  younger  zone  composed  of  conglomerates  with 
subordinate  beds  of  yellow  sand  and  blue  marl  containing  shells, 
which,  from  a  limited  number  collected  by  the  author,  seem  to  be 
identical  with  those  which  in  other  parts  of  Italy,  at  Nice,  &c.  charac- 
terize the  newer  tertiary  formations  (Sub-Apennine). 

2d. — An  inferior  system  of  yellow  and  green  calcareous  sandstone, 
blue  marl,  and  compact  limestone ;  the  higher  portions  of  which 
offer  a  few  shells  analogous  to  those  of  the  Bourdeaux  basin  5  while 
the  lowest  beds  are  distinguished  by  a  vast  variety  of  organic  remains, 


138 

more  than  one  half  of  which  seem  to  he  identical  with  the  species 
found  in  the  Calcaire  grossier  and  London  clay. 

A  nummulite  limestone  forms  the  base  of  the  above  series,  and  is 
shown  to  be  conformable  to  the  scaglia,  or  rock  containing  ammo- 
nites, belemnites,  and  flints  (the  equivalent  of  the  chalk),  which  rising 
into  the  Alps,  passes  into  a  dolomitic  limestone  charged  with  casts  of 
fossils  of  the  oolitic  series.  No  rocks  of  igneous  origin  interfere,  in 
this  district,  with  the  above  order  of  superposition ;  but  they  are  largely 
developed  to  the  west  of  the  Brenta,  where  they  cut  through  the  re- 
gular deposits.  In  illustration  of  the  above,  two  transverse  sections 
from  S.  to  N.  are  then  detailed. 

1st. — From  Asolo  to  Possagno,  exhibiting  the  youngest  group  or 
conglomerate  rising  to  the  height  of  from  700  to  800  feet  above  the 
Adriatic,  and  dipping  S.S.E.  at  angles  increasing  from  25°  to  40°. 

The  dip  and  direction  are  the  same  in  the  succeeding  strata  of  marl 
and  limestone,  for  the  space  of  five  miles,  and  near  Possagno  they 
range  conformably  to  the  scaglia  ;  with  which,  however,  the  lowest 
members  of  the  tertiary  series  are  there  not  seen  in  contact,  owing  to 
a  denudation  in  the  Val  d'Urgana. 

2d. — From  Bassano  to  Campese  in  the  Canal  di  Brenta.  This 
section,  owing  to  the  much  higher  inclination  of  the  beds,  exhibits  all 
the  above  members  of  the  tertiary  and  secondary  series  in  the  short 
space  of  two  miles.  At  Sarzon  the  marls  of  the  Calcaire  grossier 
inclined  at  70°  to  80°,  are  succeeded  by  a  compact  nummulite  lime- 
stone, absolutely  vertical ;  forming  piers  on  each  bank  of  the  Brenta. 
This  vertical  nummulite  rock  is  in  positive  and  conformable  contact 
with  the  scaglia,  or  ammonite  rock,  and  they  rise  together  to  peaks 
of  considerable  height.  The  scaglia  passes  conformably  into  a  dolo- 
mitic limestone,  with  remains  of  the  oolitic  series  which  forms  the 
principal  mass  of  this  and  the  higher  regions  of  the  neighbouring 
Alps. 

From  the  preceding  facts,  the  author  infers  that  some  of  the  last 
expansive  forces  by  which  the  secondary  strata  of  the  Tyrolese  Alps 
have  been  set  on  edge,  have  also  raised  the  tertiary  deposits  into  their 
present  vertical  positions.  Such  forces,  he  presumes,  found  their  issue 
in  the  adjoining  basaltic  and  trap-rocks  west  of  the  Brenta.  He  next 
points  to  the  above  sections,  as  proofs  that  unconformability  is  not 
an  invariable  test  of  the  distinction  (if  any  such  there  be)  between 
secondary  and  tertiary  formations  ;  and  in  describing  the  entire  ab- 
sence of  the  plastic  clay  in  this  district,  he  further  remarks  that  it 
would  be  in  vain  to  seek  here  for  those  various  subdivisions  of  the 
tertiary  series  which  exist  in  certain  parts  of  Europe,  and  which  some 
geologists  would  desire  to  establish  as  general  types  of  these  forma- 
tions. 

April  3. — J.  S.  Upton,  Esq.,  M.A.,  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge ; 
Edward  Wynn  Pendarves,  Esq.,  M.P.,  of  Pendarves,  Cornwall,  and  of 
39,  Grosvenor-street ;  the  Rev.  John  Lodge,  M. A.,  Fellow  of  Mag- 
dalen College,  Cambridge,  and  principal  Librarian  of  the  University 
of  Cambridge  ;  the  Rev.  John  Brown,  M.A.,  Fellow  of  Trinity  Col- 
lege, Cambridge  j  Captain  John  Franklin,  R.N.,  F.R.S.,  &c.  Com- 


139 

mander  of  the  late  Expeditions  overland  to  the  N.W.  coast  of  Ame- 
rica, of  Devonshire-street,  Portland  Place ;  and  W.  A.  Cadell,  Esq., 
F.R.S.  L.  &  E.  of  Edinburgh, — were  elected  Fellows  of  this  Society. 

A  letter  dated  March  14,  1829,  from  Dr.  Prout  to  Professor  Buck- 
land,  was  read,  stating  that  since  the  last  meeting  he  had  made  an 
analysis  of  the  bezoar  stones  from  Lyme  Regis  and  Westbury  on 
Severn,  and  found  the  composition  of  all  of  them  to  be  very  similar, 
viz.  :  phosphate  of  lime  and  carbonate  of  lime,  together  with  minute 
variable  proportions  of  iron,  sulphur,  and  carbonaceous  matter.  The 
relative  proportions  of  the  principal  ingredients  appear  to  differ  some- 
what in  different  specimens,  and  even  in  different  parts  of  the  same 
specimen  :  hence  no  formal  analysis  has  been  attempted ;  but  the 
phosphate  of  lime  may  perhaps  be  estimated  to  constitute  from  about 
one-half  to  three-fourths  of  the  whole  mass. 

Dr.  Prout  conceives  this  composition  to  prove  that  the  basis  of 
these  bezoar  stones  is  bone  ;  and  that  Professor  Buckland's  opinion 
that  they  are  of  faecal  origin,  or  of  the  nature  of  Album  Grsecum,  offers 
a  very  satisfactory  explanation  of  their  occurrence,  and  accounts  at 
once  for  their  chemical  composition,  their  external  form,  and  their 
mechanical  structure. 

A  paper  "  On  the  Bituminous  Schist  and  Fossil  Fish  of  Seefeld  in 
the  Tyrol,"  by  Roderick  Impey  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.,  F.R.S. , 
&c,  was  read. 

The  bituminous  schist  of  Seefeld  is  subordinate  to  a  vast  formation 
of  dolomite,  forming  a  lofty  mountain  chain  which  separates  the  Tyrol 
from  Bavaria,  in  which  it  occupies  a  thickness  of  several  hundred 
feet.  This  slaty  rock  is  quarried  solely  for  the  bitumen  it  contains, 
which  is  extracted  by  subjecting  the  schist,  when  broken  up  and  placed 
in  crucibles,  to  an  intense  heat  during  ten  or  twelve  hours.  The 
only  animal  remains  observed  were  fossil  fish ;  and  amongst  these 
M.  Valenciennes  has  discovered  at  least  four  species,  three  of  which 
are  distinguished  by  quadrangular  scales  without  articulating  points, 
thus  resembling  the  Esox  osseus  (LepisosteusLacipbde) ,  but  differing 
essentially  from  that  genus  in  having  a  forked  tail,  as  also  in  the  po- 
sition and  structure  of  the  fins  ;  whilst  another  specimen  is  distinctly 
referred  by  him  to  the  genus  Clupea.  With  these  ichthyolites  were 
found  a  few  vegetables,  one  of  which  has  some  resemblance  to  a  Ly- 
copodium. 

As  the  general  characters  of  the  fish  approach  to  those  of  the  Kup- 
fer  Schiefer  of  Germany,  of  the  magnesian  limestone  of  England,  and 
of  the  Caithness  schist  in  Scotland,  while  on  the  other  hand  they 
differ  entirely  from  all  the  species  hitherto  observed  in  the  lias  and 
oolitic  series,  the  author,  combining  this  fact  with  the  mineral  charac- 
ters of  the  Seefeld  rock  and  those  of  the  metalliferous  dolomite  to 
which  it  is  subordinate,  refers  the  deposit  to  one  of  those  formations 
below  the  new-red-sandstone  so  universally  abundant  in  ichthyolites. 
He  further  speculates  on  the  probability  of  the  destruction  of  so  many 
fish  having  materially  cooperated  in  the  bituminization  of  the  schist, 
because  this  rock,  on  distillation,  gives  off  a  much  larger  proportion  of 
ammonia  than  has  ever  been  detected  in  any  coal,  however  bitumi- 


140 

nous.  Lastly,  the  author  dissents  entirely  from  the  theory  of  Von 
Buch  that  the  dolomitic  mountains  of  the  Alps  have  derived  their 
magnesia  from  augite  rocks  in  fusion,  and  their  peaked  forms  from 
a  simultaneous  alteration  of  their  structure  : 

1st. — Because  no  trap  or  augite  rocks  occur  in  this  region. 

2d. — Because  fossil  fish  and  plants  in  bituminous  schist  alternate 
with  beds  of  the  dolomite,  which  must  therefore  have  been  of  contem- 
poraneous origin. 

3d. — Because  the  peaked  outline  of  these  mountains  is  sufficiently 
explained  by  the  high  inclination,  vast  dislocations,  and  numberless 
contortions,  of  the  strata. 

The  reading  of  a  paper,  "  On  the  tertiary  deposits  of  the  Cantal, 
and  their  relation  to  the  Primary  and  Volcanic  Rocks ;"  By  C.  Lyell, 
Esq.,  For.  Sec.  G.S.,  F.R.S.,  &c. ;  and  Roderick  Impey  Murchison, 
Esq.,  Sec.  G.S.,  F.R.S.,  &c,  was  begun. 

May  1. — Samuel  Cartwright,  Esq.,  of  32  Old  Burlington  Street, 
and  John  Hall,  Esq.,  of  Edinburgh,  were  elected  Fellows  of  this  So- 
ciety. 

The  reading  of  a  paper  "  On  the  tertiary  deposits  of  the  Cantal,  and 
their  relation  to  the  primary  and  volcanic  rocks/'  by  Charles  Lyell, 
Esq.,  For.  Sec.  G.S.,  F.R.S.,  &c,  and  R.  I.  Murchison,  Esq.,  Sec. 
G.S.,  F.R.S.,  &c.  begun  at  the  last  meeting,  was  concluded. 

The  authors  have  selected  this  district  for  description,  because,  al- 
though the  adjoining  fresh-water  formations  of  the  Limagne  d'Au- 
vergne,  and  of  Puy  en  Velay,  have  been  largely  written  upon ;  yet  this 
of  the  Cantal  has  scarcely  been  noticed  by  any  geologists,  except  in  a 
cursory  manner  by  Mr.  Scrope,  and  formerly  by  M.  Brongniart  in  his 
general  observations  on  fresh-water  deposits.  (Annates  du  Museum, 
torn.  xv.  1810.) 

The  fresh-water  formations  of  Aurillac,  or  the  Cantal  is  not  a  con- 
tinuous portion  of  the  great  lacustrine  deposits  of  the  Limagne  d'Au- 
vergne,  from  which  it  is  distinctly  separated,  being  bounded  on  the 
north,  west  and  south,  by  gneiss  and  mica  schist,  and  on  the  east 
chiefly  by  granite.  The  vast  volcanic  eruption  of  the  Plomb  du  Can- 
tal, the  highest  point  of  which  is  5571  French  feet  above  the  sea, 
burst  out  within  the  area  of  this  ancient  and  elevated  lacustrine  de- 
posit long  after  the  consolidation  of  its  strata,  which  have  in  conse- 
quence been  fissured  in  every  direction  from  that  great  centre,  and 
covered  both  by  igneous  and  aqueous  dejections ;  the  limestone  and 
marls  being  capped  with  sloping  terraces  of  breccia  and  basalt,  while  the 
streams  flowing  from  the  central  heights  have  widened  the  fissures  into 
deep  valleys.  Two  of  the  principal  of  these  valleys,  which  radiate  in  a 
westerly  direction  from  the  Plomb,  are  occupied  by  the  rivers  Cer  and 
Jourdanne,  which  unite  near  Aurillac,  where  the  volcanic  matter  being 
about  twenty-five  miles  from  its  point  of  eruption,  has  thinned  out  to 
a  few  irregular  cappings,  and  consequently  the  lacustrine  strata  are 
there  least  obscured. 

From  an  examination  of  numerous  escarpments,  the  details  of  which 
are  given  in  separate  sections,  the  authors  establish  the  following  de- 
scending order. 


HI 

1.  Strong  beds  of  white  limestone,  alternating  with  marls,  and 
containing  the  following  fossils  : — Limneus  longiscatus,  and  others  j 
Planorbis  rotundatus,  and  cornuj  Ancylus  elegans,  &c. 

2.  White  thinly  foliated  marls  and  marlstones,  with  a  vast  pro- 
portion of  flinty  and  resinous  silex,  both  in  layers  and  in  nodules,  the 
latter  frequently  having  the  characters  of  the  menilite  of  the  Paris 
basin,  containing  innumerable  Bulini,  chiefly  Bulini  conicus  and 
pygmasus,  with  Potamides  Lamarckii,  and  a  great  .quantity  of  stems 
of  vegetables  with  gyrogonites.  This  middle  system  is  distinguished 
by  the  paper-like  lamination  of  its  beds;  and  from  the  succession  of 
matted  vegetables  and  minute  organic  remains,  it  offers  throughout 
many  striking  analogies  to  deposits  in  recent  lakes.  (Some  of  the 
thicker  calcareo-siliceous  beds  are  extensively  worked  for  millstones.) 

3.  The  base  of  these  deposits  is  a  brownish  red  plastic  clay,  charged 
with  white  quartz  pebbles,  &c,  the  detritus  being  apparently  derived 
from  the  gneiss  and  mica  schist,  on  which  it  rests. 

The  united  thickness  of  the  lacustrine  formations  of  the  Cantal  is 
estimated  at  from  400  to  500  feet. 

Several  detached  remnants  of  water  deposits  are  mentioned  as  oc- 
curring between  Aurillac  and  Mauriac;  and  although  the  authors 
conceive  these  may  possibly  have  been  formed  in  tarns  (or  small 
lakes),  yet  from  the  prodigious  convulsions  which  the  whole  country 
has  undergone  posterior  to  the  lacustrine  deposits,  it  cannot  be  de- 
termined whether  these  might  not  have  been  bays  of  the  great  lake 
of  the  Cantal. 

That  a  vast  change  in  the  relative  levels  of  the  various  rocks  of  this 
region  has  taken  place,  is  proved  by  many  of  the  escarpments  of  the 
fresh-water  marls  being  now  at  much  greater  heights  than  the  border 
primary  rocks  on  which  they  rest.  The  mineralogical  appearances  of 
the  white  limestone  and  marl  are  compared  with  the  chalk  of  England, 
like  which  their  surface  is  occasionally  hollowed  out  into  root-shaped 
cavities  filled  with  alluvium  j  while  some  of  these  fresh-water  flints  are 
found  strewed  over  the  adjacent  primary  rocks,  just  as  chalk  flints  are 
spread  over  the  granite  of  Peterhead,  Banffshire. 

The  valley  of  the  Cer  is  then  described.  In  ascending  the  deep 
gorges  of  this  valley  to  the  Plomb  du  Cantal,  or  centre  of  igneous  erup- 
tion, the  lacustrine  strata  gradually  losing  the  horizontality  which 
they  exhibit  at  Aurillac,  are  found  first  much  disturbed,  then  dislo- 
cated, isolated  and  altered,  amidst  trachytic  breccia  and  basalt ;  and 
finally  above  Thiesac  are  entirely  lost  under  the  increasing  moun- 
tainous accumulations  of  volcanic  matter.  Siliceous  fragments  in- 
closing fresh-water  shells  are  found  at  such  very  high  levels  in  some 
of  these  ancient  trachytic  currents,  and  so  much  above  any  remnant 
of  the  fresh-water  strata  in  situ,  that  the  authors  conceive  they  must 
have  been  ejected  from  below,  and  borne  down  from  the  central 
heights  of  the  volcano,  mingled  with  the  detritus  of  volcanic  rocks.  In 
confirmation  of  what  has  been  previously  stated,  that  the  great  vol- 
canic focus  burst  out  within  the  area  of  the  lacustrine  deposits,  it  is 
stated  that  limestone  and  marls  occur  near  Murat  at  the  foot  of  the 


142 

Eastern  watershed  of  the  highest  ranges  of  the  Cantal,  where  beds 
extensively  quarried  for  lime,  and  containing  several  species  of  Lim- 
neus,  Planorbis,  Bulinus  terebra,  &c.  with  gyrogonites  and  plants, 
are  overlaid  by  a  prodigious  accumulation  of  volcanic  products.  The 
fresh-water  strata  at  this  locality  (La  Vissiere)  are  unaltered  in  their 
character,  but  exhibit  many  faults. 

The  organic  remains  found  in  different  parts  of  the  Cantal,  prove 
that  this  lacustrine  formation,  although  geographically  separated  from, 
is  geologically  of  the  same  age  with  that  of  the  Limagne  d'Auvergne, 
and  corresponds  as  a  whole  to  the  different  divisions  of  the  fresh-water 
strata  of  Paris,  and  those  of  Hordwell  Cliff  and  the  Isle  of  Wight  in 
England.  It  is  more  difficult  to  obtain  an  accurate  knowledge  of  all 
the  strata  in  the  Cantal,  than  in  the  contiguous  regions  of  Mont  Dor, 
Clermont,  &c.  For  in  the  last-mentioned  districts,  the  volcanoes  had 
issue  amidst  the  primary  rocks,  their  lava  currents  only  reaching  to 
the  outskirts  of  the  lacustrine  formations ;  whereas  those  of  the  Cantal 
burst  out  in  the  very  centre  of  these  tertiary  deposits,  and  either 
buried  them  or  produced  changes  of  the  relative  levels  of  the  country, 
so  as  to  occasion  much  abrasion  of  the  original  strata  by  the  frequent 
shifting  of  the  direction  of  the  waters. 

In  conclusion,  a  comparison  is  instituted  between  the  lower  members 
of  the  lacustrine  deposits  of  the  Cantal,  and  those  of  the  Limagne 
d'Auvergne  and  of  the  Puy  en  Velay. 

A  paper  by  Dr.  Buckland  was  read,  stating  that  he  has  ascertained 
that  the  bony  rings  of  the  suckers  of  cuttle-fish  are  frequently  mixt 
with  the  scales  of  various  fish,  and  the  bones  of  fish,  and  of  small  Ich- 
thyosauri in  the  bezoar-shaped  freces  from  the  lias  at  Lyme  Regis. 
These  rings  and  scales  have  passed  undigested  through  the  intestines 
of  the  Ichthyosauri.  Dr.  Prout  has  also  found  that  the  black  varieties 
of  these  bezoars  owe  their  colour  to  matter  of  the  same  nature  with  the 
fossil  ink  bags  in  the  lias ;  hence  it  appears  that  the  Ichthyosauri  fed 
largely  upon  the  sepiae  of  those  ancient  seas. 

The  author  has  also  ascertained,  by  the  assistance  of  Mr.  Miller 
and  Dr.  Prout,  that  the  small  black  rounded  bodies  of  various  shapes, 
and  having  a  polished  surface,  which  occur  mixt  with  bones  in  the 
lowest  strata  of  the  lias  on  the  banks  of  the  Severn,  near  Bristol,  are 
also  of  fascal  origin  : — they  appear  to  be  co-extensive  with  this  bone 
bed,  and  occur  at  many  and  distant  localities.  He  has  also  re- 
ceived from  Mr.  Miller  similar  small  black  fsecal  balls  from  a  calca- 
reous bed  nearly  at  the  bottom  of  the  carboniferous  limestone  at 
Bristol ;  this  bed  abounds  with  teeth  of  sharks,  and  bones,  and  teeth 
and  spines  of  other  fishes  :  until  they  can  be  referred  to  their  respective 
animals,  the  author  proposes  the  name  of  Nigrum  Gra?cum  for  all  these 
black  varieties  of  fossil  faeces.  They  may  have  been  derived  from  small 
reptiles  or  from  fish,  and  in  the  case  of  the  lias  bone  bed,  from  the 
molluscous  inhabitants  of  fossil  nautili  and  ammonites,  and  belemnites. 
In  a  collection  at  Lyme  Regis  there  is  a  fossil  fish  from  the  lias,  which 
has  a  ball  of  Nigrum  Grsecum  within  its  body ;  for  this  the  author  pro- 
poses the  name  of  Ichthyo-copros.     He  also  proposes  to  affix  the 


143 

name  of  Sauro-copros  to  the  so-called  bezoar  stones  of  the  lias  at 
Lyme  Regis,  which  are  derived  from  the  Ichthyosauri ;  and  the  name 
of  Hyaino-copros  to  the  Album  Graecum  of  the  fossil  hyaena. 

The  form  and  mechanical  structure  of  the  balls  of  Sauro-copros, 
disposed  in  spiral  folds  round  a  central  axis,  are  so  similar  to  that  of 
the  supposed  fir-cones  or  Iuli  in  the  chalk  and  chalk  marl,  that  the  au- 
thor has  concluded  that  these  so  long  misnamed  Iuli  are  also  of  faecal 
origin.  On  examination  he  finds  many  of  them  to  contain  the  scales 
of  fish  j  and  Dr.  Prout's  analysis  proves  their  substance  to  be  digested 
bone.  The  spiral  intestines  of  the  modern  shark  and  ray  afford  an 
analogy  that  may  explain  the  origin  of  this  spiral  structure ;  and  the 
abundance  of  the  teeth  of  sharks  and  palates  of  rays  in  chalk  ren- 
ders it  possible  that  the  Iuli  may  have  been  derived  from  these 
animals.  For  these  the  provisional  name  of  Copros  iuloides  is  pro- 
posed. In  the  collection  of  Colonel  Houlton,  of  Farley  Castle,  are  se- 
veral specimens  of  the  Copros  iuloides  from  the  quarries  of  Maes- 
tricht. 

The  author  has  also  recognized  two  other  varieties  of  these  faecal 
substances  in  a  collection  of  fossils  brought  from  the  fresh-water  for- 
mations near  Aix  in  Provence  by  Messrs.  Murchison  and  Lyell. 

The  author  concludes  that  he  has  established  generally  the  curious 
fact,  that,  in  formations  of  all  ages,  from  the  carboniferous  limestone 
to  the  diluvium,  the  faeces  of  terrestrial  and  aquatic  carnivorous  ani- 
mals have  been  preserved  ;  and  proposes  to  include  them  all  under 
the  generic  name  of  Coprolite. 

The  examples  he  produces  from  the  carboniferous  limestone,  the 
lias,  the  Hastings  sandstone,  the  chalk  marl  and  chalk,  the  Maestricht 
rock,  the  fresh-water  deposits  at  Aix,  and  the  diluvium,  are  taken 
respectively  from  the  several  great  periods  into  which  geological  for- 
mations are  divided. 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE   GEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY   OF  LONDON. 

1829.  No.  12. 

May  15. — Wm.  Babington,  Esq.,  of  St.  John's  Wood,  Regent's 
Park  5  and  Henry  Humphry  Goodhall,  Esq.,  of  the  East  India  House, 
were  elected  Fellows  of  this  Society. 

The  reading  of  a  paper,  "  On  the  Hydrographical  Basin  of  the 
Thames,  with  a  view  more  especially  to  investigate  the  causes  which 
have  operated  in  the  formation  of  the  valleys  of  that  river,  and  its 
tributary  streams  ;  "  by  the  Rev.  W.  D.  Conybeare,  F.G.S.,  F.R.S., 
&c,  &c.  was  begun. 

June  5. — William  Lonsdale,  Esq.,  Lieut.  4th  Reg.  of  Infantry,  and 
late  Honorary  Curator  of  the  Bath  Philosophical  Institution,  &c,  &c.; 
the  Rev. Thos.  Thorp, M.A., Fellow  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge; 
the  Right  Rev.  John  Matthias  Turner,  D.D.,  Lord  Bishop  of  Calcutta; 
David  Douglas,  Esq.,  F.L.S.,  of  Turnham  Green  ;  Thos.  Erskine 
Perry,  Esq.,  B.A.,  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  and  Whitehall ; 
and  Charles  Earl,  Esq., — were  elected  Fellows  of  this  Society. 

The  reading  of  a  paper,  On  the  Valley  of  the  Thames,  by  the  Rev. 
W.  D.  Conybeare,  F.G.S.,  F.R.S.,  &c,  &c,  (begun  at  the  last  meet- 
ing,) was  concluded. 

The  author  has  selected  this  river,  not  only  as  being  the  principal 
one  of  the  island,  but  further  as  exhibiting  valleys  exclusively  the  result 
of  denudation,  and  therefore  better  suited  to  illustrate  that  operation 
than  valleys  of  more  complicated  origin,  in  the  formation  of  which 
the  elevation  and  dislocation  of  the  strata  have  co-operated. 

He  first  offers  some  introductory  remarks  on  the  opposite  theories 
of  the  fluvialist  and  diluvialist,  the  former  ascribing  such  denudations 
exclusively  to  the  operation  of  the  streams  actually  existing,  or  rather 
to  the  drainage  of  the  atmospherical  waters  falling  on  the  districts, 
which  it  is  supposed  have  become  thus  deeply  furrowed  by  the  gra- 
dual erosion  of  these  waters,  continued  through  a  long  and  indefinite 
series  of  ages ;  the  latter  contending  that  such  a  cause  is  totally  in- 
adequate to  the  solution  of  the  phenomena,  and  maintaining  that  they 
afford  evidence  of  having  been  produced  by  violent  diluvial  currents. 

He  proceeds  to  distinguish  several  different  geological  epochs,  at 
which  it  is  probable  that  currents  must  have  taken  place  calculated 
to  excavate  and  modify  the  existing  surface.  I.  In  the  ocean,  be- 
neath which  the  strata  were  originally  deposited.  II.  During  the 
retreat  of  that  ocean.  III.  At  the  periods  of  more  violent  disturbance, 
which  are  evidenced  by  the  occurrence  of  fragmentary  rocks,  the 
result  of  violent  agitations  in  the  waters  of  the  then  existing  ocean 
propagated  from  the  shocks  attendant  on  the  elevation  and  dislocation 


146 

of  the  strata. — Four  such  periods  are  enumerated  as  having  left  dis- 
tinct traces  in  the  English  strata.  1 .  That  which  has  formed  the 
pudding-stone  of  the  old-red-sandstone,  ascribed  to  the  elevation  of  the 
transition  rocks.  2.  That  which  has  formed  the  conglomerates  of  the 
new-red-sandstone,  ascribed  to  the  elevation  of  the  carboniferous  rocks. 
3.  That  which  has  formed  the  gravel  beds  of  the  plastic  clay.  4.  That 
which  has  produced  the  superficial  gravel,  spread  alike  over  the  most 
recent  and  oldest  rocks  as  a  general  covering,  and  which  is  found  to 
contain  bones  of  extinct  mammalia  :  this  (it  is  agreed)  may  be  iden- 
tified as  the  product  of  one  agra,  by  the  same  evidence  which  is  em- 
ployed to  demonstrate  the  unity  of  any  other  geological  formation. 
Although  diluvialists  have  usually  directed  their  principal  attention 
to  the  effects  of  the  currents  of  this  latest  epoch  of  general  disturb- 
ance, they  by  no  means  exclude  the  co-operation  of  any  of  the  causes 
above  enumerated. 

In  the  body  of  his  paper,  the  author  considers  the  physical  history 
of  the  Thames  as  divisible  into  the  following  sections.  I.  The  col- 
lection of  its  head  waters  from  the  drainage  of  the  Cotteswold  uplands. 

II.  The  passage  which  it  has  forced  across  the  Oxford  chain  of  hills. 

III.  That  opened  in  like  manner  across  the  Chiltern  hills  to  the 
London  basin  at  Reading.  IV.  There-entry  of  the  river  among  those 
hills  by  the  Henley  defile.  V.  Its  course  through  the  plains  of  London 
to  the  sea. 

I.  The  head-waters  of  the  Thames  are  collected  from  the  drainage 
of  the  Cotteswold  uplands,  over  a  tract  about  50  miles  in  length, 
constituting  the  rivers  Isis,  Churn,  Colne,  Lech,  Windrush,  Evenlode, 
and  Cherwell ;  this  chain  of  hills  being  entirely  broken  through  by 
the  Colne,  Evenlode,  and  Cherwell,  which  rise  from  sources  in  the 
Lias  plains  beyond  its  escarpment.  The  height  of  most  of  these 
sources  is  calculated  at  about  400  feet  above  the  sea. 

Each  of  these  valleys  is  separately  described,  and  the  general  fea- 
tures of  denudation  presented  by  the  Cotteswold  chain  are  pointed 
out  5  these,  it  is  asserted,  bear  traces  of  the  most  violent  action,  and 
they  are  contrasted  with  the  state  of  repose  which  has  evidently  pre- 
vailed in  the  same  districts  from  the  period  to  which  our  earliest 
historical  monuments  ascend.  In  the  most  exposed  situations,  and 
those  which  appear  to  have  suffered  most  from  the  action  of  the  de- 
nuding causes,  earth  works  of  British  and  Roman  antiquity  are  fre- 
quently found,  attesting  by  their  perfect  preservation  that  the  form 
of  the  surface  has  remained  unaltered  since  the  time  of  their  con- 
struction. The  drainage  of  the  atmospherical  waters  has  here  produced 
no  sensible  effect  for  more  than  fifteen  centuries :  it  is  inferred, 
therefore,  that  to  assign  to  this  cause  the  excavation  of  the  adjoining 
valleys,  600  or  700  feet  deep,  is  to  ascribe  to  it  an  agency  for  which 
we  have  no  evidence  ;  the  evidence,  indeed,  as  far  as  it  can  be  ex- 
amined, being  adverse. 

The  disposition  of  the  water-worn  debris  drifted  against  the  Cot- 
teswold chain  and  through  the  breaches  opened  in  it,  is  also  examined; 
and  much  of  it  is  shown  to  be  derived  from  rocks  situated  to  the  north 
of  the  valley  of  the  Warwickshire  Avon,  and  to  be  completely  cut  off 


147 

by  that  valley  from  the  Cotteswold  district.  It  is  contended  that  pebbles 
of  this  origin  can  never  have  been  transported  by  the  actual  streams, 
because  the  drainage  of  these  streams  is,  and  always  must  have  been, 
from  the  escarpment  of  the  Cotteswolds  to  the  valley  of  Avon  ; 
whereas  the  course  of  the  pebbles  is  directly  opposite,  viz.  across 
the  Avon,  and  thence  to  that  escarpment  and  through  its  breaches. 
The  valley  of  Shipston  on  Stour,  which  is  described  as  a  species  of 
bay  in  the  escarpment  of  the  Cotteswolds,  is  stated  to  contain  the 
most  remarkable  instance  of  this  disposition. 

II,  The  river  collected  from  these  head-waters  flows  through  the  plain 
of  Oxford,  which  is  covered  to  a  great  extent  by  water-worn  debris  ; 
these  are  diffused  over  situations  inaccessible  to  the  present  floods,  and 
if  produced  by  the  actual  streams,  we  must  suppose  that  they  have  re- 
peatedly changed  their  channel  so  as  to  have  flowed  successively  over 
every  portion  of  the  plain  where  these  debris  are  now  found:  the  oldest 
historical  monuments  attest,  however,  the  permanence  of  the  actual 
channels,  and  the  floods  at  present  bring  down  no  pebbles  whatsoever. 
On  the  south  of  the  plain  of  Oxford  the  progress  of  the  river  is  op- 
posed by  a  chain  of  hills,  called  by  the  author  the  Oxford  chain. 
This  is  passed  by  a  defile  broken  through  it.  Were  that  defile  closed, 
an  extensive  lake  would  be  formed  above  Oxford,  and  the  waters 
would  be  turned  into  the  valley  of  the  Ouse  ;  by  which  they  would 
empty  themselves  into  the  eestuary  of  the  Wash. 

The  author  inquires  how  this  configuration  of  the  valleys  could 
have  been  produced  on  the  fluviaiist's  theory.  He  argues,  that  if  the 
Oxford  chain  originally  (as  at  present)  formed  a  barrier  of  superior 
elevation  to  the  tract  intervening  between  itself  and  the  Cotteswolds, 
that  barrier  must  have  turned  all  the  drainage  of  the  Cotteswolds  into 
the  vale  of  Ouse  :  under  those  circumstances  the  crest  of  the  Oxford 
chain  could  never  have  been  eroded  by  waters  which  would  have 
flowed  off  in  another  direction.  There  is,  however,  another  alterna- 
tive 5  and  the  interval  between  these  chains  may  be  supposed  to  have 
formed  originally  a  uniformly  inclined  plane,  from  the  summits  of 
the  one  to  those  of  the  other,  along  which  the  waters  once  flowed, 
and  which  they  have  since  furrowed  (by  perpetually  deepening  their 
channels)  into  the  present  valleys.  The  author  calculates  the  mass 
of  materials  which  must  on  this  supposition  have  been  excavated  and 
washed  away,  and  contends  that  the  drainage  of  atmospherical  waters 
along  such  an  inclined  plane  (which  would  have  a  fall  of  1 0  feet  per 
mile)  does  not  afford  an  agent  adequate  to  such  vast  operations. 

The  Oxford  chain  has  suffered  greatly  from  denudation,  being 
broken  into  several  detached  groups. 

Among  these,  some  insulated  summits  are  capped  by  patches  of 
gravel,  partly  derived  from  transition  rocks,  partly  from  the  chalk 
formation.  These  prove  the  extent  to  which  denudation  must  have 
proceeded  since  they  were  lodged  in  their  present  situation;  as  they 
must  have  been  transported  from  their  native  habitats  along  uni- 
formly inclined  planes,  which  have  subsequently  been  excavated. 
III.  Issuing  from  the  defile  of  the  Oxford  chain,  the  river  flows 


148 

through  the  plain  of  Abingdon  and  Dorchester,  being  joined  by  the 
Ock  and  the  Thame.  This  plain,  like  that  of  Oxford,  is  deeply  and 
extensively  covered  with  water-worn  debris.  It  is  also  similarly  bound- 
ed by  a  lofty  chain  (like  that  of  the  Chilterns)  on  the  south.  An  enor- 
mous breach  is  opened  in  this  barrier  for  the  passage  of  the  river. 
All  the  same  arguments  apply  in  this  case  which  were  previously 
urged  with  regard  to  the  passage  of  the  Oxford  chain. 

The  Chilterns,  like  most  other  chalky  districts,  abound  with  dry 
valleys,  the  rifted  and  absorbent  structure  of  that  rock  not  permit- 
ting the  rain  waters  to  collect  into  streams  :  these  valleys  agree  in 
every  other  feature  with  those  containing  water  courses,  and  have 
been  obviously  excavated  by  the  same  denuding  causes,  which,  in 
this  case,  it  is  self-evident  could  not  have  been  river  waters.  The 
surface  of  the  chalk  has  been  deeply  and  violently  eroded,  and  is 
deeply  covered  with  its  own  debris ; — this  action  appears,  in  part, 
to  have  taken  place  during  the  epoch  of  the  plastic  clay  formation. 

IV.  The  river  having  passed  this  defile,  enters  for  the  first  time 
the  London  basin,  near  Reading  ;  where  it  receives  the  Kennet,  of 
which  the  course  is  shortly  described.  It  rises  in  the  chalk  marl, 
beneath  the  chalk  escarpment,  a  few  miles  beyond  Marlborough  j 
that  escarpment  being  broken  through  in  several  places,  to  give  pas- 
sage to  its  head-waters.  The  author  insists,  again,  on  the  contrast 
between  the  extensive  denudations  which  must  have  occurred  in  this 
district  and  the  permanence  of  its  surface,  as  attested  by  the  pre- 
servation of  the  numerous  Druidical  and  other  British  monuments 
scattered  over  these  downs. 

A  little  below  Reading,  the  Thames  (first  having  received  another 
small  tributary,  the  Loddon)  quits  for  a  time  the  London  basin,  to 
re-enter,  by  a  sudden  bend,  another  deep  defile  among  the  chalk 
hills,  ranging  by  Henley  and  Marlow  to  Maidenhead,  when  it  finally 
enters  the  plains  of  London.  It  is  difficult  to  account  for  this  de- 
flection of  the  river,  as  a  straighter  course  appears  open  to  it  by 
White  Waltham  to  Bray.  This  line  was  surveyed  for  a  canal  by 
Mr.  Brindley,  and  appears  to  be  level  to  White  Waltham,  and  thence 
to  fall  47  feet  to  Mankey  island,  near  Bray;  so  that  a  dam  of  a  few 
feet  across  the  river  below  Sunning  at  the  mouth  of  the  Loddon, 
would  turn  the  waters  into  this  channel.  The  author  conceives  the 
most  natural  mode  of  explaining  this  deflection  of  the  river,  is  by 
the  supposition  that  a  higher  range  of  tertiary  strata  once  extended 
from  the  ridges  of  Bagshot-heath  in  this  direction  ;  forming  a  bar  to 
the  progress  of  the  stream  in  this  line. 

V.  The  plains  of  London  are  covered  with  enormous  accumulations 
of  water-worn  debris,  chiefly  of  chalk-flints,  and  often  abounding  in 
fossil  remains  of  elephants,  hippopotami,  &c.  :  the  gravel  is  not 
confined  to  the  low  grounds,  but  caps  the  highest  summits  of  the 
district;  e.g.  Highgate  on  the  north,  and  Shooter's  Hill  on  the  south 
of  the  river.  To  explain  this  distribution  of  this  gravel  by  the  ope- 
ration of  the  actual  rivers,  the  author  observes  that  it  is  necessary, 
jirst,  to  suppose  that  an  uniform  plane  originally  existed  from  the 


149 

summit  of  Highgate  to  the  Hertfordshire  chalk  downs,  and  from  the 
top  of  Shooter's  Hill  to  those  of  Kent ;  on  the  surface  of  which  the 
rivers  once  flowed.  2ndly,  That  these  rivers  have  subsequently  washed 
away  all  that  immense  mass  of  materials  which  would  be  requisite 
thus  to  reconstruct  the  surface  ;  and  3rdly,  That  having  worn  down 
that  surface  into  nearly  its  present  form,  the  rivers  perpetually  shifted 
their  channels  so  as  to  distribute  the  gravel  equally  over  the  whole 
plain  of  London,  yet  remained  long  enough  in  each  channel  to 
lodge  there  deposits  of  this  gravel  20  or  30  feet  thick. 

A  paper  was  also  read  entitled,  "A  few  facts  and  observations  as  to 
the  power  which  running  water  exerts  in  removing  heavy  bodies,"  by 
Matthew  Culley,  Esq.,  F.G.S.,  &c,  in  a  letter  to  Roderick  Impey 
Murchison,  Esq.,  Sec.  G.S.,  F.R.S.,  &c. 

The  heavy  rains  which  fell  during  three  days  of  August,  1827, 
swelled  to  an  unusual  height  the  small  rivulet  called  the  College, 
which  flows  at  a  moderate  declivity  from  the  eastern  watershed  of 
the  Cheviot  hills,  and  caused  that  stream  not  only  to  transport 
enormous  accumulations  of  several  thousand  tons  weight  of  gravel 
and  sand  to  the  plain  of  the  Till,  but  also  to  carry  away  a  bridge  then 
in  progress  of  building,  some  of  the  arch-stones  of  which,  weighing 
from  |  to  f  of  a  ton  each,  were  propelled  two  miles  down  the  rivulet. 

On  the  same  occasion,  the  current  tore  away  from  the  abutment  oi 
a  mill-dam,  a  large  block  of  greenstone-porphyry,  weighing  nearly 
two  tons,  and  transported  the  same  to  the  distance  of  a  quarter  of  a 
mile.  Instances  are  related  as  occurring  repeatedly,  in  which  from  one 
to  three  thousand  tons  of  gravel  are  in  like  manner  removed  to 
great  distances  in  one  day ;  and  the  author  asserts,  that,  whenever 
400  or  500  cart-loads  of  this  gravel  are  taken  away  for  the  repair  of 
roads,  one  moderate  flood  replaces  the  amount  of  loss  with  the  same 
quantity  of  rounded  debris. 

Parallel  cases  of  the  power  of  water  are  stated  to  occur  in  the 
Tweed,  near  Coldstream. 

June  19.— A.  B.De  Capel  Brooke,  Esq.,  of  Lower  Brooke  Street ; 
James  Morrison,  Esq.,  of  Portland  Place  ;  and  Daniel  Sharpe,  Esq., 
of  New  Ormond  Street, — were  elected  Fellows  of  this  Society. 

A  paper  "On  the  occurrence  of  agates  in  the  dolomitic  strata  of 
the  new-red-sandstone  formation  in  the  Mendip  Hills,"  by  the  Rev. 
W.  Buckland,  D.D.,  V.P.G.S.,  F.R  S.,  &c,  Sec,  was  read.  These 
agates  are  ploughed  out  of  the  surface  of  the  fields  at  Sandford,  near 
Banwell,  and  are  nearly  allied  to  the  potatoe-stones,  which  abound  in 
the  new-red-sandstone  formation  that  surrounds  the  Mendip  Hills. 
Their  prevailing  colours  are  various  shades  of  gray ;  their  internal 
structure  resembles  that  of  the  bird's-eye  agate,  presenting  alternate 
bands  of  chalcedony,  jasper,  and  hornstone,  disposed  in  irregular  and 
concentric  curves  :  some  specimens  from  Worle  and  Clevedon  are  of 
the  nature  of  fine  jasper  agates,  and  of  a  bright  red  colour. 

A  shallow  pit,  from  which  the  agates  are  extracted  at  Sandford, 
piesents  the  following  section. 

I.  Yellow  clay,  mixed  with  magnesia  and  carbonate  of  1     ^  ■     . 
lime i / 


150 

2.  Yellow  dolomite,  used  as  fireetone  in  limekilns ;  it  "] 

crumbles  readily  to  a  soft  powder,  and  is  filled  with    i    fi  .     , 
specks  of  manganese,  and  contains  veins  of  small    {  c  es* 

nodules  of  chalcedony J 

3.  Yellow  clay  falling  to  powder,  in  water,  like  Fuller's  ~) 

earth,  and  containing  much  carbonate  of  lime  and  \  c  •     ^ 

magnesia.     In  this  clay  the  agates  are  dispersed  f 

irregularly  like  nodules  of  flint  in  chalk J 

4.  Yellow  clay  and  earthy  dolomite,  to  the  bottom  of  1   , 0  •     , 

the  pit : JiZ  inches- 

The  author  adduces  a  parallel  example  of  beds  and  nodules  of  jas- 
per and  jasper-agate  in  the  mountains  of  dolomite,  near  Palermo, 
in  a  formation  of  the  same  age  with  the  new-red-sandstone  of  the 
Mendip  Hills.  He  also  gives  examples  of  agates  formed  in  cavities 
of  chert  of  the  green-sand  formation,  near  Lyme  Regis,  and  in 
cavities  of  silicified  wood  and  silicified  corals  and  shells.  The  most 
beautiful  specimens  of  the  two  former  are  from  the  tertiary  strata  of 
Antigua.  Shells  converted  into  chalcedony,  and  containing  agates  in 
their  cavities,  occur  near  Exeter,  in  the  whet-stone-pits  of  the  green- 
sand  formation,  at  Black  Down  Hill ;  and  shells,  entirely  converted 
to  red  jasper,  in  sand  of  the  same  formation,  at  Little  Haldon  Hill. 

A  paper  was  next  read  "On  the  tertiary  fresh- water  formations  of  Aix 
in  Provence,  including  the  coal-field  of  Fuveau,"  by  Roderick  Impey 
Murchison,  Esq.,  Sec.  G.S.,  F.R.S.,  &c,  and  Charles  Lyell,  Esq., 
For.  Sec.  G.S.,  F.R.S.,  &c.;  with  a  description  of  fossil  insects  con- 
tained therein,  by  John  Curtis,  Esq.,  F.L.S. 

The  oldest  and  fundamental  rock  of  this  district  is  a  highly  in- 
clined and  contorted   secondary  limestone,  containing  Belemnites, 
Gryphites  and  Terebratulae  :   on  which  is  unconformably  deposited  a 
vast  fresh-water  formation,  the  relations  of  which  are  shown  in  a 
section  from  N.E.  to  S.W. — The  escarpment  of  white  marl  and  lime- 
stone, N.E.  of  the  town  of  Aix,  is  first  described  in  descending 
series.    The  upper  beds  consisting  of  white  calcareous  marls  and 
marlstone,  calcareo-siliceous  millstone  and  resinous  flint,    contain 
the  Potamides  Lamarckii,  Bulinus  terebra  and  B.  pygmeus,  with  a 
new  species  of  Cyclas  named  C.  gibbosa,  and  the  subjacent  strata 
run  out  into  a  terrace,  beneath  which  gypsum  is  extensively  worked. 
Of  these  beds  (minutely  detailed),  some   are  peculiarly  character- 
ized by  their  abundance  of  fossil  fish ;   and  others  by  a  profusion 
of  plants,  amongst  which,  Mr.  Lindley  has  recognised  Flabellaria 
Lamanonis  of  M.  Ad.  Brongniart,  and  the  leaves  of  Laurus  dulcis  ? 
Podocarpus  macrophylla  ?    and  Buxus   Balearica  ?  —  the    terminal 
pinna  of  a  leguminous  plant,  referrible  to  Loteae  or  Phaseoleae  of  De 
Candolle,   the  branch  of  a  Thuya  nearly  related  to  T.  articulata, 
and  what  appears  to  be    the  fruit  of  some  unknown   plant,   &c, 
&c.      In    this  upper   system   of  gypsum  the   fossil   insects  occur 
exclusively   in    a  finely  laminated  bed  of  about   2   inches  thick  j 
and  still  lower  are  two  other  ranges  of  gypsum,  the  upper  one  of 
which  alone  is  worked  ;  and  the  marls  associated  therewith,  con- 
tain nearly  as  great  a  quantity  of  fossil  fish  as  those  of  the  upper 


151 

zone.  Beneath  these  are  beds  of  white  and  pink-coloured  marl- 
stone  and  marl,  inclined  at  25°  to  30°,  and  distinguished  by  Potamides 
Lamarckii,  and  a  new  species  of  Cyclas,  named  C.Aqua?  Sextiae,  and 
these  pass  downwards  into  a  red-sandstone  (Molasse)  and  a  coarse 
conglomerate  (Nagelfleu),  the  town  of  Aix  being  situated  at  the  base 
of  the  whole  of  the  above  series. 

In  continuing  the  sectional  line  to  the  S.W.,  all  the  district  be- 
tween Aix  and  Fuveau  is  made  up  of  parallel  ridges  of  fresh-water 
rocks ;  the  most  northerly  con  tabling  red  marl  and  fibrous  gypsum,  with 
Limnseae  and  Planorbes  (P.  rotundatus):  the  intermediate  range  is 
of  mere  earthy  limestone,  containing  Limnsese  and  Gyrogonites,  with 
micaceous  sandstone  and  shale ;  and  lastly,  the  coal-field  of  Fuveau 
is  described  as  composed  of  gray,  blue,  and  black  compact  lime- 
stone and  shale,  with  stony  bituminous  coal  of  good  quality  j  the 
united  thickness  of  the  different  seams  of  which  amounts  to  about 
5  feet.  The  fossils  characterizing  the  carboniferous  strata  are  2  new 
species  of  Cyclas,  named  C.  cuneata  and  C.  concinna,  a  Melania, 
named  M.  scalaris  ;  Planorbis  cornu,  and  a  large  species  of  Unio. 
Casts  of  Gyrogonites  were  observed  even  in  the  coal  itself,  and  the 
charcoal  seemed  in  some  instances  to  be  made  up  of  a  plant  resem- 
bling Endogenites  bacillare  of  Brongniart. 

The  authors  remark  that  these  lower  members  of  this  great  tertiary 
deposit  differ  in  character  from  any  other  fresh-water  group  examin- 
ed by  them  in  Central  France,  and  have  so  much  the  aspect  of  the 
most  ancient  secondary  rocks,  that  the  presence  alone  of  fluviatile 
and  lacustrine  shells,  with  Gyrogonites,  compelled  them  to  recognise 
the  comparitively  recent  date  of  the  whole  group. 

This  notice  was  accompanied  by  observations  on  the  fossil  insects, 
mentioned  in  the  preceding  memoir,  by  John  Curtis,  Esq.,  F.L.S. 
These  insects  are  all  of  European  forms,  and  are  most  of  them  re- 
ferrible  to  existing  genera.  The  greater  portions  belong  to  the  orders 
Diptera  and  Hemiptera;  the  Coleoptera  are  next  in  number,  there 
are  only  a  few  Hymenoptera,  and  but  one'  Lepidopterous  insect. 
"  As  a  larger  collection,"  says  Mr.  Curtis,  "might  greatly  change 
the  proportion  of  the  different  orders,  no  positive  inference,  as  to 
climate,  should  be  drawn  from  the  present  assemblage  ;  but  there 
is  nothing  in  the  character  of  the  insects  to  warrant  the  supposi- 
tion of  a  higher  temperature  than  that  of  the  South  of  France."  The 
great  portion  of  these  remains  were  very  probably  brought  together 
from  different  localities  by  floods,  mountain-torrents,  or  rivers ;  yet 
there  is  no  insect  among  them  that  might  not  be  found  in  a  moist 
wood.  The  antennae,  tarsi,  and  other  parts  whereby  the  characters 
would  be  best  distinguished,  are  often  wanting ;  yet  enough  cha- 
racters frequently  remain  even  then  to  distinguish  the  genus.  The 
sculpture,  and  even  some  degree  of  colouring,  are  preserved  in  several 
specimens.  The  wings  of  some  beetles  are  extended  beyond  the 
elytra,  showing  that  when  they  perished,  they  were  flying  or  attempt- 
ing to  escape  by  flight. 

A  collection  of  fossil  vegetables,  from  the  Northumberland  and  Dur- 
ham coal-field,  was  exhibited  at  this  meeting,  and  presented  to  the 


152 

Society  by  William  Hutton,  Esq.,  of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  F.G.S.; 
with  a  catalogue  describing  the  plants,  according  to  the  systems  of 
M.  Ad.  Brongniart  and  Mr.  Artis.  The  collection  consisted  of  spe- 
cimens of  Calamites,  Sagenaria,  Filiates,  Myriophyllites,  Asterio- 
phyllites  and  Sphsenophyllites. 

At  the  close  of  this  Meeting,  which  terminated  the  session,  the 
Society  adjourned  till  Friday  evening  the  6th  of  November. 


PRINTED  BY   RICHARD  TAYLOR, 
KED  LION  COURT,  FLEET  STREET. 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE  GEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  LONDON. 

1829.  No.  13. 

_  Nov.  6th,  1829. — The  Society  assembled  this  evening  For  the  Ses- 
sion. 

George  Biddell  Airy,  Esq.  M.A.  Fellow  of  Trinity  College,  Cam- 
bridge, and  Professor  of  Astronomy  in  that  University ;  John  Mac*, 
pherson  Grant,  Esq.  of  Ballindalloch,  N.  B.  and  attached  to  His  Ma- 
jesty's Legation  at  Turin  ;  John  Heywood  Hawkins,  Esq.  of  Bignor 
Park,  Sussex ;  Philip  Duncan,  Esq.,  Fellow  of  New  College,  Ox- 
ford ;  and  William  Cavendish,  Esq.,  M.P.  M.A.  of  Trinity  College, 
Cambridge,  and  Belgrave-square  London,  were  elected  Fellows  of 
this  Society. 

A  Paper  was  read,  "  On  the  Tertiary  Deposits  of  the  Vale  of  Go- 
sau  in  the  Salzburg  Alps ;  by  the  Rev.  Adam  Sedgwick,  Pres.  G.S. 
F.R.S.  &c,  and  Roderick  Impey  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S. 
&c." 

The  authors  present  this  as  the  first  of  a  series  of  memoirs  in  which 
they  hope  to  throw  some  light  on  the  structure  of  the  tertiary  forma- 
tions in  Salzburg  and  Bavaria,  and  their  varied  relations  to  the 
secondary  rocks  of  the  Austrian  Alps. 

These  deposits,  the  highest  members  of  which  descend  into  the 
fiat  regions  near  the  banks  of  the  Danube,  become,  in  their  lower 
groups,  more  elevated  and  more  highly  inclined  ;  and,  as  they  ap- 
proach their  southern  or  Alpine  barrier,  are  sometimes  vertical  : 
whilst  in  the  valley  of  Gosau  and  far  within  that  barrier,  formations 
with  the  same  organic  remains  are  found  at  much  higher  elevations, 
inclosed  in  Alpine  limestone,  on  which  they  rest  unconformably,  and 
in  a  nearly  horizontal  position.  This  deposit  of  Gosau  the  authors 
conceive  to  have  been  formed  in  one  of  the  arms  of  an  ancient  sea 
which,  like  the  present  salt-water  lochs  of  Scotland,  must  have  pe- 
netrated deeply  into  the  then  existing  valleys  of  the  Alps  ;  whilst  its 
actual  position  incontestably  proves  that  it  must  have  been  prodi- 
giously upheaved  at  some  time  posterior  to  the  epoclrof  its  formation. 

In  ascending  the  drainage  of  the  Traun  to  the  district  under 
review,  patches  of  these  tertiary  formations  are  described  as  occurring 
in  various  small  transverse  valleys  between  Gmunden  and  Ischel  j 
but  these  are  comparatively  at  low  elevations,  and  all  traces  of  them 
are  lost  in  the  higher  regions  between  Ischel  and  the  Lake  of  Hall- 
stadt,  which  is  about  1 700  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea.  The 
valley  of  Gosau  is  described  as  situated  more  than  five  miles  to  the 
west  of  that  lake  and  about  900  feet  above  its  level.  The  formations 
which  the  authors  consider  Tertiary,  occupy  the  flanks  of  this  valley, 
and  are  chiefly  exhibited  in  two  hilly  ranges,  the  Horn  on  the  west, 


154 

and  the  Ressenberg  on  the  east.  The  beds  of  these  hills  are  nearly 
horizontal,  have  an  estimated  thickness  of  not  less  than  2G00  feet, 
and  are  shut  in  on  all  sides  by  Alpine  limestone,  forming  on  the 
south  a  great  seriated  barrier,  the  highest  pinnacles  of  which  are 
more  than  1 0,000  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea. 

The  following  abstract  of  detailed  sections  derived  from  the  Horn 
and  the  Ressenberg,  exhibits  the  strata  in  descending  order. 

1st.  Red  and  green  slaty  micaceous  sandstone,  several  hundred  feet 
thick  (cap  of  the  Horn). 

2nd.  Green,  micaceous,  gritty  sandstone  extensively  quarried  as 
whetstone,  succeeded  by  yellowish,  sandy  marls  (Ressenberg). 

3rd.  A  vast,  shelly  series  consisting  of  blue  marls  alternating  with 
strong  beds  of  compact  limestone  and  calcareous  grit,  the  upper 
beds  of  which  are  marked  by  obscure  traces  of  vegetables  j  and  the 
middle  and  inferior  strata,  by  a  prodigious  quantity  of  well  pre- 
served organic  remains,  out  of  which  the  authors  collected  upwards 
of  eighty  species  of  bivalve  and  univalve  shells,  and  fifteen  species 
of  corals.  (Localities  : — beds  of  torrents  descending  into  Gosau- 
Thal.) 

4th.  The  above  shelly  series  graduates  downwards  into  beds  of  a 
more  conglomerate  form  which  pass  into  a  red  sandstone  and  marl 
containing  gypsum  ;  and  a  coarse  conglomerate,  forming  the  base 
of  the  whole  system,  rests  upon,  and  abuts  against,  the  Alpine  or 
saliferous  limestone.     (Locality  : — Russbach.) 

Amongst  the  shells  occurring  in  the  group  No.  3,  are 

Bivalves: — Crassatella  2  species,  Corbula  1,  Pectunculus  3,  Car- 
dium  3,  Plicatula  2,  Gryphsea  2,Trigonia  2,  Pecten  1,  Solen  1,  Ana- 
tina  1,  Lucina  1,  Astarte  1,  Venus  2,  Cypricardia  1,  Isocardia  1, 
Ostrea  2,  Hippurites  2  *,  &c.  &c. 

Univalves: — Melania  2,  Melanopsis  ?  1,  Ampullaria  1,  Neretina  1, 
Natica  3,  Trochus  1,  Turbo  1,  Turritella  2,  Cerithium  6,  Nerita  2, 
Tuibinella  I,  Fusns  2,  Rostellaria  1,  Buccinum  3,  Mitra  2,  Volva- 
ria  2,  Con  us  ?  1 ,  &c.  &c. 

Corals: — Tiubinolia  I,  Caryophyllia  3,  Fungia  2,  Cyclolites  ?  2, 
Astrea  5,  Madrep3ra  2. 

The  above  organic  remains  have  been  examined  by  M.  Deshayes 
and  Mr.  J.  Sowerby,  neither  of  whom  detected  a  single  species 
identical  with  any  known  fossil  of  the  secondary  rocks,  whilst  they 
consider  the  greater  number  of  the  genera  to  be  eminently  charac- 
teristic of  the  tertiary  period. — The  authors  have  further  remarked 
a  strong  resemblance  between  these  fossils  and  certain  unpublished 
species  of  the  Vicentino,  and  Mr.  Sowerby  has  identified  a  few  species 
with  well-known  tertiary  shells.  It  is,  therefore,  concluded  both  from 
negative  and  positive  zoological  evidence,  as  well  as  from  the  uncon- 
formable position  of  the  beds,  that  the  whole  deposit  of  Gosau  must 
be  considered  tertiary,  or,  in  other  words,  younger  than  the  chalk. 
At  the  same  time,  the  great  proportion  of  new  species  contained 
therein,  and  the  absence  of  those  identifications  with  recent  shells 

*  The  genus  Hippurites  is  placed  among  the  bivalves  on  the  authority  of 
M.  Deshayes. 


which  mark  the  fossils  of  the  younger  tertiary  groups,  prove  that  it 
must  be   ranked  with  the  most  ancient  deposits  of  that  series. 

In  the  basins  which  have  been  best  examined,  there  is  an  entire 
break  between  the  secondary  and  tertiary  groups.  But  the  great 
mechanical  agents  which  in  these  localities  have  elevated  and  ground 
down  the  secondary  rocks,  before  the  commencement  of  the  tertiary, 
may  not  have  acted  universally.  There  is  therefore  reason  to  expect 
in  distant  localities  new  groups  of  rocks  by  which  this  break  may  be 
filled  up  ;  and  by  help  of  which  it  will  perhaps  be  found  that  the 
newest  secondary  rocks  and  the  oldest  tertiary,  graduate  finally  into 
each  other. 

Nov.  20. — J.  R.  Gowen,  Esq.  of  Highclere,  near  Newbury,  and 
William  Holbech,  Esq.  of  Farnborough,  Warwickshire,  were  elected 
Fellows  of  this  Society. 

The  reading  of  a  paper,  "  On  the  Tertiary  Formations  which  range 
along  the  Flanks  of  the  Salzburg  and  Bavarian  Alps,"  being  in  con- 
tinuation of  the  memoir  "  On  the  Valley  of  Gosau,"  by  the  Rev.  Adam 
Sedgwick,  Pres.  G.S.  F.R.S.  &c,  and  Roderick  Impey  Murchison,  Esq. 
Sec.  G.S.  F  R.S.  &c.  was  begun. 

Dec,  4. —  Nicholas  Dennys,  Esq.  of  Cambridge  Terrace,  Regent's 
Park  ;  John  Willimott,  Esq.  of  Jermyn-street,  St.  James's  ;  William 
Higgins,  Esq.  of  Coggeshall,  Essex  ;  and  Edward  Spencer,  Esq.,  of 
Highgate,  were  elected  Fellows  of  this  Society. 

His  Imperial  Highness  the  Arch-duke  John  of  Austria;  Professor 
Hausmann,  of  Gottingen ;  M.  Hoffmann,  of  Berlin  ;  M.  Voltz,  of 
Strasbourg;  M.  Dufrenoy,  of  Paris  ;  and  Dr.  Ami  Bone-,  were  elected 
Foreign  Members  of  the  Society. 

The  reading  of  the  paper  by  the  Rev.  Adam  Sedgwick,  Pies.  G.S. 
F.R.S.  &c,  and  Roderick  Impey  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S., 
&c.  begun  at  the  last  meeting,  was  concluded. 

The  authors,  having  in  a  former  communication  described  the  great 
relations  of  the  tertiary  formations  on  the  north  flank  of  the  Alps  to 
the  older  part  of  the  chain,  proceed  in  this  paper  to  confirm  their 
conclusions  by  a  series  of  detailed  transverse  sections,  commencing 
with  the  hills  near  the  foot  of  the  Traunsee,  and  ending  with  the 
lofty  hills  of  molasse  and  conglomerate  near  the  Lake  of  Bregenz. 

1 .  Section  at  the  foot  of  the  Traunsee. — The  tertiary  formations  here 
commence  on  the  north  side  of  the  Traunstein  ;  and  the  lower  beds 
are  described  as  being  chiefly  argillaceous,  of  a  great  thickness,  and 
in  a  highly  inclined  position.  They  contain  some  of  the  Gosau  fos- 
sils, and  in  their  prolongation  form  the  base  of  a  hill  1 800  feet  high, 
composed  of  alternating  beds  of  sandstone  and  of  sandy  marl.  This 
whole  system  is  surmounted  by  great  alternating  masses  of  conglo- 
merate, sandstone,  and  marl,  forming  a  succession  of  parallel  ridges 
in  the  country  north  of  Gmunden  ;  and  still  further  towards  the  north, 
and  in  a  higher  part  of  the  series,  are  beds  of  lignite. 

2.  Section  of  Salzburg. — Great  parallel  ridges  of  conglomerate 
and  sandstone  extend  at  the  foot  of  the  higher  Alps,  from  the  denu- 
dation of  the  Traun  to  that  of  the  Salza.  The  conglomerates  rest- 
ing immediately  on  the  older  limestone,  re-appear  on  the  left  bank  of 


156 

the  river j  and  form  a  mural  precipice  on  the  S.W.  side  of  the  city  of 
Salzburg-.  They  are  described  in  detail,  and  are  shown  to  have  ori- 
ginated in  the  mechanical  degradation  of  the  neighbouring  chain  ;  and 
having  a  high  inclination  which  carries  them  under  the  micaceous 
sandstones  of  the  northern  plains,  are,  on  that  account,  referred  to 
the  lower  part  of  the  tertiary  system. 

3.  Section  from  Untersberg  to  the  plains  N.E.  of  Rekhenhall. — The 
authors  here  give  a  short  account  of  the  great  secondary  system  of 
Alpine  limestone ;  and  the  Untersberg  beds,  which  contain  innumer- 
able Hippurites,  are  shown  to  belong  to  the  highest  part  of  that  series. 
Over  the  Untersberg  beds,  the  section  exhibits  the  following  suc- 
cession. 

a.  A  great  deposit  of  marl  and  marlstone,  generally  of  a  gray,  but 
in  some  places  of  a  red  colour  ;  containing  a  few  fossils  resembling 
those  of  the  chalk  formation. 

b.  Sandy,  micaceous  marls  alternating  with  conglomerates  and  mi- 
caceous, calc-grit,  with  Nummulites.  Subordinate  to  this  system  are 
red  and  variegated  marls,  with  gypsum. 

c.  A  system  of  beds  composed  of  blue,  micaceous  slate-clay  and 
greenish,  micaceous  sandstone. 

d.  A  great  succession  of  alternating  masses  of  blueish,  micaceous 
marl,  slate-clay,  sandstone,  and  conglomerate.  Some  of  these  upper 
marls  contain  beds  of  gypsum  and  fossils,  resembling  the  suite  of 
Gosau.  The  whole  of  the  preceding  series  is  succeeded  towards  the 
north  by  the  tertiary,  slaty,  green  sandstone  of  the  plains. 

As  all  the  deposits  above  described  are  conformable  to  each  other, 
there  is  a  difficulty  in  drawing  the  precise  line  of  demarcation  be- 
tween the  secondary  and  tertiary  formations  :  the  authors  (though 
not  without  some  hesitation)  place  the  nummulite-rock,  which  is 
associated  with  the  lower  gypseous  marls,  at  the  base  of  the  tertiary 
group. 

4.  Section  from  the  Stauffenberg,  through  the.  Kachelstein  and  the 
Kressenberg,  towards  the  plains  of  Bavaria. — In  this  section  the  Stauf- 
fenberg  and  the  Kachelstein  belong  to  the  outer  zone  of  secondary 
Alpine  limestone,  which  in  this  region  is  enormously  dislocated,  so 
that  the  subordinate  beds  are  not  only  contorted  and  pitched  up  at 
high  angles,  but  generally  plunge  in  towards  the  axis  of  the  chain.  The 
Kressenberg  rises  to  the  height  of  500  or  600  feet  on  the  north  side  of 
the  Kachelstein,  and  forms  a  gradual  slope  towards  the  northern 
plains.  Its  subordinate  beds  dip  at  high  angles  of  elevation  towards 
the  south,  those  which  are  nearest  the  secondary  ridges  being  inclined 
at  80°.  This  position  gives  the  system  of  the  Kressenberg  the  ap- 
pearance of  dipping  under  the  secondary  rocks,  an  appearance  which 
the  authors  consider  entirely  deceptive,  and  for  which  they  account  by 
the  intervention  of  a  great  fault.  They  consider  the  beds  of  the  Kres- 
senberg hills  as  tertiary  ;  because,  though  inch'ned  in  the  same  general 
direction  with  the  secondary  mountains,  they  are  not  conformable  to 
them  5  because  they  contain  no  Ammonites,  Belemnites,  or  other  se- 
condary fossils  ;  and,  lastly,  because  they  contain  very  many  organic 
remains  which  characterise  tertiary  formations.     The   authors  here 


157 

refer  to  the  list  of  fossils  derived  by  Count  Minister  from  this  locality,, 
and  they  entirely  coincide  with  the  opinions  which  he  has  published 
respecting  them.  This  tertiary  system  is  almost  entirely  composed  of 
sand  and  sandstone  which,  here  and  there,  contain  many  particles  of 
green  earth,  in  some  places  resembling  tertiary  molasse,  and  in 
others  not  to  be  distinguished  from  secondary,  green  sand.  Subordi- 
nate to  this  system  are  eleven  beds  of  granular  hydrate  of  iron  (vary- 
ing from  five  to  seven  feet  in  thickness),  which  are  extensively 
worked. 

After  the  details  of  the  preceding  section,  the  great  derangements 
of  the  neighbouring  Alpine  chain  are  briefly  noticed.  It  is  shown  that 
there  are  two  anticlinical  lines  ;  one  of  which  ranges  through  the  mi- 
neralogical  centre  of  the  chain  ;  while  the  other,  passing  longitudi- 
nally through  the  great  calcareous  zone  appears  to  carry  a  part  of  the 
saliferous  series  under  the  older  formations. 

5.  Tertiary  deposits  in  the  Valley  of  the  Inn. — These  were  proba- 
bly once  of  considerable  extent,  occupying  a  basin  about  twenty 
miles  in  length,  but  not  more  than  three  or  four  miles  in  its  greatest 
breadth.  They  are  now  chiefly  seen  near  Haring,  where  a  bed  of 
coal  thirty-four  feet  in  thickness  is  extensively  worked  by  means  of 
long  horizontal  levels,  which  traverse  a  great  succession  of  strata. 
These  beds  are  described  in  great  detail,  and  are  principally  com- 
posed of  fetid  marls  in  various  states  of  induration.  The  coal  and 
overlying  beds  contain  many  land  and  fluviatile  shells,  and  have  at 
first  sight  the  appearance  of  a  great  lacustrine  formation.  Some  of 
the  beds  above  the  coal,  contain  innumerable  impressions  of  well- 
preserved  dicotyledonous  and  other  plants,  many  of  which  are  in 
the  course  of  examination  by  M.  Adolphe  Brongniart.  There  are, 
however,  several  marine  shells  in  the  strata,  which  show  that  the 
sea  ascended  up  this  part  of  the  valley  of  the  Inn  during  the  period 
of  the  Haring  deposit.  From  the  general  character  of  these  marine 
shells,  some  of  which  have  been  identified  with  those  of  the  London 
clay,  the  authors  are  disposed  to  refer  the  whole  deposit  to  an  early 
part  of  the  tertiary  period. 

6.  Sections  of  the  tertiary  formations  of  Bavaria. — The  authors 
first  remark,  that  the  line  of  demarcation  between  the  secondary 
and  tertiary  groups,  is  generally  well  defined ;  but  they  also  derive 
from  this  region  several  proofs  that  the  tertiary  seas  ascended  up 
the  old  valleys  of  the  Alps  a  long  way  to  the  south  of  the  average 
direction  of  this  line.  In  proof  of  this  they  refer  to  some  deposits 
in  the  valley  of  the  Isar.  They  then  describe  in  detail  the  sections 
between  Fiissen  and  Schongau,  in  which  an  enormous  succession  of 
beds  is  laid  bare  on  the  banks  of  the  Lech. 

They  afterwards  describe  the  section  of  Nesselwang,  in  which  the 
lowest  strata  of  the  tertiary  series  are  of  great  thickness,  and  are 
raised  against  the  side  of  the  Alps  in  a  vertical  position.  They 
remark  that  the  tertiary  system  has  here  a  coarser  structure  than  in 
most  parts  of  the  range;  that  beds  of  conglomerate  abound  in  the 
lower  part  of  it;  and  that  the  beds  of  molasse  and  marl  are  en- 
tirely subordinate  to  them.     Lastly,  the  authors  remark  no  less 


158 

than  three  or  four  distinct  zones  of  coal  or  lignite,  separated  from 
each  other  by  sedimentary  deposits  of  enormous  thickness  ;  as  some 
of  these  zones  occur  in  the  lower,  and  some  in  the  higher  parts  of 
the  tertiary  group,  they  infer  that  the  existence  of  lignite  is,  of  itself, 
no  general  test  of  the  age  of  a  tertiary  deposit. 

7.  Section  through  the  hills  at  the  east  end  of  the  Lake  of  Con- 
stance.— After  making  some  remarks  upon  the  great  elevation  of  the 
tertiary  formations  in  the  south-western  extremity  of  Bavaria,  the 
authors  proceed  to  describe  the  transverse  section  exhibited  by  the 
hills  above  Bregenz.  They  commence  with  a  description  of  the 
nummulite-rocks  of  Haslach,  which  are  associated  with,  and  form  a 
prolongation  of,  the  secondary  system  of  the  Stauffen  and  the  Salz- 
burg chain.  They  also  refer  the  nummulite-rocks  and  marl-slate 
above  Oberdorf  to  the  same  system,  and  compare  them  with  the 
nummulite-ironstone  of  Sonthofen.  In  consequence  of  the  de- 
rangement of  the  strata,  and  the  accumulations  of  transported 
materials,  the  first  commencement  of  the  tertiary  beds  is  obscure; 
but  they  rise  into  hills  of  the  elevation  of  about  2.500  feet  above 
the  Lake  of  Constance,  and  mark  the  prolongation  of  the  secon- 
dary series,  on  the  northern  extremity  of  a  ridge  called  Rexberg, 
ten  or  twelve  miles  S.  E.  of  Bregenz.  The  lower  part  of  the 
tertiary  system,  is  composed  of  green,  micaceous  sandstone,  to 
which  certain  beds  of  conglomerate  are  subordinate,  and  it  is  de- 
scribed as  perfectly  identical  with  the  great  deposit  of  adjoining  mo- 
lasse  which  forms  the  base  of  the  tertiary  formations  of  Switzerland 
This  sandstone  occupies  the  successive  ridges  which  extend  from  the 
neighbourhood  of  Oberdorf  to  Bregenz.  And,  as  in  the  greater 
part  of  this  long  range  the  beds  are  highly  inclined  and  have  an 
undeviating  dip  towards  the  north,  their  united  thickness  must  be 
enormously  great. — The  authors  afterwards  describe,  with  many 
details,  the  great  complex  deposit  of  conglomerates  alternating 
with  greenish  sandstone  and  variously  coloured  marls  which  consti- 
tute the  upper  tertiary  group,  and  compose  the  whole  mass  of  the 
mountain  ridge  extending  northwards  from  Bregenz.  This  whole 
section  is  considered  of  importance,  partly  from  the  great  scale  upon 
which  the  formation  is  developed,  and  still  more  from  its  forming  a 
connecting  link  between  the  tertiary  deposits  or  molasse  of  Swit- 
zerland and  those  which  are  exhibited  in  the  several  sections  de- 
scribed in  this  paper. 

Finally,  the  authors  give  a  short  summary  of  the  conclusions 
which  seem  to  follow  from  the  facts  stated  in  the  memoir. 

1.  The  tertiary  formations  of  Austria  and  Bavaria  appear  to 
have  been  formed  in  an  ancient  mediterranean  sea,  the  limits  of 
which  may  be  in  a  considerable  measure  ascertained ;  and  the 
great  mechanical  deposits  above  described  seem  to  have  origi- 
nated in  the  gradual  degradation  of  the  Alpine  chain,  partly  by  the 
action  of  the  sea  on  the  flanks,  and  partly  by  the  erosion  of  the 
torrents  descending  from  the  mountains,  and  carrying  great  masses 
of  transported  materials  below  the  level  of  the  waters. 

2.  In  some  instances  the  tertiary  beds  are  unconformable  to  the 


159 

Alpine  limestone;  in  other  instances  they  are  conformable.  And 
there  are  beds  which,  both  from  their  fossils  and  from  their  struc- 
ture, seem  to  exhibit  a  connecting  link  between  the  secondary  and 
tertiary  formations. 

3.  The  system  above  described  contains  three  or  four  distinct 
zones  of  coal  or  lignite,  with  many  thousand  feet  of  conglomerate, 
sandstone  and  marl  between  each  ;  beginning  in  the  lower,  and  end- 
ing in  the  upper  parts  of  the  series. 

4.  These  younger  deposits  have  the  same  general  relations  to  the 
older  chain,  as  the  subalpine  tertiary  formations  of  the  north  of  Italy  ; 
from  which  it  seems  to  follow  that  the  northern  and  western  basins 
of  the  Danube,  and  the  tertiary  basin  of  the  subalpine  and  sub- 
apennine  regions,  must  have  been  left  dry  at  the  same  period.  The 
conclusion  is  further  confirmed  by  the  suite  of  fossils  in  the  adjoin- 
ing molasse  of  Switzerland. 

5.  All  the  transverse  sections  prove  the  recent  longitudinal  eleva- 
tion of  the  neighbouring  chain.  The  tertiary  beds  form  an  inclined 
plane,  down  which  the  Alpine  waters  stream  into  the  Danube  in 
nearly  undeviating  lines,  greatly  contrasted  with  the  sinuous  chan- 
nels through  which  the  waters  escape  into  the  plains  from  the  older 
rocks. 

6.  The  authors  endeavour  to  confirm  the  preceding  conclusion  by 
the  facts  exhibited  in  the  drainage  of  the  south  of  Bavaria.  They 
state  that  the  whole  system  of  drainage,  is  in  a  state  of  continual 
change  and  of  progress,  and  that  the  rivers  have  not  yet  worked 
for  themselves  any  thing  like  permanent  channels. 

7.  The  authors  lastly  account  for  some  of  the  greater  denudations, 
by  debacles  which  must  have  taken  place  during  the  elevation  of  the 
Alps,  and  by  the  bursting  of  a  succession  of  lakes  since  that  period. 
In  confirmation  of  which,  they  state  that  there  is  not  a  single  valley 
among  the  newer  formations  of  southern  Bavaria,  in  which  may 
not  be  seen  many  parallel  terraces  (like  the  parallel  roads  of  Scot- 
land) indicating  the  residence  of  nearly  stagnant  water  at  several 
successive  levels. 

A  paper  "  On  ^the  discovery  of  the  bones  of  the  Iguanodon,  and 
other  large  reptiles,  in  the  Isle  of  Wight  and  Isle  of  Purbeck ;  by 
the  Rev.  William  Buckland,  D.D.  V.P.G.S.  F.R.S.  &c.  &c,"  was 
then  read. 

Hitherto  the  Iguanodon  has  been  found  only  within  the  limits  of 
the  Weald  of  Sussex,  where  it  was  first  discovered  by  Mr.  Mantell, 
in  the  iron  sandstone  formation  of  Tilgate  Forest.  Dr.  Buckland 
has  recently  ascertained  the  existence  of  this  animal  in  two  other 
localities  of  the  same  formation :  one  near  Sandown  Fort  on  the 
south  coast  of  the  Isle  of  Wight  ;  the  other  in  Swanwich  Bay,  at 
the  eastern  extremity  of  the  Isle  of  Purbeck.  In  all  these  places 
its  matrix  is  the  same,  ferruginous  sandstone,  to  which  the  name  of 
Wealden  or  Hastings  sandstone,  has  been  applied  by  recent  ob- 
servers in  geology,  being  intermediate  between  the  lowest  beds  of 
the  green  sand  formation  and  the  upper  beds  of  the  Purbeck  lime- 
tone,  and  its  fossil  shells  exhibiting  such  an  admixture  of  marine 


160 

remains  with  those  of  freshwater,  as  seems  to  indicate  the  former 
existence  of  a  great  estuary  in  the  district  wherein  they  have  been 
deposited. 

From  the  size  of  the  bones  of  the  Iguanodon,  described  by  Mr. 
Manteli  and  Mr.  Murchison*,  it  has  been  ascertained  that  this  her- 
bivorous reptile  was  of  extraordinary  magnitude;  but  a  single  bone 
of  its  foot  has  been  lately  found  near  Sandown  Fort,  which  shows 
that  its  proportions  probably  exceeded  those  of  the  most  gigantic 
quadruped  yet  discovered.  The  bone  alluded  to  seems  to  be  the 
external  metacarpal  bone  of  the  right  foot;  it  is  twice  as  lai-ge  as 
the  corresponding  bone  of  a  large  elephant ;  its  length  is  six  inches, 
its  breadth  at  the  upper  extremity  five  inches,  and  its  weight  six 
pounds.  A  gigantic  pelvis  was  also  found  in  the  same  iron-sand  at 
Sandown  Fort.  Among  the  bones  discovered  in  the  Isle  of  Purbeck 
by  the  Rev.  J.  C.  Bartlett,  the  most  remarkable  are  large  verte- 
bras, and  toe  bones  of  the  Iguanodon,  in  size  and  form  resembling 
those  engraved  by  Mr.  Manteli  from  Tilgate  Forest ;  there  are  also 
various  bones  of  other  species  of  reptiles  ;  a  fragment  of  a  femur, 
resembling  that  of  the  Megalosaurus ;  bones  of  large  and  small 
Crocodiles,  and  of  more  than  one  species  of  Plesiosaurus.  All 
these  animals  have  been  found  by  Mr.  Manteli,  similarly  associated 
in  the  Hastings  sandstone  of  Tilgate  Forest.  Dr.  Fitton  has  ascer- 
tained the  shells  in  this  iron- sand  at  Swanwich  and  Sandown  Fort  to 
be  identical  with  those  of  the  same  formation  in  the  Weaid-j-  ;  and 
the  addition  of  so  many  reptiles  to  the  list  of  their  common  organic 
remains,  affords  still  further  evidence  of  the  identity  of  the  strata 
in  which  they  occur. 

*  See  Manteli,  Tilgate  Forest ;  and  Geol.  Trans,  vol.  ii.  2nd  Series. 
f  See  Annals  of  Philosophy,  Nov.  1824. 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE  GEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OP  LONDON. 

1829-1830.  No.  14.  " 

Dec.  18. — Benjamin  Blake,  Esq.  Captain  in  the  Bengal  Army; 
Matthias  Attwood,  Esq.,  M.P.,  of  Gracechurch-street,  London,  and 
Muswell-hill,  Middlesex  ;  James  Hall,  Esq.  of  Southampton-street, 
Russell-square  ;  and  Thomas  Clement  Sneyd  Kynnersley,  Esq.  of 
Essex-court,  Temple, — were  elected  Fellows  of  this  Society. 

M.  J.  J.  D'Omalius  D'Halloy,  &c.  &c.  Governor  of  the  Province  of 
Namur,  in  the  kingdom  of  the  Netherlands,  was  elected  a  Foreign 
Member  of  this  Society. 

A  paper  was  read  entitled  "  Observations  on  part  of  the  Low 
Countries  and  the  north  of  France,  principally  near  Maestricht 
and  Aix-la-Chapelle;"  by  William  Henry  Fitton,  M.D.  F.G.S.&c. — 
The  general  structure  of  the  country  on  the  confines  of  the  Nether- 
lands and  France  has  been  described,  several  years  ago,  by  M. 
D'Omalius  D'Halloy ;  and  various  memoirs,  since  published  by 
other  persons,  confirm  his  statements.  The  basis  of  the  whole 
tract  consists  of  the  coal-measures,  with  subjacent  shale,  grit, 
mountain-limestone,  reddish  sandstone  and  conglomerate,  and 
finally  transition-slate.  Above  this  series  of  highly  inclined  beds, 
other  strata,  unconformable  and  nearly  horizontal,  repose ;  which, 
in  the  Boullonois,  include  the  upper  part  of  the  oolitic  groups  ; 
but,  in  advancing  eastward,  descend  no  lower  than  the  green-sands. 
The  country  therefore  is  analogous  to  the  vicinity  of  Bristol  and 
Bath  ;  but  the  overlying  formations  there  go  down  to  the  lower 
oolite,  lias,  and  new  red  sandstone. 

The  object  of  the  author's  inquiries  was,  to  determine  what  beds 
are  found,  in  the  tract  which  he  examined,  above  the  coal ;  and  how 
far  they  agree  with  their  equivalents  in  England.  He  describes  in 
succession  the  several  strata :  the  list  including,  in  a  descending 
order, — 1.  Beds  above  the  chalk; — to  which  are  referred, — 2.  The 
stone  and  calcareous  sands  of  Maestricht. — 3.  White  chalk,  passing 
into  the  Green-sand  formation, — which  comprehends, — 4>.  Fire- 
stone, with — 5.  Green  and  ferruginous  sands. — 6.  Obscure  traces 
of  clays  beneath  the  sands.  The  whole  being  unconformable  and 
superior  to — 7.  The  coal-measures,  &c.  &c. — The  paper  is  accom- 
panied by  lists  of  the  fossils,  examined  and  named  by  Mr.  Sowerby  ; 
and  by  a  sketch  of  a  general  map,  with  sections  on  a  larger  scale. 

1 .  Beds  above  the  chalk. — The  Crag,  of  Suffolk,  &c.  is  stated,  on 
the  authority  of  Mr.  Warburton,  to  have  been  observed  on  the 
French  coast  between  Calais  and  Cape  Blanc-Nez;  near  Antwerp; 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Tongres;  and  at  other  places  in  the  Nether- 
lands. The  fossils  also  of  Klein-Spawen  between,  Tongres  and 
Maestricht,  include,  along  with  several  shells  of  thecalcaire-grossier, 
some  of  those  found  in  our  crag. 

The  sands  which  immediately  precede  the  chalk,  along  the  road 


162 

from  London  to  Dover,  precisely  resemble  those  in  the  same  situa- 
tion, on  the  line  from  Calais  through  St.  Omer,  Cassel,  and  Lille, 
&c:  the  prominent  hill  of  Cassel,  however,  is  not  topped  with  clay, 
but  seems  to  consist  entirely  of  sand,  including  very  numerous  fossils, 
contained  principally  in  loose  concretional  beds  of  stone.  These 
fossils,  many  of  which  are  the  same  with  those  of  similar  sands  near 
Brussels,  agree,  in  general,  with  those  of  the  London- clay  ;  and 
thence  it  would  appear,  that  the  separation  of  that  stratum  from  the 
sands  immediately  incumbent  on  the  chalk  is  not  well  founded. 
Beds  of  the  sands  here  referred  to  occur,  in  the  same  geological 
place,  in  Kent;  near  St.  Omer;  at  Cassel;  at  Mount-Panisel,  and 
Ciply,  south  of  Mons  ;  at  Brussels;  between  Charleroi  and  Fleurus; 
and  at  Kleyn-Spauwen,  between  Tongres  and  Maestricht. 

2.  Maestricht  stratum. — Between  the  deposition  of  the  sands 
last  mentioned  and  of  the  chalk,  a  considerable  interval  must  have 
elapsed ;  during  which  various  beds  may  have  been  deposited, 
of  which  no  trace,  or  but  obscure  remains  exist,  at  present,  in  En- 
gland. The  well-known  stratum  of  St.  Peter's-Mount  near  Maes- 
tricht is  one  of  these  :  it  is  throughout  superior  to  the  white  chalk, 
into  which  it  passes  gradually  below,  but  the  top  bears  marks  of 
devastation,  and  there  is  no  passage  from  it  to  the  sands  above.  The 
siliceous  masses  which  it  includes  are  much  more  rare  than  those  of 
the  chalk,  of  greater  bulk,  and  not  composed  of  black  flint,  but  of  a 
stone  approaching  to  chert,  and,  in  some  cases,  to  calcedony  : — and 
of  about  fifty  species  of  its  fossils  in  the  author's  collection,  about 
forty  are  not  found  in  Mr.  Mantell's  catalogue  of  the  chalk  fossils 
of  Sussex*.  The  author  therefore,  with  Mr.  Honyf,  and  Mr. 
ConybeareJ,  regards  this  bed  as  differing  from,  though  intimately 
connected  with  the  chalk. 

A  very  fine  section  of  the  Maestricht  bed  is  visible  on  the  sides 
of  the  valleys  of  the  Meuse  and  of  the  Jaar  ;  and  in  the  heights  op- 
posite to  Vise  the  bed,  gradually  rising  from  Maestricht,  disap- 
pears, and  is  succeeded  by  white  chalk  with  flints.  The  section 
of  this  stratum,  and  all  the  accompanying  circumstances,  at  Ciply, 
south  of  Mons,  accord  remarkably  with  those  of  Maestricht ;  and 
from  M.  Desnoyer's  statements,  a  bed  of  the  same  description  seems 
to  exist  also  in  the  Cotentin. 

3.  Chalk. — The  thickness  of  this  stratum  in  the  Netherlands  is 
much  less  than  on  the  coasts  of  the  Channel ;  especially  of  the  part 
containing  flints,  which  is  succeeded,  in  descending,  by  chalk  with- 
out flints,  passing  into  marl,  and  thence  into  fire-stone  and  green- 
sand.  The  white  chalk  is  well  seen  at  Wonck  and  Heur  le  Romain 
opposite  to  Vise;  and,  on  the  north  of  Aix-la-Chapelle,  a  remarkable 
group,  which  the  author  refers  to  the  lower  part  of  the  chalk,  con- 
sists of  hard  beds  of  grey  and  cream-coloured  limestone,  alternating 
with  calcareous  sand.  This  stratum,  which  abounds  in  fossils,  many 
of  them  belonging  to  the  lower  chalk  of  England,  has  been  found 
at  a  considerable  depth  at  Cawenberg  on  the  north-west  of  Maes- 

*  Geol.  Trans.  2d  Series,  III.  201. 

t  Geol.  Trans.  II,  310.  %  Outlines,  p.  63. 


163 

tricht ;  it  is  prominent  in  the  well-known  quarries  of  Cunroot,  on 
the  east  of  Fauquemont,  and  caps  the  heights  on  the  north-west  of 
Aix-la-Chapelle,  from  Schneeberg  to  the  west  of  Laurensberg ;  a 
small  outlying  portion  remaining  also  on  the  top  of  the  Louisberg, 
near  Aix.  A  stratum  like  this  is  mentioned  by  Mr.  Forschammer  as 
occurring  in  a  similar  place  below  the  chalk  of  Denmark,  on  the 
shores  of  the  Baltic  ;  and  seems  also  to  exist  in  the  Cotentin. 

4.  Green-sand  formation. — The  marly  chalk  is  succeeded  by  the 
equivalent  of  our  upper  green-sand,  or  tire-stone  (the  Planer-kalk  of 
Germany),  in  some  places  identical  with  that  of  Surrey,  Kent,  and 
Wilts;  and  like  that  stone  is  employed  exclusively  in  constructing  the 
interior  of  furnaces  and  buildings  under  water ;  extensive  quarries  for 
these  purposes  being  worked  at  Konigsberg  opposite  to  Vaels,  on  the 
confines  of  the  Prussian  and  Dutch  territories.  In  this  country  how- 
ever, there  is  not,  beneath  the  fire-stone,  (or  at  least  does  not  distinct- 
ly appear,)  a  stratum  of  clay,  like  our  gault;  but  the  chalk,  becom- 
ing gradually  charged  with  green  particles,  passes,  in  general  with- 
out an  intermediate  valley,  into  green  and  ferruginous  sands,  obvious- 
ly analogous  to  the  lower  green  (or  Shanklin)  sands  of  England. 

5.  These  sands  are  well  exhibited  in  the  hills  on  the  south-west  of 
Aix-la-Chapelle,  and,  extending  beyond  the  chalk,  occupy  a  large 
portion  of  the  surface  above  the  coal  and  mountain-limestone 
country.  Distinct  sections  of  the  stratum  are  seen  on  the  sides 
of  Louisberg  close  to  Aix,  and  along  the  road  from  that  city  to 
Liege, — the  scenery  of  which  resembles  that  of  theWoburn  sand-hills; 
and  on  the  descent  towards  the  Calamine  Works,  near  Moresnet, 
beds  are  found  in  the  sand,  analogous  to  the  fuller's  earth  of  Woburn 
and  of  Nutfield  in  Surrey.  The  fossils  which  abound  in  this  forma- 
tion include  (along  with  many  species  common  to  them  and  the  su- 
perior beds,  and  hitherto  not  found  in  England)  some  species  almost 
characteristic  of  our  lower  green-sand ;  among  which  may  be  men- 
tioned the  Trigonia  aliformis,  and  Rostellaria  Parkinsoni.  The 
sands,  at  the  Louisberg,  include  a  thin  bed  of  lignite;  and  near  the 
bottom  of  the  formation  at  Gemenich,  and  thence  along  the  foot,  of 
the  hills  to  Eynatten,  a  l'emarkable  stratum  of  grit  from  6  to  10 
feet  in  thickness,  of  great  firmness  and  uniformity,  occurs, — resem- 
bling in  its  characters  the  grey-wether  stone  of  England,  &c.  and 
possibly  the  equivalent  of  some  of  those  beds  of  conglomerate  which 
occur  in  our  green-sand,  (the  Bargate  stone  of  Surrey,  &c.)  though 
differing  from  them  in  external  character.  The  ferruginous  sands  of 
Grafenberg  and  other  hills  on  the  east  of  Dusseldorf,  belong  also  to 
this  formation,  containing  the  same  fossils  as  at  Aix-la-Chapelle,  and 
occupying  a  similar  unconformable  position  above  beds  of  lime- 
stone ;  a  striking  section  of  which  is  visible  on  the  banks  of  the 
Dussel,  at  Neanders-Hohle.  The  sands  extending  from  thence  to 
the  north  and  eastward  into  Germany,  are  there  well  known  under 
the  denomination  of  Quader-sandstein. 

6.  In  some  places,  the  more  ancient  strata  come  in  beneath  the 
green-sands  without  any  intervention ;  in  others,  there  are  indica- 
tions of  intermediate  beds  of  clay,  but  too  indistinct  to  admit  of  as- 
certaining their  relations. 


164 

7.  The  coal-formation  and  other  subjacent  beds  are  not  consi- 
dered in  the  present  paper;  the  author  referring  for  an  account  of 
them  to  the  works  of  local  geology  already  published  or  in  progress ; 
and  to  the  paper  on  the  Environs  of  Bristol,  by  Messrs.  Buckland 
and  Conybeare,  (Geol.  Trans.  2nd  series,  vol.  i.)  for  a  description  of 
the  analogous  portions  of  England,  which  may  perhaps  remove 
some  of  the  difficulties  connected  with  the  corresponding  formations 
in  the  Low  Countries. 

The  chief  points  of  difference  then,  between  the  formations  above 
referred  to  and  their  equivalents  in  England,  are — 1.  The  apparent 
identity  of  the  fossils  in  the  sands  above  the  chalk,  with  those  which 
appear  in  the  clay  of  London. — 2.  The  Maestricht  stratum,  dis- 
tinctly superior  to  the  chalk,  and  differing  from  that  bed  in  its 
fossils  and  other  characters,  is  without  any  equivalent  yet  ascer- 
tained in  this  country;  but  some  facts  are  mentioned,  which  show 
that  the  former  existence  of  such  a  stratum  above  our  chalk  is  not 
improbable,  and  that  further  traces  of  it  may  still  be  discovered  upon 
sufficient  search. — 3.  The  hard  beds  (of  Cunroot,&c.)  form  a  remark- 
able feature  of  the  lower  chalk  in  the  country  above  described. — 
4.  The  absence  or  indistinctness  of  the  gault,  is  one  of  the  principal 
circumstances  distinguishing  the  green-sand  formation  from  ours ; 
and  the  want  of  a  valley,  like  that  which  commonly  exists  in  this 
country  along  the  foot  of  our  chalk-hills,  is  an  important  difference 
of  external  feature. — 5.  The  entire  absence  of  the  formations  which, 
in  the  south  east  of  England, succeed  the  green-sand  (theWeald  clay, 
Hastings  sands,  and  Purbeck  strata),  deserves  also  to  be  mentioned  ; 
for,  of  these  beds,  though  so  fully  developed  on  our  coast,  none  have 
yet  been  distinctly  recognised  upon  the  Continent,  and  traces  only 
detected  in  the  interior  of  England  and  in  the  lower  Boulonnois. 

In  conclusion,  the  author  remarks  upon  the  great  diversity  of  the 
upper  and  unconformable  formations  which,  in  different  places,  are 
in  immediate  contact  with  the  older  and  inclined  strata  beneath.  In 
some  cases  (as  near  Bristol)  the  red  marl,  lias,  and  lower  oolite; — in 
others  (lower  Boullonois)  the  upper  oolite;  in  others  still,  the  green- 
sands,  the  gault,  and  even  the  chalk  itself, — are  in  contact  with  the 
coal  strata.  It  may  be  difficult  to  explain  the  cause  of  this  variation, 
and  to  account  for  the  absence  of  the  beds  which  are  wanting;  for 
the  upper  formations  bear  no  obvious  marks  of  disturbance,  and  are 
generally  horizontal  or  very  little  inclined. 

Jan.  1,  1830. — The  Rev.  Henry  Coddington,  of  Trinity  College, 
Cambridge,  was  elected  a  Fellow. 

A  paper  was  read,  "  On  the  Geology  of  the  shores  of  the  Gulf  of 
La  Spezia;"  by  Henry  Thomas  De  la  Beche,  Esq.  F.G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 

The  chief  objects  of  this  memoir  are  to  show, 

1st.  That  the  marbles  of  Porto  Venere,  although  possessing  some 
of  the  characters  of  transition  rocks,  may  be  the  equivalents  of  part 
of  the  oolitic  series. 

2nd.  That  the  diallage  rock  and  serpentine  of  Southern  Liguriahave 
been  protruded  through  the  former  at  a  period  later  than  their  formation. 

Previous  to  his  description  of  the  geological  structure  of  the  di- 


165 

strict,  the  author  gives  a  short  sketch  of  its  physical  outline  and  super- 
ficial covering.  The  Alpi  Appuani,  or  mountains  of  Massa  and  Car- 
rara, form  a  distinct  group,  being  separated  from  the  main  range 
of  the  Apennines,  by  a  considerable  depression,  and  from  the  hills  of 
La  Spezia  by  a  plain  through  which  the  Magra  flows.  The  plain  is 
covered  by  gravel  rising  to  some  height  above  the  Mediterranean.  Of 
this  gravel  the  banks  of  the  Frigido  afford  a  good  section.  Near  Ponzo, 
between  La  Spezia  and  Borghetto,  a  torrent  cuts  through  a  hill  com- 
posed of  large  rounded  boulders  and  gravel,  the  coherence  of  which  is 
trifling.  These  boulders  could  not  have  been  produced  by  any  causes 
at  present  existing  in  the  district.  The  boulders  are  carried  down  the 
bed  of  the  torrent  but  a  short  distance  beyond  the  places  where  they 
occur  as  component  parts  of  the  hills.  In  the  bed  of  the  Vara,  into 
which  this  torrent  flows,  there  is  gravel  of  the  usual  size,  which  may 
have  been  formed,  and  afterwards  cut  through,  by  the  river. 

Stratified  Rocks. — 1.  a.  Lignite,  clay,  sandstone  and  conglome- 
rate, are  described  as  being  seen  in  vertical  strata  at  Caniparola, 
near  Sarzana,  the  shaly  beds  containing  Fucoides  intricatus  (Ad. 
Brongn.),  and  the  conglomerate  being  made  up  of  compact  limestone, 
macigno  sandstone,  and  jasper,  cemented  by  clay.  These  tertiary 
beds  are  supposed  to  have  been  thrown  into  their  present  vertical 
position  by  the  forces  which  elevated  the  adjoining  Alpi  Appuani. 

1.  b.  Breccia,  with  a  porous  limestone  cement,  is  one  of  the 
youngest  rocks  in  the  gulf  of  La  Spezia,  where  it  occurs  in  promon- 
tories, and  caps  some  of  the  cliffs  : — from  its  resemblance  to  the 
rauchwacke  of  the  zechstein,  it  has  been  erroneously  referred  to  that 
formation. 

1.  c.  Siliceous  sandstone  is  connected  with  the  breccia  above  men- 
tioned, with  which  it  is  associated  in  contorted  beds  at  St.  Terenzo. 
The  author  does  not  pronounce  positively  upon  the  relative  ages  of 
the  rocks  of  this  group,  although  he  asserts  that  they  are  all  younger 
than  the  macigno. 

2.  Macigno. — Two  sandstones  of  somewhat  the  same  mineralogi- 
cal  structure,  but  of  very  different  age,  are  comprehended  under  this 
name  by  the  Italians  ;  but  the  author  here  restricts  the  term  to  that 
which  is  highest  in  the  order.  The  macigno  is  a  brown  and  gray  sand- 
stone, both  calcareous  and  siliceous,  generally  micaceous,  with  black 
specks,  and  is  occasionally  mixed  with  shale.  It  occurs  near  the 
iBagni  di  Lucca  overlying  gray  compact  limestone,  which  ranges  from 
thence  into  the  district  under  consideration,  and  has  similar  relations 
near  Massa  and  Carrara,  details  and  diagrams  of  which  are  given;  it 
is  also  much  developed  north  of  La  Spezia,  and  on  the  right  bank  of 
the  Magra.  In  the  absence  of  organic  remains,  the  author  has  not 
been  enabled  to  decide  upon  the  equivalent  of  this  rock. 

3.  Gray  compact  limestone  or  Porto  Venere  marble. — At  La  Spezia 
this  group  consists  of,  1.  Dark  gray,  black  and  yellow  limestones,  in- 
terstratified  with  schists  and  argillaceous  slates ;  2.  Dolomite  :  3.  Dark 
gray  compact  limestone  in  thin  beds ;  4.  Ditto  with  brown  shale, 
and  containing  Orthoceras,  Ammonites,  Belemnites,  and  round  balls  of 
iron  pyrites ;  5  and  6.  Shale,  with  compact  thin-bedded  limestone, 


166 

resembling  that  of  the  Jura.  The  islands  of  Tino  and  Palmaria  are 
composed  of  this  system,  whence  it  rises  into  the  high  land  of  La 
Castellana,  and  extends  to  Pignone,  forming  the  mountains  of  Co- 
regna,  Santa  Croce,  Parodi,  and  Bergamo.  The  dolomite  occupying 
the  centre  of  this  range  presents  the  appearance  either  of  an  included 
bed,  or  of  a  great  dyke  which  throws  off  the  strata  on  each  side.  The 
fossils  of  Coregna  collected  by  the  author  (first  noticed  by  Guidoni) 
are, 

Orthoceras  : — A  species  resembling  O.  elongatum  of  the  lias,  and 
also  O.  Steinhaueri  of  the  coal  measures. 

Belemnites  (many  alveoli  of). 

Ammonites  : — 15  species,  one  of  which  is  the  A,  erugatus  of  the 
Yorkshire  lias  (Phillips's  Geol.  of  Yorkshire);  and  another  resembles 
A.  Bucklandi ;  whilst  two  are  fossils  of  the  coal-measures,  viz.  A.  Lis- 
ten and  A.  biformis.  The  remainder  are  undescribed,  but  have  been 
drawn  by  Mr.  J.  Sowerby  to  illustrate  this  memoir.  From  the  nature 
of  these  organic  remains,  and  principally  from  the  presence  of  be- 
lemnites, the  author,  whilst  admitting  the  conflicting  nature  of  the 
evidence,  similar  to  that  observed  in  parts  of  the  Alps  described  by 
M.  Elie  de  Beaumont,  inclines  to  the  belief  that  this  range  of  lime- 
stone, &c.  is  equivalent  to  the  lias  or  some  member  of  the  oolitic  series. 

4.  Brown  shale  and  variegated  beds  are  seen  beneath  the  gray 
limestone;  and  again,  below  the  variegated  strata,  there  is  a  consider- 
able developement  of  brown  sandstone  and  gray  schist,  which  consti- 
tutes a  high  range  extending  from  La  Castellana  to  beyond  Vernazza, 
wherein  a  large  Fucus  is  found.  This  gray  schist  at  Monte  Rosso  seems 
to  have  been  penetrated  by  diallage  and  serpentine  rocks. 

Saccharine  limestone,  %c.  of  Capo  Corvo. — The  coast  section  of 
Capo  Corvo  exhibits  thick  and  thin  beds  of  gray  limestone  alternat- 
ing with  schists  ;  a  thick-bedded  fine  conglomerate  which  passes  into 
chlorite  and  micaceous  schists  ;  and  saccharine  limestone  of  various 
colours  with  mica  schist ;  the  whole  in  highly  inclined  and  contorted 
positions.  Similar  rocks  occur  between  the  mouth  of  the  Magra  and 
Ameglia,  where  they  are  covered  by  the  gray  limestone,  and  contain 
a  subordinate  conglomerate  very  much  resembling  that  of  the  Valor- 
sine.  The  author  is  disposed  to  refer  this  group  to  the  same  age  as  the 
older  conglomerates  which  occur  between  the  high  Alps  and  their  cal- 
careous zones  on  the  side  of  Italy. 

Carrara  Marbles. — These  seem  to  form  part  of  the  system  of  gneiss 
and  mica  schist  of  the  adjoining  Alpi  Appuani,  being  distinctly  stra- 
tified and  underlying  the  gray  limestone,  resembling  that  of  Porto 
Venere. 

Gneiss  and  mica  schist  are  well  exposed  in  the  valley  of  the  Fri- 
gido  near  Massa. 

Unstratified  Rocks :  Diallage  Rock  and  Serpentine. — The  author  ob- 
served no  traces  of  stratification  in  these  rocks  throughout  Southern 
Liguria,  and  he  coincides  with  the  views  of  those  who  consider  them 
to  have  had  an  igneous  origin.  In  the  Valley  of  Cravignola  serpen- 
tine and  diallage  rock  traverse  gray  limestone  and  schist,  and  in  one 
part  are  in  contact  with  jasper  rock,  which,  as  is  noticed  by  M.  Bron- 


167 

gniart,  rests  upon  contorted  limestone  and  schist.  Between  Monte 
Rosso  and  Vernazza  the  schists  are  much  disturbed,  and  near 
Capo  Mesco,  and  again  at  Levanto,  diallage  rock  and  serpentine 
passing  into  each  other  are  protruded  from  beneath  highly  inclined 
beds  of  sandstone,  in  which  are  also  many  faults.  These  serpentine 
rocks  seem  to  be  prolongations  of  the  great  developement  of  the 
same  system  in  Southern  Liguria  ;  and,  to  illustrate  more  fully  their 
nature,  the  author  gives  a  section  of  their  relations  in  a  contiguous 
district  at  Monte  Ferrato,  where,  as  has  already  been  noticed  by  M. 
Brongniart,  gray  compact  limestone  and  slaty  shale  and  jasper  are 
covered  by  serpentine  and  diallage  rocks,  which,  in  one  place,  seem  to 
traverse  and  cut  through  the  strata. 

In  conclusion,  the  author  observes,  that  if  the  Porto  Venere  mar- 
bles be  considered  equivalent  to  any  part  of  the  oolite  formation,  they 
afford  a  striking  example  of  the  little  value  of  mineralogical  structure 
as  a  character  taken  by  itself,  and  show  the  extreme  caution  that 
should  be  used  in  assigning  names  to  rocks  from  hand  specimens, 
brought  home  by  distant  expeditions,  without  the  accompaniment  of 
organic  remains.  He  considers  that  the  diallage  rock  and  serpentine  of 
Southern  Liguria,  have  been  intruded  among  these  rocks  subsequent 
to  the  epoch  of  the  oolite  formation  :  and  regards  the  diallage  rock 
and  serpentine  as  of  igneous  origin,  concurring  in  opinion  with  those 
geologists  who  attribute  to  these  rocks  in  common  with  granite  and 
trap,  and  the  forces  that  ejected  them,  the  contortion  and  fracture 
of  the  stratified  rocks,  and  their  consequent  elevation  into  ridges  and 
mountains. 

Jan.  15. — William  Parker,  Esq.  of  Albany-street,  Regent's  Park ; 
and  the  Rev.  H.  P.  Hamilton,  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  were 
elected  Fellows  of  this  Society. 

A  paper  was  read,  entitled  "  On  the  Fossil  Fox  of  CEningen,  with 
an  account  of  the  Lacustrine  Deposit  in  which  it  was  found,"  by 
R.  I.  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 

The  author  visiting  CEningen  in  1828,  acquired  among  other 
organic  remains  a  perfect  skeleton  of  a  carnivorous  quadruped, 
imbedded  in  a  layer  of  slaty  limestone,  and  the  specific  character 
of  which  has  since  been  ascertained  through  the  scientific  labours  of 
Mr.  Mantell. 

A  short  account  is  given  of  the  works  of  the  various  authors 
who  have  described  the  fossils  of  CEningen,  from  the  time  of 
Scheuchzer  to  that  of  Karg.  Cuvier,  however,  is  mentioned  as  the 
first  who  gave  true  specific  characters  to  the  vertebrated  animals  of 
this  formation,  and  who  ascertained  that  all  the  mammalia  hitherto 
discovered  in  it  were  "  Rodentia." 

The  author  differing  in  opinion  from  an  eminent  French  geolo- 
gist, who  has  described  this  deposit  as  subordinate  to  the  molasse, 
proceeds  to  show  that  the  formation  is  exclusively  lacustrine;  and 
in  proof  of  this,  he  offers,  1st,  a  description  of  the  deposit,  and  its 
relations  to  the  surrounding  country ;  and  2ndly,  a  sketch  of  the 
organicremains. 


168 

(Eningen  is  situated  about  midway  between  Constance  and 
Schafhausen,  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Rhine,  where  that  river  tra- 
verses the  tertiary  marine  formation  of  molasse.  This  formation  is 
here  covered  by  patches  of  marl  and  limestone,  which  extend 
over  the  space  of  two  or  three  miles,  and  are  now  well  exposed  in 
several  quarries,  the  lowest  of  which  is  two  hundred,  and  the  highest 
six  hundred  feet  above  the  Rhine,  and  in  all  of  them  are  found  or- 
ganic remains,  exclusively  freshwater  and  terrestrial.  The  lower, 
orWangen  quarries,  consist  of  light-coloured,  sandy  marlstones,  di- 
vided from  each  other  by  thin  layers  of  brown  marl,  and  white  slaty 
limestone,  in  which  leaves  of  dicotyledonous  plants,  fishes,  &c.  are 
not  unfrequent.  The  upper  quarries  offer  a  section  nearly  thirty 
feet  deep,  and  are  worked  for  the  extraction  of  building-stone  and 
limestone.  A  detail  of  the  beds  is  given,  which  shows  a  passage 
downwards,  from  brown  clay  into  cream-coloured,  indurated  marl, 
and  afterwards  into  a  fissile,  fetid,  marlstone,  containing  flattened 
shells  of  Planorbes,  small  Lymnei,  &c.,and  Cypris :  to  these  succeed 
light-coloured,  fetid,  calcareous,  building-stone  ;  beneath  which  is 
a  finely  laminated  bed  containing  insects,  Cypris,  shells  of  Anodon, 
and  many  plants  :  then  follow  two  thin  bands  of  fetid  limestone,  in 
the  uppermost  of  which  a  large  tortoise  has  been  found,  and  in  the 
lower  was  discovered  the  carnivorous  quadruped.  Both  these 
animals  were  in  positions  which  show  that  their  remains  had  not 
been  disturbed  since  they  first  sank  down  into  the  silt  of  the  lake. 
The  succeeding  strata  consist  of  slaty  marl,  several  bands  of  slaty 
marlstone,  limestone,  and  strong-bedded  building-stone,  with  a 
repetition  of  finely  laminated  layers  of  marl,  including  plants  and 
fishes,  after  which  the  incoherent  sandstone  of  the  molasse  is 
reached,  and  forms  the  base  of  the  quarry. 

A  description  of  the  fossil  quadruped  is  then  given  by  Mr.  Man- 
tell,  who  has  ascertained  its  specific  character,  by  first  clearing  away 
the  surrounding  matrix,  and  afterwards  comparing  the  skeleton  with 
those  of  many  varieties  of  the  fox.  He  has  no  hesitation  in  referring 
the  animal  to  the  genus  Vulpes ;  but  a  difficulty  occurs  in  positively 
assigning  to  it  a  specific  character,  owing  to  the  compressed  state 
of  the  head,  which  prevents  the  true  form  of  the  frontal  bone  and 
post-orbital  apophyses  from  being  determined.  After  noticing  this 
and  some  slight  variations  of  structure,  which  he  is  of  opinion  are 
insufficient  to  establish  a  variety,  much  less  a  species,  he  concludes 
that  the  animal  bears  a  closer  analogy  to  Vulpes  communis  than  to 
any  other  species  with  which  it  has  been  compared. 

The  author  proceeds  to  remark  upon  the  existence  beneath  the 
lumbar  vertebrae  of  the  fossil  faeces  of  the  quadruped,  which  on 
being  analysed  by  Dr.  Prout,  afforded  the  same  proportion  of  phos- 
phate of  lime  as  the  Coprolites  described  by  Dr.  Buckland.  In  this 
case,  however,  the  whole  of  the  adjoining  rock  is  impregnated, 
though  in  a  less  degree,  with  phosphate  of  lime;  thus  affording  a 
strong  presumption  that  the  bituminization  of  the  marlstone  is  due 
to  the  decomposition  of  the  vast  quantity  of  animal  matter  contained 
in  it.    All  the  other  quadrupeds  occurring  at  (Eningen  have  proved 


169 

to  be  Rodentia:  amongst  which,  the  Anoema  CEningcnsis  has  lately 
been  figured  by  Mr.  Konig  ;  and  a  Lagomys  was  this  year  found  by 
Professor  Sedgwick  and  the  author  in  a  second  visit  to  the  quarries. 

A  synopsis  follows  of  many  of  the  birds,  fishes,  reptiles,  insects, 
&c.  In  the  insects  there  is  a  strong  accordance  in  generic  characters 
to  those  now  inhabiting  the  district.  Mr.  Curtis  recognizes  Formi- 
cidse  and  Hymenopterse.  Mr.  Samouelle  has  noticed  larva  of  Libel- 
lulae  similar  to  our  common  English  species  Libellula  depressa,  also 
the  genera  Anthrax,  Cimex,  Coccinella,  Cerambyx,  Blatta,  and  Nepa, 
some  of  which  are  known  to  feed  upon  such  plants  as  we  here  find 
them  associated  with  in  their  fossil  state,  and  others  are  well  known 
inhabitants  of  stagnant  pools. 

Of  the  numerous  plants,  the  few  the  author  collected  have  been 
examined  by  Mr.  Lindley,  who  considers  one  to  be  undistinguish- 
able  from  the  recent  Fraxinus  rotundifolia,  others  strongly  to  re- 
semble Acer  opulifolium  and  A.  pseudoplatanus ;  and  a  specimen 
of  the  leaf  of  an  extinct  poplar,  remarkable  for  its  form,  has  been 
named  by  him  Populus  cordifolia. 

In  conclusion  the  author  infers, 

1st,  That  the  deposit  of  (Eningen  is  of  purely  lacustrine  origin, 
and  that  its  formation  must  have  occupied  a  protracted  period. 

2ndly,  That  the  tertiary  marine  formation  of  the  molasse,  was 
deeply  excavated  before  the  lacustrine  accumulation  commenced. 

Srdly,  That,  from  the  intermixture  of  species  undistinguishable 
from  those  now  existing,  with  others  which  are  decidedly  extinct, 
this  deposit  must  be  considered  one  of  those  instructive  examples 
which  exhibit  a  gradual  passage  from  an  ancient  state  of  nature  to 
that  which  now  prevails. 

4thly,  That,  as  it  differs  in  most  of  its  organic  remains  from  all  the 
fresh-water  formations  hitherto  described,  either  near  to,  or  remote 
from  it,  it  must  have  been  an  independent  deposit ;  and  judging 
from  its  fossils  and  superposition  to  the  molasse,  it  must  have  been 
of  recent  origin. 

5thly,  That  recent  as  its  origin  may  have  been,  the  lacustrine 
basin  has  since  been  re-excavated  to  a  great  depth  through  hori- 
zontal strata  of  limestone,  the  highest  of  which  are  still  seen  six 
hundred  feet  above  the  present  bed  of  the  Rhine. 

6thly,  That  although  the  deposit  must  have  been  formed  long 
before  the  Rhine  occupied  its  present  level,  the  organic  remains 
indicate,  that  even  in  those  days  there  were  insects,  fishes,  and  plants 
almost  identical  with  our  own  ;  and  that  among  the  quadrupeds  there 
existed  one,  undistinguishable  from  the  common  fox  now  inhabiting 
our  latitudes. 

Feb.  5. — James  Calder,  Esq.  of  Calcutta,  and  Edward  Johnstone, 
Esq.,  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  were  elected  Fellows  of  this 
Society. 

A  letter  addressed  to  the  Secretary,  R.  I.  Murchison,  Esq.  F.R.S. 
"  On  the  animal  remains  found  in  the  Transition  Limestone  of  Ply- 
mouth," by  the  Rev.  Richard  Hennah,  F.G.S.  was  read. 


170 

This  is  the  last  of  a  series  of  communications  by  the  author  on 
the  same  subject ;  and  in  this  he  endeavours  to  classify  all  the  organic 
remains  found  by  him  in  the  Plymouth  limestone.  In  this  arrange- 
ment there  are  enumerated  several  genera  of  Polyparia,  including 
Spongia?,  Stylina,  Caryophyllia,  Turbinolia,  &c. ;  several  species 
of*  Crinoidea,  and  genera  of  Conchifera  and  Mollusca. 

After  a  detailed  description  of  many  species  in  each  of  the  above 
classes,  the  author  concludes,  that  as  the  number  of  Zoophytes 
bears  a  very  large  proportion  to  that  of  the  Bivalves  and  Uni- 
valves, the  Plymouth  limestone  must  be  considered  to  be  one  of 
the  earliest  deposits.  But  he  states  that  great  obscurity  still  in- 
volves the  relative  distribution  of  these  animals  in  their  order  of 
superposition. 

A  paper  was  afterwards  read,  "  On  the  gradual  Excavation  of 
the  Valleys  in  which  the  Meuse,  the  Moselle,  and  some  other  Rivers 
flow;"  by  G.  Poulett  Scrope,  Esq.,  F.G.S.  F.R.S. 

The  paper  commences  by  a  remark  on  the  value  which  would 
attach  to  a  test  by  which  any  one  valley  could  be  ascertained  to  be 
the  result  either  of  a  rapid  and  violent,  or  of  a  slow  and  gradual  ex- 
cavatory  process ;  since  the  forces  of  aqueous  erosion  are  of  a 
general  nature,  and  while  in  activity  in  one  river  channel,  were 
probably  not  idle  in  others.  Such  a  test  has  been  pointed  out  by 
the  author  in  central  France,  where  lava-currents  which  have  flowed 
into  valleys  at  intervals  of  time,  appear  now  at  different  heights 
above  the  actual  river-bed,  marking  the  successive  steps  of  the  pro- 
gress of  excavation. 

The  author  finds  another  equally  valuable  test  in  the  extreme 
sinuosities  of  some  valleys.  Any  sudden,  violent,  and  transient  rush 
of  water  of  a  diluvial  character,  could  only  produce  straight  trough- 
shaped  channels  in  the  direction  of  the  current,  but  could  never 
wear  out  a  series  of  tortuous  flexures,  through  which  some  rivers 
now  twist  about,  and  often  flow  for  a  time  in  an  exactly  opposite 
direction  to  the  general  straight  line  of  descent,  which  a  deluge  or 
debacle  would  naturally  have  taken.  Curvatures  of  this  extreme 
kind  are  frequent  in  the  channels  of  rivers  flowing  lazily  through 
flat  alluvial  plains ;  and  the  author  shows  the  mode  in  which  the 
curves  are  gradually  deepened  and  extended,  till  the  extreme  of 
aberration  is  corrected  at  once,  and  the  direct  line  of  descent  re- 
stored, by  the  river  cutting  through  the  isthmus,  which  separates 
two  neighbouring  curves. 

But  examples  must  be  infinitely  rarer  of  whole  valleys  charac- 
terized by  extreme  sinuosity ;  because,  in  the  author's  opinion,  the 
frequent  shiftings  of  the  channels  of  streams  tend  to  obliterate  their 
windings,  and  reduce  the  sum  of  the  several  successive  excavations 
or  valley  to  a  more  or  less  straight  form.  Still  there  are  occasional 
instances  where  the  bias  of  the  river,  or  direction  of  its  lateral  force 
of  excavation,  has  remained  so  constant  as  to  give  to  the  valley  it- 
self the  utmost  degree  of  sinuosity. 

The  author  quotes  the  valley  of  the  Moselle  between  Berncastle 
and  Roarn,  excavated  to  a  depth  of  from  600  to  800  feet  through 


171 

an  elevated  platform  of  transition  rocks.  The  windings  are  often 
so  extreme,  that  the  river  returns  after  a  course  of  seventeen  miles 
in  one  instance,  and  nearly  as  much  in  two  others,  to  within  a  di- 
stance of  a  few  hundred  yards  of  the  spot  it  passed  before;  wearing 
away  on  either  side  the  base  of  the  ridge-shaped  isthmus  that  sepa- 
rates the  curves,  and  inclosing  a  peninsula  of  elevated  land  five  or 
six  hundred  feet  high ;  but  sloping  towards  the  bottom  of  the  curves, 
where  it  is  strewed  with  boulders,  left  there,  the  author  presumes, 
by  the  river  as  it  gradually  deepened  its  channel  and  extended  its 
lateral  curvature. 

The  valley  of  the  Meuse  near  Givet,  offers,  through  a  great  di- 
stance, a  number  of  similar  windings,  and  the  same  thing  is  seen  at 
intervals  in  many  of  the  other  rivers  of  that  country.  Parts  of  the 
Seine  below  Paris,  and  the  valley  of  the  Wye  between  Hereford 
and  Chepstow,  are  examples  nearer  home. 

Valleys  which  like  these  twist  about  in  the  same  regular  curves 
as  the  channel  of  a  brook  meandering  through  a  meadow,  can,  ac- 
cording to  the  author,  only  be  accounted  for  by  the  slow  and  long- 
continued  erosion  of  the  streams  that  still  flow  in  them,  increased 
at  intervals  by  wintry  floods.  To  attribute  them  to  a  transient  and 
tremendous  rush  of  water  in  the  main  direction  of  the  valley,  is  in 
his  opinion  impossible.  He  contends  that  whilst  these  valleys  were 
slowly  excavated,  other  rivers  could  not  have  been  idle  during  the 
same  protracted  period ;  but  will  have  produced  likewise  an  amount 
of  excavation  proportioned  to  their  volume  and  velocity,  and  the 
nature  of  the  rocks  they  flowed  over.  In  the  examples  quoted, 
the  rocks  are  mostly  hard  transition  strata,  yet  the  valleys  are  wide 
and  deep.  Where  softer  strata,  as  sands,  clays,  and  marls,  were 
the  materials  worked  upon,  the  valleys  excavated  may  be  expected, 
as  they  are  found  to  be,  far  wider  in  proportion  to  the  volume  of 
water  flowing  through  them.  The  comparative  softness  of  the  ma- 
terials also,  by  accelerating  the  lateral  erosion  of  the  stream,  will 
have  multiplied  the  shiftings  of  its  channel,  and  reduced  their  sum 
with  greater  certainty  to  one  average  direction.  Hence  the  deeply 
sinuous  valleys  are  only  found  penetrating  the  more  solid  rock 
formations.  The  author  thinks  that  a  certain  subdued  velocity  in 
the  stream  is  also  necessary  to  produce  this  result;  and,  therefore, 
in  mountainous  districts,  where  the  torrents  and  rivers  are  most 
rapid,  their  course  is  nearly  straight ;  thus  confirming  the  author's 
opinion,  that  extreme  curvature  of  channel  can  only  be  produced 
by  a  slow  and  comparatively  tranquil  process  of  excavation. 


PRINTED  BY  RICHARD  TAYLOR, 
RED    LION    COURT,     FLEET    STREET. 


PROCEEDINGS 


OF 


THE  GEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  LONDON. 


1830.  No.  15. 


AT  THE 

ANNUAL  GENERAL  MEETING, 

\9th  February  1830. 

A  Report  from  the  Council  was  read,  of  which  the  following  is  an 
abstract : — 

The  experience  of  a  year  enables  the  Council  to  state  with  confi- 
dence, that  the  late  change  of  apartments  has  been  attended  with 
most  beneficial  results,  both  in  the  increased  facilities  of  exposing  to 
view  the  collections  of  the  Society,  and  in  affording  more  ample, 
though  yet  scarcely  sufficient,  accommodation  to  the  rapidly  in- 
creasing number  of  Fellows. 

The  Council  beg  to  call  the  attention  of  the  Society  to  the  follow- 
ing statement,  which  points  out  many  deficiencies  in  the  collection  ; 
and  they  trust  that  all  the  Fellows  will  interest  themselves  warmly 
in  contributing  such  specimens  of  organic  remains,  as  will  fill  up  the 
numerous  blanks  which  still  exist  in  the  English  series. 

Report  upon  the  Museums  and  Library. 

I.  English  Collection.  The  whole  of  this  collection,  the  ar- 
rangement of  which  had  been  commenced  and  considerably  advanced 
by  the  labours  of  Mr.  Greenough,  has  been  placed  by  the  Curator, 
Mr.  Lonsdale,  in  the  order  of  superposition,  in  conformity  with  the 
directions  of  the  Council ;  and  the  arrangement  of  about  one  third 
of  it  may  be  considered  complete  ;  duplicates  having  been  rejected, 
and  the  organic  remains  having  been  labelled  and  fixed  upon  descrip- 
tive tablets,  so  as  to  obviate  the  necessity  of  a  perpetual  reference  to 
a  special  catalogue  in  each  drawer.  The  Curator  has  at  the  same 
time  made  some  progress  in  a  general  catalogue,  which  when  com- 
pleted will  be  laid  upon  the  table  of  the  Museum.  On  examining 
the  drawers  in  a  descending  order,  the  Committee  beg  to  submit  the 
following  observations  to  the  Council. 


174 

diluvium.  Of  this  part  of  the  collection  there  is  only  one  drawer, 
containing  no  specimens  of  any  interest.  It  may,  therefore,  be  con- 
sidered as  very  deficient. 

Diluvium.  All  superficial  transported  materials  not  connected 
with  the  existing  drainage  of  the  country,  are  arranged  in  this  divi- 
sion. The  vertebrated  animals,  as  in  all  other  parts  of  the  series, 
have  been  classed  according  to  the  system  of  Cuvier,  and  the  inver- 
tebrated  according  to  that  of  Lamarck ;  and  many  of  the  specimens 
have  been  specifically  determined  by  the  Curator. 

Cavern  Remains.  There  is  a  good  series  from  Kent's-hole  ;  but  the 
collection  from  Kirkdale  is  defective  ;  and  from  Banwell  and  other 
localities  there  is  not  a  single  specimen. 

Bovey  Coal.     This  deposit  is  badly  illustrated. 

Crag.  Of  the  organic  remains  there  are  many  fine  specimens; 
but  the  collection  is  defective  in  the  rock  itself,  and  several  species 
of  corals  and  shells  are  wanting. 

Fresh  Water  Formations.  These  are  tolerably  complete;  and  the 
inferior  tertiary  formations  are  equally  well  illustrated. 

Chalk.  A  good  series,  but  many  species  of  the  organic  remains 
are  wanting. 

Green  Sand  Series.  It  is  comparatively  perfect ;  but  it  requires 
many  additional  fossils,  particularly  from  the  lower  green  sand. 

Weald  and  Hastings  Formations.  Of  these  deposits  there  are  some 
good  specimens  ;  but  on  the  whole  the  suite  is  incomplete. 

Purbeck  and  Portland  Beds.  There  is  a  want  of  organic  remains, 
especially  of  the  silicified  woods  and  vegetables. 

Kimmeridge  Clay.  Specimens  of  the  coal  and  even  of  the  charac- 
teristic fossils  are  very  deficient. 

Coral  Rag  Series.  The  calcareous  grit  of  this  division  is  poor  in 
organic  remains. 

Oxford  Clay.  There  are  only  a  few  imperfect  specimens  of  rocks 
and  fossils  ;  this  portion  of  the  oolitic  series  being  worse  illustrated 
than  any  other  in  the  Museum. 

Lower  Oolitic  System.  Of  the  succeeding  members  of  the  oolitic 
series  and  the  lias,  the  most  deficient  in  fossils  are  the  great  and  in- 
ferior oolites  :  in  other  respects  this  series  is  rich. 

We  must  here,  however,  remark,  that  there  is  yet  an  almost  entire 
want  of  the  plants  and  fossils  of  the  oolite  coal-field  of  Yorkshire. 

New  Red  Sandstone  and  Magnesian  Limestone.  There  is  a  fine 
collection  of  rock  specimens  ;  but  the  rarer  organic  remains,  such  as 
the  fishes  of  the  marl-slate,  are  wanting. 

Coal  Measures.  The  suite  from  the  north  of  England  is  rich, 
whilst  that  from  the  south-western  coal-field  is  singularly  poor.  The 
former  owes  a  considerable  portion  of  its  value  to  the  recent  dona- 
tions of  fossil  plants  by  Mr.  Hutton. 

Mountain  Limestone.  The  rock  specimens  are  numerous,  but  the 
organic  remains  are  few  in  number. 

The  Curator  has  not  advanced  further  with  his  arrangement  of  the 
inferior  formations,  and  therefore  the  Committee  cannot  report  upon 
the  value  of  the  suites  of  transition  and  prima!  rocks,  of  which  there 
is,  however,  a  very  large  number. 


175 

II.  The  Scotch  Collection  was  arranged  last  year  by  a  Com- 
mittee, in  the  order  of  superposition,  and  remains  in  the  same  state 
in  which  they  left  it.  The  collection  comprises  a  very  fine  series  of 
all  the  formations  of  that  country  hitherto  described. 

III.  The  Irish  Collection  has  never  been  placed  in  stratigra- 
phical  order,  but  is  distributed  by  counties.  As  a  general  collection 
it  is  defective,  although  some  counties  are  well  illustrated. 

IV.  The  Foreign  Collection,  which  is  valuable,  and  has  been 
considerably  increased  of  late  years,  has  been  put  into  a  preliminary 
geographical  order. 

V.  Simple  Minerals.  The  Curator  has  bestowed  much  labour 
in  completing  the  classification  of  this  division  of  the  Museum,  ac- 
cording to  the  system  given  in  the  last  edition  of  Phillips's  Minera- 
logy. 

VI.  Recent  Shells.  The  valuable  cabinet  bequeathed  by  Capt. 
Apsley,  together  with  many  other  recent  shells,  formerly  possessed 
by  the  Society,  having  been  partly  arranged  by  Mr.  Broderip,  has 
been  since  classed  and  named  by  the  Curator,  according  to  the  sy- 
stem of  Lamarck,  and  can  therefore  now  be  consulted  with  advantage. 

VII.  Library.  A  new  arrangement  of  the  books  has.  been  made, 
and  a  rough  catalogue  compiled,  of  which  a  perfect  copy  is  in  pro- 
gress. There  is  a  very  great  deficiency  in  many  works  of  reference, 
which  it  would  be  important  for  the  Curator  and  all  students  in  the 
Museum  to  consult  j  and  among  these  the  Committee  wish  particu- 
larly to  point  out 

Adolphe  Brongniart.     Vegetaux  Fossiles. 

Lamouroux.     Exposition  Mdthodique. 

Goldfuss.  Petrefacta. 
In  conclusion,  the  Committee  beg  leave  to  express  their  entire  sa- 
tisfaction with  the  great  progress  which  the  Curator  has  already 
made,  and  the  talent  which  he  has  displayed  in  the  arrangement  of 
the  various  collections  of  the  Society;  and  they  feel  convinced  that 
nothing  short  of  an  entire  devotion  of  his  time  and  abilities  to  the 
objects  of  the  Society,  could  have  enabled  him  to  accomplish  so  much 
in  so  short  a  period. 

The  Wollaston  Fund  has  been  increased  by  the  sum  of  £84  Is.  1  d. 
stock,  being  the  remaining  part  of  a  subscription  entered  into  some 
years  ago  to  defray  the  expenses  attending  certain  geological  inqui- 
ries in  Great  Britain  and  Ireland. 

The  Council  have  not  thought  it  expedient  to  make,  as  yet,  any 
distribution  of  the  dividends  arising  from  this  fund,  but  have  appro- 
priated the  first  year's  income  to  the  acquisition  of  a  die  for  a  medal, 
which  is  to  bear  on  it  the  head  of  Dr.  Wollaston ;  and  they  hope  that 
the  Society  will  approve  of  this  endeavour  to  perpetuate,  in  the  minds 
of  Geologists  the  memory  of  their  illustrious  benefactor.  The  first 
annual  distribution,  therefore,  of  the  Wollaston  Medal,  as  well  as  of 
a  certain  sum  of  money,  will  be  awarded  at  the  next  Anniversary 
according  to  the  provision  of  the  bequest. 

a2 


176 

Comparative  Statement  of  the  number  of  the  Society,  at  the  close 
of  the  years  1828—1829. 

Fellows.  31st  Dec.  1828.         31st  Dec.  1829. 

Having  compounded  ..........     48 56 

Contributing 147 1 64 

Non-residents     224. 243 

419  463 

Honorary  Members 51 51 

Foreign  Members 52 55 

Personages  of  Royal  Blood    ......        2. .......... .  3 

Total   524. 572 


The  following  Persons  were  elected  Fellows  and  Foreign  Members  be- 
tween the  last  Anniversary  and  the  close  of  the  year  1829. 

March  6th.— S.  P.  Pratt,  Esq.  of  Lansdown  Place  West,  Bath;  and 
the  Rev.  Robert  Everest,  MA.  of  Devereux  Court,  Temple. 

March  20th. — Robert  Wm.  Blencowe,  Esq.  M.A.  of  Gloucester  Place  ; 
Robert  Otway  Cave,  Esq.  M.P.  of  Upper  Grosvenor  Street ;  Samuel 
Edward  Cooke,  Esq.  Capt.  R.N.  of  Newton,  Northumberland  ; 
Robert  Daubeny,  Esq.  of  Burlington  Gardens,  Cork  Street;  George 
Lowe,  Esq.  of  Highgate  ;  and  Peter  Fearon,  Esq.  of  the  Temple. 

April  3rd. — Samuel  Upton,  Esq.  M.A.  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge ; 
Edward  Wynn  Pendarves,  Esq.  M.P.  of  Pendarves,  Cornwall,  and 
Grosvenor  Street;  the  Rev.  John  Lodge,  M.A.  Fellow  of  Magdalen 
College,  and  Principal  Librarian  of  the  University  of  Cambridge} 
the  Rev.  John  Brown,  M.A.  Fellow  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge; 
Sir  John  Franklin,  Capt.  R.N.  of  Devonshire  Street,  Portland  Place; 
and  William  A.  Cadell,  Esq.  of  Edinburgh. 

May  1st. — Samuel  Cartwright,  Esq.  of  Old  Burlington  Street ;  and 
John  Hall,  Esq.  of  Edinburgh. 

May  15th. — William  Babington,  Esq.  of  St.  John's  Wood,  Regent's 
Park  ;  and  Henry  Humphrey  Goodhall,  Esq.  of  the  East  India  House. 

June  5th. — William  Lonsdale,  Esq.  of  Somerset  House  ;  the  Rev. 
Thos.  Thorpe,  M.A.  Fellow  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge  ;  the 
Right  Rev.  John  Matthias  Turner,  D.D.  Lord  Bishop  of  Calcutta ; 
David  Douglas,  Esq.  of  Turnham  Green;  Thomas  Erskine  Perry, 
Esq.  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge  ;  and  Thomas  Earle,  Esq.  of 
Park  Square,  Regent's  Park. 

June  19th. — James  Morrison,  Esq.  Portland  Place;  and  Daniel  Sharpe, 
Esq.  of  New  Ormond  Street. 

Nov.  6th. — George  Biddel!  Airy,  Esq.  Trinity  College,  Cambridge, 
and  Professor  of  Astronomy  in  that  University ;  John  Macpherson 
Grant,  Esq.  of  Ballindalloch,  N.B.;  John  Heywood  Hawkins,  Esq. 
of  Bignor  Park,  Sussex ;  Philip  Duncan,  Esq.  Fellow  of  New  College, 
Oxford  ;  and  William  Cavendish,  Esq.  M.P.  of  Belgrave  Square. 

Nov.  20th. — James  Robert  Gowen,  Esq.  of  Highclere,  near  New- 
bury ;  and  William  Holbech,  Esq.  of  Farnborough,  Warwickshire. 


177 

Dec.  4th.— Nicholas  Dennys,  Esq.  of  Cambridge  Terrace,  Regent's 
Park ;  John  Willimott,  Esq.  of  Jermyn  Street,  St.  James's';  William 
Higgins,  Esq.  of  Coggeshall,  Essex  •  and  Edward  Spencer,  Esq. 
of  Highgate. 

Dec.  16th. — Benjamin  Blake,  Esq.  Captain  of  the  Bengal  Army; 
Matthias  Atwood,  Esq.  M.P.  of  Gracechurch  Street,  and  Muswell 
Hill,  Middlesex ;  James  Hall,  Esq.  of  Southampton  Row,  London. 

Foreign  Members. 
Dec.  4th.— His  Imperial  Highness,  John,  Archduke  of  Austria ;  Pro- 
fessor Hausmann  of  Gottingen;   Professor  Hoffmann  of  Berlin; 
Professor  Voltz  of  Strasbourg  ;    M.   Dufr^noy   of  Paris  ;   and 
Dr.  Boue*. 

Dec.  16th. — M.  D'Omalius  D'Halloy,  Governor  of  the  Province  of 
Namur  in  the  Kingdom  of  the  Netherlands. 

The  Names  of  the  Fellows  deceased,  within  the  past  year,  are  as 
follow  :-— 

Compounders (None.) 

Residents (T^S  W.illiam/rCTfrr'  Es^ 

\  John  Fleming,  M.D. 

Non-resident ,--. .......  Rev.  J.  Holme. 

M.  Sebastian  Leman. 

Le  Chevalier  Nix  Louis  Vau- 

Foreign  ^  quelin. 

Senor  Juan  Antonio  de  Mon- 

L  teiro. 

Honorary  (None.) 

Omitted  among  the  Non-residents  of  1828,  Joseph  Carne,  Esq. 


The  Museum  has  received  many  donations  since  the  last  Anniver- 
sary, of  which  the  following  are  the  more  valuable  :— ■ 

British  and  Irish  Specimens. 

Wavellite  from  Cork  ;  presented  by  Thomas  Meade,  Esq.  F.G.S. 
Specimens  illustrative  of  the  neighbourhood  of  Devizes,  Wiltshire  -t 

presented  by  J.  C.  Anstie,  Esq.  F.G.S. 
A  Slate  containing  Coprolites  from  the  Lias  ;  and  a  cast  of  a  toe  of 

the  Iguanodon,  found  in  Sandown  Bay,  Isle  of  Wight ;  presented 

by  the  Rev.  Wm.  Buckland,  D.D.  V.P.G.S.  F.R.S. 
A  collection  of  Fossil  Plants  from  the  Northumberland  and  Durham 

Coal-field ;  presented  by  William  Hutton,  Esq.  F.G.S. 
A  series  of  specimens  from  a  well  sunk  near  Northolt,  in  the  London 

and  Plastic  Clays  ;  presented  by  the  Rev.  J.  H.  Randolph,  F.G.S. 
Specimens  of  artificial  Oxide  of  Tin,  of  Tungstate  of  Lime,  and  a 

Mineral  from  Cornwall ;  presented  by  T.  Mitchell,  Esq.  through 

Davies  Gilbert,  Esq.  Pres.  R.S.  F.G.S. 


178 

Two  specimens  of  Sulphate  of  Strontian  on  Lias,  from  Gotham  near 

Bristol ;  presented  by  J.  S.  Miller,  Esq. 
A  very  fine  specimen  of  Pentacrinites  Briareus  ;  one  fine  portion  and 

four  others  of  the  Tusks  of  the  Mammoth,  a  Dapedium  politum, 

and  other  Fossils  from  Lyme  Regis;   presented  by  H.  T.  De  la 

Beche,  Esq.  F.G.S.  F.R.S. 
A  specimen  of  Galena  from  Alston  Moor  in  Cumberland  ;  presented 

by  the  Rev.  William  Branwhite  Clarke,  F.G.S. 
Marsupites  from  the  Chalk  at  Brighton,  and  a  cast  of  Hamites  gigas 

with  other  Fossils  from  Sandgate  ;  presented  by  Henry  Humphrey 

Goodhall,  Esq.  F.G.S. 
A  collection  of  Fossil  fishes  from  Banffshire ;  presented  by  Rod.  Impey 

Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S. 
A  fine  specimen  of  Cycadeoidea,  a  polished  Septarium,  and  several 

fossil   and  recent   shells,  from  Weymouth;   presented   by  Miss 

Benett. 
Jaw-bone  of  a  Horse  ;  jaw-bone  of  a  Stag,  and  other  bones  found  in 

digging  the  foundation  of  Staines  Bridge ;   presented  by  A.  B. 

Lambert,  Esq.  F.G.S.  V.P.L.S. 
Specimens  from  the  Suffolk  Crag ;  presented  by  Richard  Cowling 

Taylor,  Esq.  F.G.S. 

Foreign  Specimens. 

A  cast  of  the  Head  of  the  Mosasaurus  from  Maestricht ;  presented 
by  Baron  G.  Cuvier,  For.  Mem.  G.S. 

Specimens  of  tertiary  and  secondary  rocks,  with  their  accompanying 
Fossils,  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Bassano  ;  and  a  collection  of 
Fossil  fishes  from  Seefield  in  the  Tyrol ;  presented  by  Roderick 
Impey  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S. 

Specimens  of  the  Freshwater  and  Volcanic  Formations  of  the  Cantal 
in  France;  presented  by  Charles Lyell,  Esq.  For.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S. 
and  Rod.  Impey  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S. 

Rocks  from  Chamonix  and  its  environs  ;  presented  by  J.  Auldjo,  Esq. 
F.G.S. 

Rocks  and  organic  remains  from  the  Vosges,  and  the  neighbourhood 
of  Strasbourg  ;  presented  by  Professor  Voltz,  For.  Mem.  G.S. 

Fossil  wood  from  the  Rio  Nigro;  presented  by  George  Loddiges,  Esq. 

Volcanic  productions  from  New  South  Wales  :  presented  by  the 
Right  Hon.  Lord  F.  Leveson  Gower,  F.G.S. 

A  specimen  of  Meteoric  iron  from  Atacama  in  Peru  ;  presented  by 
Woodbine  Parish,  Esq.  His  Majesty's  Charge*  d'Affaires,  and  Con- 
sul General  at  Buenos  Ayres. 

Two  collections  of  Fossil  shells  from  Sicily;  presented  by  the  Mar- 
quis of  Northampton,  F.G.S. 

Rock  specimens  from  Egypt ;  presented  by  Lord  Prudhoe. 

A  collection  of  specimens  from  the  country  between  Calcutta  and 
Cuttack ;  presented  by  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Calcutta. 

Two  series  of  specimens,  one  to  illustrate  the  neighbourhood  of  Nice, 
and  the  other  the  shores  of  the  Gulf  of  La  Spezia  ;  presented  by 
H.  T.  De  la  Beche,  Esq.  F.G.S.  F.R.S. 


179 

A  collection  of  Fossils  from  the  Atlantic  Frontier  of  the  United  States ; 

presented  by  Dr.  Morton. 
Cast  of  the  Pterodactylus  longirostris  from  Eichstadt,  and  a  cast  of 

some  of  the  bones  of  a  Pterodactylus  from  the  same  place  ;  pre- 
sented by  Professor  Soemmering. 
A  collection  of  bones  of  the  Ursus  spelaeus,  from  the  Cave  of  Gailen- 

reuth  in  Franconia;  presented  by  Viscount  Cole,  F.G.S.  and  Sir 

Philip  de  Malpas  Grey  Egerton,  Bart.  F.G.S. 
A  collection  of  specimens  from  the  Mining  District  of  Guanaxuato ; 

presented  by  J.  Dickson,  Esq. 
Crystals  of  Muriate  of  Soda  on  Lava  from  Vesuvius  ;  presented  by 

Mrs.  Somerville. 


The  Library  has  been  increased  by  the  donation  of  85  volumes 
and  pamphlets. 

The  Supplement  to  the  Second  Volume,  and  the  First  Part  of  the 
Third  Volume  of  the  Society's  Transactions,  have  been  published 
since  the  last  Anniversary. 

List  of  Papers  read  since  the  last  Annual  Meeting,  Feb.  20,  1829. 

March  6. — An  account  of  a  remarkable  Fossil  Plant  in  the  Coal  For- 
mation of  Yorkshire}  by  John  Lindley,  Esq.  F.G.S.  F.R.S.  Pro- 
fessor of  Botany  in  the  University  of  London. 

On  the  Remains  of  Quadrupeds  which  have  been  disco- 
vered in  the  Marine  and  Fresh-water  Formations  of  the  Peninsula 
of  Italy;   (Part  First)  by  J.  B.  Pentland,  Esq. 

March  20. — On  the  Tertiary  and  Secondary  Rocks  forming  the 
Southern  Flank  of  the  Tyrolese  Alps,  near  Bassano  ;  by  Roderick 
Impey  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S. 

April  3. — A  Letter  from  Dr.  Prout  to  Professor  Buckland  on  the 
Analysis  of  Coprolites  from  Lyme  Regis  and  Westbury-on-Severn. 

On  the  Bituminous  Schist  and  Fossil  Fishes  of  Seefeld  in 

the  Tyrol ;  by  Roderick  Impey  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S. 

April  3,  and  May  1 . — On  the  Tertiary  Deposits  of  the  Cantal,  and 
their  relations  to  the  Primary  and  Volcanic  Rocks ;  by  Charles 
Lyell,  Esq.  For.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S.,  and  Roderick  Impey  Murchison, 
Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S. 

May  15,  and  June  5. — On  the  Hydrographical  Basin  of  the  Thames, 
with  a  view  more  especially  to  investigate  the  causes  which  have 
operated  in  the  formation  of  the  valleys  of  that  river  and  its  tribu- 
tary streams  ;  by  the  Rev.  Wm.  Conybeare,  F.G.S.  F.R.S.  Instit. 
Reg.  Soc.  Paris.  Corresp. 

June  5. — -A  few  facts  and  observations  on  the  power  which  running 
water  exerts  in  removing  heavy  bodies  ;  by  Matthew  Culley,  Esq. 
F.G.S.,  in  a  letter  to  Roderick  Impey  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S. 
F.R.S.  &c. 

June  19. — On  the  occurrence  of  Agates  in  the  Dolomitic  strata  of 
the  new  red  sandstone  formation  in  the  Mendip  Hills;  by  the  Rev. 
Wm.  Buckland,  D.D.  V.P.G.S.  F.R.S. 


180 

June  19. — On  the  Tertiary  Freshwater  Formation  of  Aix  in  Provence, 
including  the  Coal-field  of  Fuveau ;  by  Roderick  Impey  Murchi- 
son,Esq.  Sec.  G.S.F.R.S.,  and  Charles  Lyell,  Esq.  For.  Sec.  G.S. 
Nov.  6. — On  the  Tertiary  Deposits  of  the  Valley  of  Gosau  in  the 
Salzburg  Alps  ;  by  the  Rev.  Adam  Sedgwick,  Pres.  G.S.  F.R.S., 
and  Roderick  Impey  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S. 
Nov.  20,  and  Dec.  4. — On  the  Tertiary  Formations  which  range 
along  the  flanks  of  the  Salzburg  and  Bavarian  Alps,  being  in  con- 
tinuation of  the  Memoir  on  the  Valley  of  Gosau ;  by  the  Rev.  Adam 
Sedgwick,  Pres.  G.S.  F.R.S.,  and  Roderick  Impey  Murchison,  Esq. 
Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S. 
Dec.  4. —  On   the  discovery  of  bones  of  the  Iguanodon  and  other 
large  Reptiles  in  the  Isle  of  Wight  and  Isle  of  Purbeck  ;  by  the 
Rev.  Win.  Buckland,  D.D.  V.P.G.S.  F.R.S. 
Dec.  18. — Observations  on  part  of  the  Low  Countries  and  the  North 
of  France,  principally  near  Maestricht  and  Aix-la-Chapelle  }  by 
Wm.  Fitton,  M.D.  F.G.S.  F.R.S. 
Jan.  I,  1830. — On  the  Geology  of  the  shores  of  the  Gulf  of  La  Spezia; 

by  H.  T.  De  la  Beche,  Esq.  F.G.S.  F.R.S. 
Jan.  15. — On  the  Fossil  Fox  of  CEningen,  with  a  description  of  the 
lacustrine  deposit  in  which  it  was  found  j  by  Roderick  Impey  Mur- 
chison, Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S. 
Feb.  5. — A  Catalogue  raisonne-  of  Fossils  from  the  Transition  Lime- 
stone of  Plymouth  ;  by  the  Rev.  Richard  Hennah,  F.G.S. 

On  the  Formation  of  the  Valleys  in  which  the  Meuse,  the 

Moselle,  and  some  other  rivers  flow j    by  Poulett  Scrope,  Esq. 
F.G.S.  F.R.S. 


The  following  List  contains  the 
whom  Donations  to  the  Library 
during  the  past  year. 

Anstie,  J.  O.  Esq.  F.G.S. 
Asiatic  Society  of  Calcutta. 
Astronomical  Society  of  London. 
Auldjo,  John,  Esq.  F.G.S. 

Barnard,  —  Esq. 

Beaumont,  Elie  de,  For.  Mem. 
G.S. 

Benett,  Miss. 

Berlin  Royal  Academy  of  Sci- 
ences. 

Bertrand  De  Doue,  Mons.  J.  M. 
For.  Mem.  G.S. 

Bostock,  John,  Esq.  M.D.  F.R.S. 
F.G.S. 

Bouillet,  M.  Jacq.  B.  Mem.  de 
la  Soci£te  pour  {'Industrie  Nat. 

Bristol  Institution. 


Names  of  all  the  Persons,  from 
and  Museum  have  been  received, 

Broderip,  W.  J.  Esq.  Sec.  G.S. 

F.R.S.  F.L.S. 
Brongniart,  M.  Adolphe. 
Brongniart,  M.  Alexandre,  For. 

Mem.  G.S. 
Brookes,  Joshua,  Esq. 
Buch,  M.  Leopold  de,  For.  Mem. 

G.S. 
Buckland,    Rev.  William,   D.D. 

V.P.G.S.  F.R.S.&C 

Cambridge  Philosophical  Society. 

Clarke,  James,  M.D. 

Clark,     Rev.     W.     Branwhite, 

F.G.S. 
Cole,  Right  Honourable  Viscount. 

F.G.S. 
Cuvier,  Baron,  For.  Mem.  G.S. 


181 


De  la  Beche,  H.  T.  Esq.  F.G.S. 

F.R.S.  F.L.S. 
Dechen,  HenreichVon,  For.  Mem. 

G.S. 
Desnoyers,  M.  Jules. 
Dickson,  J.  Esq. 

Editors  of  the  Edinburgh  Journal 
of  Natural  and  Geographical 
Science. 

Egerton,  Sir  Philip  de  Malpas 
Grey,  Bart.  F.G.S. 

Everest,  Rev.  Robert,  F.G.S. 

Gilbert,  Davies,  Esq.  Pres.  R.S. 

F.G.S. 
Goodhall,  Henry  Humphrey,  Esq. 

F.G.S. 
Gower,  Right  Hon.  Lord  Francis 

Leveson,  M.P.  F.G.S. 

Hausmann,  Professor,  For.  Mem. 

G.S. 
Horticultural  Society  of  London. 
Hullmandel,  Mr. 
Hutton,  William,  Esq.  F.G.S. 

Klips tein,  Mons.  A. 

Lacordaire,  Mons. 

Lambert,    A.    B.    Esq.    F.R.S. 

V.P.L.S.  F.G.S.  &c. 
Lariviere,  M.  Engelspach. 
Leonhard,  M.  Carl  Von,For.Mem. 

G.S. 
Loddiges,  George,  Esq. 
Loudon,  J.  C.  Esq.  F.G.S.  F.L.S. 
Lyell,   Charles,   Esq.   For.  Sec. 

G.S.  F.R.S.  F.L.S. 

Martin,  P.  J.  Esq. 
Meade,  Thomas,  Esq.  F.G.S. 
Miller,  J.  S.  Esq.  A.L.S. 
Morton,  S.  G.  M.D. 
Moulins,  M.  Charles,  des. 
Murchison,  R.  Impey,  Esq.  Sec. 
G.S.  F.R.S.  F.L.S. 

Necker,  M.  Louis  Albert,  For. 
Mem.  G.S. 


Northampton,  Most  Hon.  Marq. 
of,  F.G.S.  l 

Oeynhausen,  M.  Karl  Von,  For. 
Mem.  G.S. 

Oriental  Translation  Fund  Com- 
mittee. 

Parish,  Woodbine,  Esq.  His  Ma- 
jesty's Charge"  a"  Affaires,  and 
Consul  General  at  Buenos 
Ay  res. 

Phillips,  Richard,  Esq.  F.G.S. 
F.R.S.  F.L.S. 

Phillips,  John,  Esq.  F.G.S. 

Pierola,  Seiior  N.  de. 

Prevost,  M.  Constant,  For.  Mem. 
G.S. 

Randolph,  Rev.  J.  Honywood, 
F.G.S. 

Raspail,  Mons. 

Rivero,  Mons.  de. 

Royal  Academy  of  Sciences, 
Paris. 

Royal  Asiatic  Society  of  London. 

Royal  Institution  of  Great  Bri- 
tain. 

Royal  Irish  Academy. 

Royal  Society  of  London. 

Serres,  M.  Marcel  de,  Prof.  Min. 
et  Geol.  a  la  Faculty  dei  Sci- 
ences de  Montpelier. 

Silliman,  Professor,  M.D.  For. 
Mem.  G.S. 

Society  of  Arts. 

Soemmering,  Professor. 

Somerville,  Mrs. 

South,  J.  Esq.  F.R.S.  V.P.A.S. 

Taylor,    Richard,    Esq.    F.G.S. 

F.L.S. 
Taylor,   Richard  Cowling,  Esq. 

F.G.S. 

Voltz,  Professor,  For.  Mem.  G.S. 

Yates,  Rev.  James,  M.A.  F.G.S. 
Yorkshire  Philosophical  Society. 
Young,  Rev.  George,  M.A. 


182 

Sums  actually  Received  and  Expended, 

Receipts. 

Balances  in  hand  Jan.  1,  1829  :  £•     s.    d.  £.     s.    d. 

Banker    607     4     9 

Clerk 26  12     0 

Collector 31   10    0 

665     6     9 

Arrears  :  £•     s.     d. 

of  Admission  Fees 60  18     0 

of  Annual  Contributions     22     0     0 

of  Subscriptions  towards  the  Outfit!         39     6     6 

of  Somerset  House / 

115     4     6 

To  Credit  of  General  Fund  from  Repairing  Fund. ...      133     6     9 

Ordinary  Income:  £.     s.     d. 

Annual  Contributions 406  17     6 

Admission  Fees :  £•     s.     d. 

Residents 132     6     0 

Non-Residents ..    157   10     0 

. 289  16     0 

696   13     6 


Compositions,  eight 248  17  0 

Transactions  sold 1 60  12  0 

Proceedings  sold 1  18  0 

Wollaston  Fund    27  17  0 


£2049  15     6 


183 

during  the  year  ending  31st  December  1829. 

Payments.  £.     s.    d. 

Outfit  of  Apartments  in  Somerset  House,  chargeable  1    fiS„      .      . 
upon  General  Fund / 


General  Expenditure :  £.  s.    d.    £.    s.   d. 

House  repairs,  (1829) 11  7     1§ 

Taxes      and      Parochial  >  .„  _     „ 

charges  J 

Insurance 6  0     0 

Furniture  63  5     3 

House  expenses    157  2  11§ 

— 284     3     0 


Salaries  and  Wages  :  £.   s.   d. 

Curator 184  12     0 

Collector's  poundage  26     0     0 

Porter  and  Servant  85     0     0 

295    12      0 


Scientific  Expenditure :  £.   s.   d. 

Books,  Casts,  Cases,  &c...   127   17     8 
Stationery  and  Miscella- 1      gn     6     4 

neous  Printing J 

* 188      4      0 

Miscellaneous  : 

Tea  and  Waiters  for  Meet-  \     _                 _     ^    17    10 
ings  J  

Cost  of  Publications :  £.  s.    d. 

Transactions 95  11     0 

Proceedings 4     5     0§ 

99  16     0± 

894   12   10| 

Contributions  refunded 9     9     0 


Balances  in  hand  j  31st  Dec.  1829.  £.    s.  d. 

Banker 419     4     6 

Accountant 43     5    0 

462     9     6 


£2049   15     6 


M|« 

o  ©  •<?• 

V3 

CO 

t^  O  Tf 

■"Jf 

5 

KOrf 

WON 
O 

CO 

CO 
CO 


o 

^ 

co 

o 

Tf 

Oi 

CO 

to 

CO 

*d 

H3 

o  Oi 

en 

o 

©  t^ 

H 

=/3 

a 

»  » 

w 

«o 

(M  O 

CN 

Q 

«rt 

"f 

00 

<z    © 


CO 
•a 

f 

I** 


-fci 

O 
H 

> 


co  •  :^j 

-3      '         ft 
O         M    ft 

*t,   *  *;  s 

.      Cfl      .    ftCO 

.5  2    •  w 

c    e3  _ (    O 

»   c*; 
«  «  ft 

oH 


M 


ft 


<u 


o 

■"*  c  o  e 


H3 

p 

3 
O 
ft 


o 

C 


«rt 


"P.  >* 


c  .K 


Cfl 


£     2 


aj  CO 

■e  -g 

3  S3 

CO  CO 


ej    o    O 

S3    a  CO 

g  o  c 
,2  c  — 

«-  8 


"W 

S    : 

T3 

o  2 

c 

V 

w  M 

©  o 

t- 
ft 

*M 

us 

4}    ^ 

^W 

.3     O 
3    C 

*-5 

►-s 

8,8 

*c? 

tu 

eo   *» 

8 

•ap 

CO 

T3 

<U    C 

-c    es 


<u 


ft 

a 

E 

o 

cS 

cu 

co 

> 

eu 

rt 

Ol 

-c 

cy 

-    cS    c 

CS     »-     03 


•s  fe, 


■tj  to 


BS 

a 
c 
o 

DS 

ft 


o 

lO 

o 
to 

CM 

TJOO 

.  f-^  o> 


o 
o 


o 

o 


jl      ^       '"    -i     £ 

-  o    .-as. 

Si  S    t-    «    R, 


«rt 


rO   v 


§  Spr 


♦a 

T3 

03 

j2 

«J    O    co 

'o  fc  g 

C 

o        o 

3 

O) 

1-1 

(/)   C5 

«.2  a 

.<-!     03  -^3 

O 

c 

cS 

tot 

dm  is 
ontr 

^3 

13 

a 

3<JCJ 

-a 

> 
cu 

^•iJ1 


H  ^5  5  Pe?  .S  fe 
1  I  Si  ^1 

«    S  -w      .    fe  ^ 

-^  ..  5  ■«  •*  J8 

**  s  -~  *  rs  1 

^3  ^?  X  ^3    tun 

»_  »S  rS   S  "«   s 
^  71  &   w  ^5    » 

Blg|  -8 


SP8R. 
s   S   « 


^•1^ 


^© 


cq    < 


w 


©   o  o 


eft 


H 

< 

H 


O 

CO 

go 


CO  O  «5  ■"-!  <£! 


© 
© 


© 
© 


© 
© 
© 


©   t^ 

W5   ITS 


GO 


IP 


W 
HI 

4?J 


w 


«    S    o 

no  %., 

s=   ° 

OS    bJ3 

3s  •§ 

S    B 


^  OOO 


o  o  o 
o  o  o 


© 


S       ■— 


«    3d 

H  co  cc 


CD     d<  j«j    3 
M    .2!  r*     b 

3KHh 


CD 


3    sh 
o  a 

"*  s 

,   j,  o  * 

v    s    °  P 
v  UOPh 


OS 

(Z> 


O  T3  . 

ob    C  >% 

-  CM  *-" 

-  -3  o 

Cfi  C3     CU 

■  >*  ""O   , — ! 

.3  B  3  u 

^5 .2  .K 


«rt 


c 

QJ 

o 

-^J 

01 

t/1 

01 

o 

o 

-e    o 


.    © 


©   © 


o     ?0 
CM     CM 

00     — i 


O 


*e  o 

c^  o 


©    IT) 

CO  —    .. 

00  «)h    in 


O  O 

<*  O 

•-  O 

i-  CM 


cm  a 


cc     <U     B  * 

CU    B  fe    «  £ 

c-;    o         ^2  t 

C  •«    C  'S  c 

o  3  .2  °  © 

50<- 


•"   i^o 

U3   ^ 

*j  n 

C  t    cj 

O    OJ 

O    a;    cd 

B    S 

Heat 

Proc 
Tran 

CO    >» 

ja 

&  s 

PU 

<  H 

1H|(M 

©  ©  to 


si 


186 

The  Meeting  then  proceeded  to  the  election  of  the  Officers  and 
Council  for  the  ensuing  year;  when  the  following  list  was  delivered 
in  by  the  Scrutineers  : — viz. 

OFFICERS/ 


PRESIDENT. 
Rev.  Adam  Sedgwick,  M.A.  F.R.S.  Woodwardian  Professor  in  the 
University  of  Cambridge. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 
William  John  Broderip,  Esq.  B.A.  F.R.S.  L.S.  &  H.S. 
Davies  Gilbert,  Esq.  M.P.  M.A.  Pres.  R.S.  Hon.  M.R.S.E.  F.S.A. 

L.S.  &  H.S. 
Leonard  Horner,  Esq.  F.R.S.  L.  &  E .  Warden  of  the  Univ.  of  London. 
Henry  Warburton,  Esq.  M.P.  M.A.  F.R.S.  L.S.  &  H.S. 

SECRETARIES. 
Roderick  Impey  Murchison,  Esq.  F.R.S.  &  L.S. 
Edward  Turner,  M.D.  F.R.S.  L.  &  E.  Professor  of  Chemistry  in 
the  University  of  London. 

FOREIGN  SECRETARY. 
Charles  Lyell,  Esq.  M.A.  F.R.S.  &  L.S. 

TREASURER. 
John  Taylor,  Esq.  F.R.S.  &  H.S. 

COUNCIL. 


Arthur  Aikin,  Esq.  F.L.S.  Sec.  to 

the  Society  of  Arts. 
Rev.  William  Buckland,   D.D. 

F.R.S.  &   L.S.    Professor  of 

Mineralogy  and    Geology  in 

the  University  of  Oxford. 
Francis  Chantrey,  Esq.  D.C.L. 

R.A.  F.R.S.  S.A.  &  H.S. 
Sir  Alexander  Crichton,  K.S.W. 

M.D.  F.R.S.  &  L.S. 
Henry  Thomas  Dela  Beche,Esq, 

F.R.S.  &  L.S. 
Sir  John   Franklin,  Capt.  R.N. 

D.C.L.  F.R.S. 
George  Bellas  Greenough,  Esq. 

F.R.S.  L.S.  &  H.S.  M.R.A.S. 


John  Lindley,  Esq.  F.R.S.  L.S. 

&  H.S.  Professor  of  Botany  in 

the  University  of  London. 
Rev.J.HonywoodRandolph,M.A. 
Peter  Mark  Roget,  M.D.  Sec. 

R.S.  F.L.S.  M.R.I.A. 
Charles  Stokes,  Esq.  F.R.S.  S.A. 

&  L.S.  M.R.A.S. 
James  Vetch,  Esq.  Capt.  R.E. 

M.W.S. 
Nicholas  Aylward  Vigors,  Esq. 

M.A.  Sec.  Z.S.  F.R.S.   S.A. 

L.S.  H.S.  &  M.R.I.A. 
Rev.  W.  Whewell,  M.A.  F.R.S 

Professor   of    Mineralogy   in 

the  University  of  Cambridge. 


186* 
The  Report  having  been  read,  it  was  resolved, — 

1st.  That  this  Report  be  received. 

2ndly.  That  the  thanks  of  this  Society  be  given  to  the  Rev.  W. 
Buckland,  D.D.,  and  George  Bellas  Greenough,  Esq.,  retiring  from 
the  Office  of  Vice-Presidents. 

3rdly.  That  the  thanks  of  this  Society  be  given  to  William  John 
Broderip,  Esq.,  retiring  from  the  Office  of  Secretary. 

4thly.  That  the  thanks  of  this  Society  be  given  to  James  Ebenezer 
Bicheno,  Esq.,  John  Bostock,  M.D.,  Decimus  Burton,  Esq.,  Captain 
George  Everest,  Michael  Faraday,  Esq.,  William  Henry  Fitton,  M.D., 
Nathaniel  Wallich,  M.D.  and  the  Rev.  James  Yates,  retiring  from 
the  Council. 


187 

At  the  Meeting  of  the  Society  in  the  evening,  the  following  Ad- 
dress was  delivered  by  the  President  from  the  Chair  : 

Gentlemen, 

You  have  heard  the  report  of  the  Council  on  the  general  state  of 
our  Society,  containing  an  account  of  its  property  and  of  its  debts, 
of  the  several  sums  received  and  expended  during  the  last  year, 
and  a  careful  estimate  of  all  our  resources  for  the  current  year. 
You  have  also  heard  a  separate  report,  from  a  select  Committee, 
respecting  the  various  collections  of  our  Museum,  and  the  progress 
which  has  been  made  in  their  arrangement. 

I  cannot  allow  this  opportunity  to  pass  away  without  expressing 
my  hearty  concurrence  in  the  sentiments  recorded  by  the  Com- 
mittee, and  my  admiration  of  the  talents  exhibited  by  our  Curator, 
in  a  task  of  no  common  difficulty  and  of  almost  incredible  labour. 
At  the  same  time,  I  should  ill  express  my  own  feelings  and  those 
of  the  Society,  did  I  not  on  this  occasion  also  acknowledge  the 
great  obligations  we  owe  to  several  members  of  our  Council,  and 
especially  to  Mr.  Greenough,  who  during  many  years  has  fully 
given  to  us  the  benefit  of  his  labour  and  talents,  both  in  directing  us 
to  those  sources  from  which  our  collection  might  be  supplied,  and 
in  arranging  systematically  the  various  specimens  accumulated  from 
time  to  time  in  our  cabinets. 

One  result  has  been  obtained  from  the  excellent  stratigraphical 
arrangements  of  Mr.  Lonsdale,  which  I  had  not  myself  anticipated ; 
they  not  only  place  in  an  instructive  point  of  view  the  excellencies, 
but  also  the  defects  of  our  collection ;  and  it  appears  from  the  report 
of  the  Committee,  that  some  of  the  suites  of  specimens  intended  to 
illustrate  the  secondary  formations  of  England  are  eminently  defec- 
tive. It  will  be  the  endeavour  of  the  Council  by  the  exchange  of 
duplicates,  and  by  all  other  means  within  their  reach,  to  fill  up 
these  chasms  in  the  Museum:  and  in  effecting  this  object  they 
look  forward  to  the  friendly  cooperation  of  provincial  bodies,  asso- 
ciated for  purposes  like  our  own,  and,  above  all,  to  the  zeal  and 
generosity  of  our  own  Members. 

You  will  perceive,  Gentlemen,  from  the  report  of  the  Council, 
that  in  the  general  estimate  of  the  receipts  and  expenditure  of  the 
current  year,  there  is  a  balance  of  about  ninety  pounds  against  the 
Society.  Even  such  a  deficit  as  this  would  produce  feelings  of 
deep  regret,  were  it  an  indication  of  any  general  falling  off  in  our 
resources ;  but  the  fact  admits  of  ready  explanation  without  any 
such  disheartening  conclusion.  Our  annual  income  is  decidedly  on 
the  increase ;  but  our  general  funds  have  not  yet  entirely  reco- 
vered from  the  drain  upon  them  which  took  place  when  we  came 
into  the  occupation  of  these  apartments.  And  during  this  year,  be- 
sides paying  up  heavy  arrears,  we  have  incurred  an  expense  of  more 
than  six  hundred  pounds  in  the  publication  of  our  Memoirs.  There 
is,  however,  now  laid  up  in  the  cabinets  of  the  Museum  a  literary 
stock  amounting  in  value  to  not  less  than  twelve  hundred  pounds  ; 
which,  though  but  in  a  small  degree  available  against  the  present 


188 

claims  upon  the  Society,  must  in  the  end  be  productive  of  a  consi- 
derable return. 

Of  the  merits  of  the  several  memoirs  in  our  last  publication  I 
am  not  called  upon  to  speak  ;  but  I  may  direct  the  attention  of  the 
Gentlemen  present  to  the  number  and  beauty  of  its  embellish- 
ments :  and  I  am  happy  to  record  the  expression  of  my  thanks  to 
Mr.  Broderip,  for  the  care  with  which  he  has  superintended  every 
part  of  it  during  its  passage  through  the  press.  That  Gentleman 
now  x'etires  from  the  laborious  duties  of  the  office  of  Secretary, 
which,  for  four  years,  he  has  filled  so  greatly  to  our  advantage  : 
but  I  am  well  assured,  that  we  may  still  look  with  confidence  for  a 
not  less  efficient,  though  perhaps  less  laborious,  application  of  his 
talents  and  experience  in  the  promotion  of  our  best  interests. 

During  the  past  year  about  fifty  additional  Fellows  have  been  en- 
rolled on  the  lists  of  the  Society  ;  and  among  them  I  rejoice  to  ob- 
serve the  names  of  some  persons  eminently  distinguished  in  this 
country  by  their  knowledge  in  the  exact  sciences ;  and  of  others  to 
whom  we  shall  hereafter  look,  not  merely  for  general  support,  but 
for  active  cooperation  in  the  field.  We  have  also  added  seven  to 
the  number  of  our  Foreign  Members :  and  I  need  not  tell  the  Gen- 
tlemen present,  that  our  body  is  honoured  by  the  addition  of  these 
persons  to  its  list  *  :  for  they  stand  without  exception  in  the  fore- 
most rank  of  those  who,  by  a  combination  of  great  labour  and 
great  talents,  have  pushed  beyond  their  former  limits  those 
branches  of  natural  knowledge,  for  the  advancement  of  which  we 
are  incorporated.  At  the  head  of  this  number  I  rejoice  to  see  the 
name  of  an  illustrious  Personage  who,  amid  the  distracting  duties 
attached  to  his  exalted  rank  and  commanding  station,  has  found 
time  for  the  successful  cultivation  of  science,  which  he  adorns  by 
his  high  intellectual  attainments,  and  urges  on  by  the  force  of  his 
example. 

After  placing  before  you  these  subjects  of  congratulation,  it  is 
my  painful  duty  to  record  the  loss  of  an  old  Member  of  this  So- 
ciety, who  took  a  deep  interest  in  its  wellbeing  and  progress.  By 
the  death  of  Mr.  Holme  we  have  lost  a  man  of  rare  simplicity  of 
manners,  who  in  a  life  of  retirement  pursued  science  for  its  own 
sake,  without  any  alloy  of  selfish  feeling,  or  any  view  to  his  emolu- 
ment or  fame.  He  was  an  admirable  botanist ;  and  after  many 
years  of  application  had  acquired  no  ordinary  skill  in  some  difficult 
parts  of  mineral  analysis.  In  one  of  the  Papers  in  our  last  publi- 
cation I  have  had  repeated  occasions  of  acknowledging  my  obliga- 
tions to  him. 

France  has  lately  been  deprived,  by  the  death  of  M.  Vauquelin, 
of  a  man  who  for  more  than  half  a  century  devoted  the  efforts  of 

*  His  Imperial  Highness  John  Archduke  of  Austria;  Dr.  Ami  Boue ; 
Prof.  Hausmann  of  Gottingen;  Prof.  Hoffmann  of  Berlin;  Prof.  Voltz  of 
Strasbourg ;  M.  Dufrenoy,  Professor  at  the  Ecole  des  Mines,  Paris ;  and 
M.  D'Omalius  D'Halloy,  Governor  of  the  Province  of  Namur  in  the 
Kingdom  of  the  Netherlands. 


189 

his  powerful  mind  to  the  promotion  of  physical  truth  ;  and  we  have 
to  lament  the  loss  of  a  name  which  has  long  decorated  the  list  of 
our  Foreign  Members.  A  proper  homage  has  been  already  paid, 
by  the  President  of  the  Royal  Society,  to  the  memory  of  this  illus- 
trious person;  whose  labours,  however  great  the  light  they  shed  on 
our  department  of  natural  history,  were  still  more  nearly  connected 
with  exact  science. 

Several  of  the  Papers  read  at  our  meetings,  between  the  last 
Anniversary  and  our  separation  for  the  summer,  have  through 
different  channels  already  come  before  the  public.  It  would  have 
been  well,  that  at  least  a  part  of  them  should  have  appeared  in  our 
Transactions.  But  our  funds  have  not  always  admitted  of  a  suffi- 
ciently rapid  publication  to  meet  the  wishes  of  those  authors  who 
have  most  original  matter  to  communicate.  This  is  a  subject  of 
regret,  and  well  deserves  the  consideration  of  the  Council  for  the 
coming  year.  The  Transactions  of  the  Society  form  unquestion- 
ably the  most  honourable  official  record  of  our  labours.  It  is 
through  them  that  we  are  represented  in  the  great  republic  of 
science ;  and  without  them,  beyond  our  own  immediate  circle,  we 
possess  neither  voice  nor  animation. 

The  progress  of  our  body  in  geological  inquiry  since  the  former 
Anniversary,  will  be  best  understood  by  glancing  over  the  various 
memoirs  which  have  been  the  subject  of  discussion  at  our  meetings. 
It  will  be  useless  to  do  this  in  the  exact  order  in  which  they  came 
before  us;  I  shall  therefore  follow  that  order  in  which  the  subjects 
themselves  appear  to  be  naturally  connected  with  each  other. 

Our  attention  has  been  several  times  called  to  the  theory  of  the 
excavation  of  valleys,  and  to  the  effects  produced  by  river  currents 
in  modifying  the  form  of  the  solid  parts  of  the  earth.  The  subject 
was  introduced  during  the  former  year  by  a  memoir  of  Messrs. 
Lyell  and  Murchison,  on  certain  portions  of  the  volcanic  regions 
of  Central  France;  in  which  they  show  (in  accordance  with  the 
views  of  Montlosier,  Scrope,  and  some  other  authors)  that  the  ex- 
isting rivers  have,  by  a  long  continued  erosion,  eaten  out  deep 
gorges,  not  only  through  currents  of  basaltic  lava  which  have 
flowed  through  the  existing  valleys,  but  also  through  solid  rocks 
of  subjacent  gneiss.  They  further  prove,  on  evidence  which  to 
me  seems  not  short  of  demonstration,  that  no  great  denuding  wave 
or  mass  of  water  lifted  by  supernatural  force  above  its  ordinary 
level,  could  have  assisted  in  forming  such  denudations :  for  the 
country  is  still  studded  with  domes  of  incoherent  matter,  the  rem- 
nants of  former  craters ;  from  which  may  be  traced,  continuously, 
streams  of  lava,  intersected  in  the  courses  of  the  rivers  by  these 
deep  gorges — the  gages  and  tests  of  the  erosive  power  of  running 
water  during  times  comparatively  recent. 

The  elaborate  Paper  of  Mr.  Conybeare  on  the  valley  of  the 
Thames  is  still  fresh  in  our  recollection.  He  proves  that  the  ero- 
sive power  of  the  river  has,  within  the  records  of  history,  produced 
no  effect  on  the  general  features  of  the  country  through  which  it 

B 


190 

flows,  and  that  the  propelling  force  of  its  waters  is  not  now,  and 
never  could  have  been,  adequate  to  the  transport  of  the  boulders 
which  lie  scattered  on  the  sides  and  summits  of  the  chains  of  hills 
through  which  it  has  found  a  passage:  that  much  of  the  waterworn 
gravel,  drifted  through  the  breaches  opened  in  the  sinuous  line  of 
its  channel,  is  composed  of  rocks  not  found  within  the  limits  of  its 
basin ;  and  that  the  form  of  the  country  is  often  the  very  reverse 
of  that  which  would  have  been  produced  by  mere  fluviatile  erosion, 
however  long  continued.  Similar  facts  are  supplied  by  nearly  all 
the  greater  valleys  of  England ;  and  on  the  whole  they  point  to 
one  conclusion,  that  fluviatile  erosion,  as  a  mere  solitary  agent, 
has  produced  but  small  effects  in  modifying  the  prominent  features 
of  our  island :  at  the  same  time  they  leave  untouched  all  the  facts 
of  an  opposite  kind,  supported  by  direct  evidence,  whether  de- 
rived from  the  volcanic  districts  of  Central  France,  or  from  any 
other  physical  region  on  the  surface  of  the  earth. 

The  power  of  mountain  torrents  in  transporting  heavy  masses  of 
stone  is  strikingly  illustrated  in  a  short  paper  by  Mr.  Culley.  He 
states  that  a  small  rivulet,  descending  from  the  Cheviot  Hills  along 
a  moderate  declivity,  carried  down,  during  a  single  flood,  many 
thousand  tons  of  gravel  into  the  plains  below;  and  that  several 
blocks,  from  one-half  to  three-quarters  of  a  ton  weight  each,  were 
propelled  two  miles  in  the  direction  of  the  stream.  Facts,  similar 
in  kind,  but  on  a  scale  incomparably  greater,  must  be  in  the  recol- 
lection of  every  one  who  has  seen  the  Alpine  torrents  descending 
into  the  plains  of  the  north  of  Italy. 

When  mountain  chains  abut  in  the  sea,  the  laws  of  degradation 
are  not  suspended.  At  each  successive  flood,  fragments  of  rock 
are  drifted  in  the  direction  of  the  descending  torrents,  and  rolled 
beneath  the  waters.  This  kind  of  action  is  indeed  casual  and  in- 
terrupted ;  but  it  is  aided  by  another  action  which  is  liable  to  no 
intermission — the  beating  of  the  surf  and  the  grinding  of  the  tidal 
currents  on  all  the  projecting  parts  of  a  steep  and  rocky  shore. 
Under  such  conditions,  I  doubt  not  that  there  are  now  forming  at 
the  bottom  of  the  sea,  and  at  depths  perhaps  inaccessible,  alter- 
nating masses  of  silt,  and  sand,  and  gravel,  which,  if  ever  lifted 
above  the  waters,  may  rival  in  magnitude  some  of  the  conglomerates 
of  our  older  formations. 

Our  last  Paper,  on  the  excavating  power  of  rivers,  was  from  the 
pen  of  Mr.  Scrope.  He  contends  that  diluvial  torrents  would  only 
form  trough-shaped  channels  prolonged  in  the  direction  of  the 
principal  rush  of  water  ;  but  would  never  produce  curves  in  which 
the  excavating  force  worked  in  a  direction  opposed  to  that  of  the 
general  current.  He  describes  part  of  the  course  of  the  Moselle 
and  of  the  Meuse,  where  the  rivers  wind  through  hard  transition 
rocks,  in  long  sinuous  channels,  varying  in  depth  from  500  to  1000 
feet.  In  one  of  the  great  flexures  of  the  Moselle,  the  river,  after 
passing  over  no  less  than  17  miles,  returns  to  within  500  yards  of 
the  point  from  which  it  started.  These  phenomena  are  regarded 
by  the  Author  as  sure  indications  of  slow  fluviatile  erosion.   For  he 


191 

considers  the  idea  of  a  great  debacle,  or  diluvial  current,  winding 
its  way  back  in  lazy  flexures  towards  the  point  from  which  it 
started,  as  absolutely  unintelligible. 

If  I  might  give  my  own  opinion  on  this  debated  question,  I 
should  say,  that  the  existing  river  drainage  of  every  physical  region, 
is  a  complex  result,  depending  upon  many  conditions — the  time 
when  the  region  first  became  dry  land — its  external  form  at  the 
time  of  its  first  elevation  above  the  sea — and  all  the  successive 
disturbing  forces  which  have  since  acted  upon  its  surface.  But 
none  of  these  elements  are  constant:  no  wonder,  then,  that  results 
derived  from  distant  parts  of  the  earth  should  be  so  greatly  in  con- 
flict with  each  other.  In  the  formation  of  valleys  there  is  therefore 
little  wisdom  in  attributing  every  thing  to  the  action  of  one  modi- 
fying cause.  We  know  by  direct  geological  evidence,  that  nearly 
all  the  solid  portions  of  the  earth  were  once  under  the  sea,  and 
were  lifted  to  their  present  elevation,  not  at  one  time,  but  during 
many  distinct  periods.  We  know  that  elevating  forces  have  not 
only  acted  in  different  places  at  different  times,  but  with  such  va- 
riations of  intensity,  that  the  same  formation  is  in  one  country  ho- 
rizontal, in  another  vertical ;  in  one  country  occupies  the  plains,  in 
another  is  found  only  at  the  tops  of  the  highest  mountains.  Now 
every  great  irregular  elevation  of  the  land  (independently  of  all 
other  results)  must  have  produced,  not  merely  a  rush  of  the  re- 
tiring waters  of  the  sea,  but  a  destruction  of  equilibrium  among  the 
waters  of  inland  drainage.  Effects  like  these  must  have  been  fol- 
lowed by  changes  in  the  channels  of  rivers,  by  the  bursting  of 
lakes,  by  great  debacles,  and  in  short  by  all  the  great  phenomena 
of  denudation.  In  comparing  distant  parts  of  the  earth,  we  may 
therefore  affirm  that  the  periods  of  denudation  do  not  belong  to 
one,  but  to  many  successive  epochs ;  and  by  parity  of  reasoning 
we  may  conclude  that  the  great  masses  of  incoherent  matter  which 
lie  scattered  over  so  many  parts  of  the  surface  of  the  earth,  belong 
also  to  successive  epochs,  and  partake  of  the  same  complexity  of 
formation. 

The  excavation  of  valleys  seems  therefore  to  be  a  complex  re- 
sult, depending  upon  all  the  forces,  which,  acting  on  the  surface  of 
the  earth  since  it  rose  above  the  waters,  have  fashioned  it  into  its 
present  form.  We  have  old  oceanic  valleys  which  were  formed  at 
the  bottom  of  the  sea  in  times  anterior  to  the  elevation  of  our  con- 
tinents. Such  is  the  great  valley  of  the  Caledonian  canal,  which 
existed  nearly  in  its  present  form  at  a  period  anterior  to  the  con- 
glomerates of  the  old  red  sandstone.  We  have  longitudinal  valleys 
formed  along  the  line  of  junction  of  two  contiguous  formations, 
simply  by  the  elevation  of  their  beds.  To  this  class  belong  some 
of  the  great  longitudinal  valleys  of  the  Alps.  We  have  other  val- 
leys of  more  complex  origin  ;  where  the  beds  through  which  the 
waters  now  pass  have  been  bent  and  fractured  with  an  inverted 
dip  at  the  period  of  their  elevation.  Such  is  the  valley  of  Kings- 
clere,  described  in  a  former  volume  by  Dr.  Buckland.  We  have 
valleys  of  disruption,  marking  the  direction  of  cracks  and  fissures 

b  2 


192 

produced  by  great  upheaving  forces.  Such  are  some  of  the  great 
transverse  valleys  of  the  Alps.  Of  valleys  of  denudation  our  island 
offers  a  countless  number.  Some  are  of  simple  origin  :  for  example, 
the  dry  combes  and  valleys  of  the  chalk,  which  appear  to  have 
been  swept  out  by  one  flood  of  retiring  waters  during  some  period  of 
elevation.  Others  are  of  complex  origin,  and  are  referrible  to  many 
periods,  and  to  several  independent  causes.  Lastly,  we  have  valleys 
of  simple  erosion  :  such  are  some  of  the  deep  gorges  and  river  chan-r 
nels  in  the  high  regions  of  Auvergne,  excavated  solely  by  the  long 
continued  attrition  of  the  rivers  which  still  flow  through  them. 

I  should  not  have  dwelt  so  long  upon  this  subject,  had  it  not  occu- 
pied a  large  portion  of  our  attention  during  the  past  year;  and  I 
may  be  pardoned  for  entering  a  record  of  my  own  views  on  a  ques- 
tion of  no  small  complexity,  and  on  which  there  is  still  much  con- 
trariety of  opinion. 

During  the  past  year  we  have  been  presented  with  several  memoirs 
describing  formations  superior  to  the  chalk  :  which  1  shall  also  notice 
in  the  order  of  the  subjects,  without  any  regard  to  the  time  when  they 
came  before  us. — In  a  Paper  by  Dr.  Fitton  on  the  structure  of  a  por- 
tion of  the  low  countries  in  the  north  of  Fiance,  among  other  inter- 
esting details,  is  a  description  of  three  of  this  great  class  of  for- 
mations. He  points  out  deposits  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Calais, 
Antwerp,  and  Tongres,  which  resemble  the  Crag  of  Suffolk.  He  com- 
pares the  sands  of  St.  Omer,  Cassel,  and  Lille,  with  the  sands  which 
overlie  the  chalk  in  the  London  basin  :  and  he  states  that  the  arena- 
ceous beds  of  the  hill  of  Cassel  (like  similar  beds  at  Brussels)  con- 
tain large  suites  of  fossils,  generally  agreeing  with  those  of  the  Lon- 
don clay.  Lastly,  he  describes  in  detail  the  structure  of  St.  Peter's 
Mount  near  Maestricht,  and  shows  that  the  inferior  beds  form  a  gra- 
dual passage  into  the  white  chalk  on  which  they  rest;  while  the  upper 
beds  bear  marks  of  degradation  and  mechanical  interruption,  and 
offer  no  indication  of  a  passage  into  the  superior  sands.  And  he 
adds  that,  out  of  more  than  fifty  species  of  organic  remains  collected 
by  himself  from  this  deposit,  not  more  than  ten  are  found  in  our  best 
catalogues  of  chalk  fossils. 

I  may  here  remark,  that  the  suite  of  fossils  in  the  Cassel  sands 
throws  no  difficulty  in  the  way  of  their  comparison  with  the  lower  ter- 
tiary sands  and  plastic  clay  of  England,  The  terms  London  clay  and 
Plastic  clay  may  be  preserved  as  convenient  mineralogical  designa- 
tions. They  mark,  however,  nothing  more  than  the  subdivisions  of 
one  great  deposit  between  the  lower  and  the  higher  members  of 
which  there  is  no  line  of  zoological  separation.  In  the  London  and 
Paris  basins,  there  is  a  great  chasm  between  the  secondary  and  ter- 
tiary systems  to  be  filled  up  by  the  future  labours  of  Geologists.  The 
Maestricht  beds  are  so  nearly  related  to  the  formation  on  which  they 
rest,  that  they  may  be  regarded  as  the  last  term  of  that  new  series  of 
deposits  which  we  hope  hereafter  to  find  interpolated  between  the 
calcaire  grossier  and  the  chalk. 

A  Paper  by  Mr.  Murchison  makes  us  acquainted  with  the  structure 


193 

of  the  tertiary  formations  on  the  southern  flank  of  the  Alps  between 
the  Brenta  and  the  Piave.  They  are  divided  into  two  great  natural 
groups  exhibited  in  two  zones : — an  outer  zone  containing  shells  which 
seem  to  be  nearly  identical  with  the  well  known  fossils  of  the  newer 
tertiary  Sub-Apennine  formations; — an  inner  and  inferior  zone  con- 
taining in  its  higher  portions  a  few  shells  resembling  those  of  a  part 
of  the  Bourdeaux  basin,  while  its  lower  beds  are  distinguished  by 
innumerable  organic  remains,  more  than  half  of  which  seem  to  be 
specifically  identical  with  those  of  the  calcaire  grossier  or  London 
clay.  These  lower  beds  on  the  banks  of  the  Brenta  are  inclined  at 
70°  or  80°,  and  are  based  upon  a  nummulite  rock,  which  is  abso- 
lutely vertical  and  conformable  to  the  scaglia  (containing  ammonites 
and  belemnites),  and  together  with  it  rises  into  peaks  of  considerable 
height  on  the  extreme  border  of  the  chain :  and  there  is  no  conglo- 
merate or  other  mechanical  degradation  of  the  older  rocks,  to  mark 
the  junction  of  the  secondary  and  tertiary  systems.  Some  notion 
may  be  formed  of  the  enormous  thickness  of  these  deposits  from  the 
statement,  that  a  transverse  section  (from  Asolo  to  Possagno)  through 
beds  of  only  a  part  of  this  series,  inclined  at  various  angles  from  25° 
to  40°  and  exhibiting  no  invertions  of  dip,  is  not  less  than  five  miles 
in  length.  One  important  consequence  seems  to  follow  inevitably 
from  these  details :  the  last  epoch  of  elevation  of  the  neighbouring- 
mountains  must  have  commmenced  during  a  period  posterior  to  the 
tertiary  formations  described  in  this  memoir. 

In  three  Papers,  recently  presented  by  Mr.  Murchison  and  myself 
to  this  Society,  we  have  endeavoured  to  establish  a  series  of  similar 
conclusions,  by  induction  from  the  phenomena  observed  on  the  flanks 
of  the  Salzburg  and  Bavarian  Alps.  I  will  not  give  you  any  analy- 
sis of  details,  so  lately  the  subject  of  discussion  in  this  room.  I  may, 
however,  briefly  recall  your  attention  to  the  results  which  we  con- 
sider best  established  and  of  most  importance.  We  have  shown 
that  several  transverse  sections  from  the  central  axis  of  the  Alps  to 
the  basin  of  the  Upper  Danube  would  present  a  succession  of  phe- 
nomena in  very  near  accordance  with  those  of  other  transverse 
sections  from  the  same  axis  to  the  tertiary  formations  at  the  other 
base  of  the  chain  in  the  north  of  Italy.  On  both  sides  of  this  chain, 
after  passing  over  the  great  secondary  calcareous  zones,  we  meet 
with  the  lower  tertiary  strata, — always  highly  inclined,  sometimes 
vertical,  and  occasionally  conformable  to  the  beds  of  the  older  sys- 
tem. We  contend  that  this  remarkable  symmetry  confirms  the  hy- 
pothesis of  a  recent  elevation  of  the  Eastern  Alps  -}  and  makes  it  pro- 
bable, independently  of  arguments  derived  from  organic  remains,  that 
the  tertiary  deposits  of  the  Sub-Apennine  regions  and  of  the  basin 
of  the  Upper  Danube  belong  to  one  period  of  formation. 

Thick  masses  of  strata  full  of  organic  remains,  and  often  occurring 
at  low  levels  near  the  northern  foot  of  the  chain,  are  sometimes  also 
found  (e.  g.  in  the  valley  of  Gosau)  in  unconformable  positions, 
caught  up  among  the  serrated  peaks  of  the  Alps,  four  or  five  thousand 
feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea.  Such  a  disjunction  of  corresponding 
strata  (and  I  may  observe  that  the  argument  bears  not  upon  their 


194 

exact  age),  is  inexplicable  on  any  hypothesis  which  rejects  the  theory 
of  elevation.  We  have  concluded,  chiefly  on  zoological  evidence, 
that  the  unconformable  beds  of  Gosau  are  more  recent  than  the  chalk. 
We  believe  that  they  contain  neither  ammonites  nor  belemnites,  nor 
any  other  known  species  of  secondary  fossils  ;■  and  on  the  whole  we 
regard  them  as  a  term  of  that  unknown  series  of  formations  which 
may  hereafter  close  up  the  chasm  between  the  lowest  beds  of  the  Paris 
basin  and  the  chalk. 

We  have  pointed  out  the  limits  of  the  old  chain  of  the  Salzburg 
and  Bavarian  Alps,  and  traced  the  direction  of  its  valleys  anterior 
to  the  tertiary  epoch  :  and  we  have  described  a  great  deposit  of  lig- 
nite far  up  the  valley  of  the  Inn,  containing  freshwater  and  marine 
shells,  which  seem  to  connect  it  with  the  period  of  the  London  clay. 
We  have  further  shown,  that  there  are  within  the  basin  of  the  Upper 
Danube  two  or  three  higher  zones  of  lignite  separated  from  each 
other  by  sedimentary  deposits  of  enormOus  thickness. 

The  tertiary  system  of  Bavaria  is  shown  to  pass  into,  and  to  be 
identical  with,  the  molasse  and  nagelflue  of  Switzerland.  The  higher 
part  of  this  series  must  therefore  (on  the  system  of  M.  Studer)  be  of 
the  same  age  with  some  of  the  formations  of  the  Sub-Apennines.  We 
have  proved  that  enormous  masses  of  sandstone  and  conglomerate 
many  thousand  feet  in  thickness,  stretching  from  the  base  of  the 
Alps  to  the  plains  of  the  Danube,  are  chiefly  derived  from  the  degra- 
dation of  the  neighbouring  chain — that  many  of  these  masses  cannot 
be  distinguished  from  the  newest  detritus  which  lies  scattered  on  the 
surface  of  the  earth — that  in  their  prolongation  into  Switzerland 
they  sometimes  contain  bones  of  mammalia — that  they  are  regularly 
stratified,  and  alternate  with  beds  containing  marine  shells — and  that 
they  cannot  have  been  caused  by  any  transient  inundation. 

Finally,  we  point  out  the  probable  effect  of  debacles  which  took 
place  when  the  basin  was  deserted  by  the  sea.  We  show  that  the  ex- 
cavations produced  by  the  retiring  waters  have  been  augmented  by 
the  bursting  of  successive  lakes,  of  which  we  found  traces  in  all  the 
upland  valleys  of  Bavaria  ;  and  that  these  excavations  have  been  since 
carried  on  by  the  erosive  power  of  the  streams  which  roll  down  from 
the  sides  of  the  Alps  to  the  plains  of  the  Danube. 

The  greatest  number  of  tertiary  formations  hitherto  described  ap- 
pear to  have  been  produced  either  in  estuaries  or  mediterranean 
seas  ;  the  depth  of  which,  however  considerable,  was  probably  much 
less  than  that  of  the  wider  oceans  wherein  some  of  our  secondary 
rocks  have  had  their  origin.  These  circumstances  tend  to  explain 
the  frequent  alternations  of  marine  and  freshwater  beds  in  the  tertiary 
seas  ;  and  they  satisfactorily  account  for  the  appearance  of  land  shells, 
lignite,  and  other  terrestrial  remains,  drifted,  at  many  different  pe- 
riods, into  the  regular  marine  deposits  of  the  tertiary  groups.  By 
the  help  of  these  alternations  are  certain  species  of  marine  and  fresh- 
water shells  demonstratively  shown  to  have  been  contemporaneous. 
And  when  this  conclusion  is  once  established,  it  may  be  applied  to 
determine  the  age  of  those  lacustrine  formations  which  have  never 
communicated  with  the  sea. 


195 

In  this  way  it  has  been  shown  that  the  enormous  lacustrine  depo- 
sits of  Aix  in  Provence,  of  the  Cantal,  of  the  Limagne  d'Auvergne,  and 
of  other  districts  in  the  south  of  France,  belong  to  the  period  of  the 
great  tertiary  system  of  the  Paris  basin.  I  have  no  time  even  to  allude 
to  the  important  works  connected  with  these  subjects,  which  we  owe 
to  the  naturalists  of  France  :  and  the  two  Memoirs  of  Messrs.  Lyell 
and  Murchison,"  On  the  tertiary  deposit  of  the  Cantal,"  and  "  On 
the  freshwater  formations  of  Aix  in  Provence,"  have  been  already 
published  *.  I  am  not,  therefore,  called  upon  to  give  any  regular 
analysis  of  their  contents.  I  may,  however,  be  permitted  to  recall 
your  attention  to  the  enormous  thickness  of  a  regular  succession  of 
deposits  described  by  these  gentlemen  in  a  section  extending  from  the 
hills  above  Aix  to  the  coal  works  of  Fuveau.  We  have  at  the  base  of 
the  section  a  great  system  of  alternating  beds  of  limestone  and  shale 
containing  many  seams  of  coal,  some  of  which  are  worked  by  perpen- 
dicular shafts  500  feet  in  depth.  Over  this  succession  of  beds,  come 
vast  groups  of  strata  forming  ranges  of  hills  composed  of  limestone, 
shale,  and  sandstone.  These  are  surmounted  by  thick  deposits  of  red 
marl  and  fibrous  gypsum,  and  by  vast  masses  of  conglomerate.  Fi- 
nally, over  the  conglomerate  comes  a  series  of  beds  conforming  to 
the  more  ordinary  tertiary  type  3  remarkable  for  the  regularity  of 
their  deposition,  and  for  the  beautiful  preservation  of  the  shells,  the 
fishes,  and  even  the  insects  contained  in  them.  Such  are  the  minera- 
logical  characters  of  the  lower  members  of  this  great  series,  that  t  hey 
have  been  referred  (even  by  expert  naturalists  who  had  not  sufficiently 
examined  the  organic  remains)  to  the  old  coal  formation  and  the  new 
red  sandstone  ;  but  from  top  to  bottom  their  fossils  are  exclusively 
tertiary  and  lacustrine.  At  the  same  time  we  attempt  in  vain,  by 
joining  in  imagination  the  prominent  elevations  of  the  older  rocks  in 
the  neighbouring  regions,  to  restore  the  former  barriers  once  con- 
taining that  great  body  of  water  within  which  these  deposits  had  their 
origin. 

The  Paper  on  the  Cantal  brought  before  us  a  series  of  facts  no 
less  striking  and  impressive.  In  this  high  region  are  the  escarp- 
ments of  an  old  lacustrine  formation,  nearly  500  feet  in  thickness, 
full  of  freshwater  shells,  many  specifically  identical  with  fossils  of 
the  basins  of  Paris  and  of  the  Isle  of  Wight :  but  here,  as  in 
the  former  case,  there  are  no  barriers  to  mark  the  limits  of  the 
lake  within  which  this  deposit  was  once  confined.  The  same  region 
also  bears  the  impress  of  another  succession  of  pheenomena ;  for 
within  the  area  of  this  ancient  lake,  and  after  the  solidification  of 
the  beds  of  marl  formed  in  its  waters,  burst  forth  one  of  those  great 
trachytic  eruptions  which  mark  all  the  neighbouring  parts  of  France. 
So  that  we  now  find  beds  of  basalt,  trachytic  breccia,  and  other  old 
volcanic  rocks,  overtopping,  on  the  side  of  one  valley,  by  more  than 
800  feet,  the  highest  lacustrine  rocks  through  which  they  have 
breached  a  passage  to  the  surface  of  the  earth  :  and  in  the  neigh- 

*  See  Edinburgh  New  Phi!.  Journal,  Oct.  1829;  and  Annates  des 
Sciences  Naturelles,  torn,  xviii.  p.  172. 


196 

bouring  region  the  same  old  volcanic  rocks  have  risen  to  several 
times  that  elevation. 

When  we  examine  the  upper  rock  marl  of  the  Isle  of  Wight,  we 
see  a  deposit  separated  from  us  and  the  things  about  us,  only  by  a 
few  feet  of  transported  gravel.  The  outline  of  the  country  might 
have  been  remodified  and  the  gravel  formed  by  some  transient 
inundation.  We  have  therefore  no  measure  of  the  time  which  may 
have  elapsed  since  the  first  existence  of  the  phenomena  before  us. 
If,  however,  we  examine  the  shells  in  the  rock  marl,  we  find  that 
few,  if  any,  belong  to  species  existing  in  our  lakes  or  rivers.  We 
cannot  believe  that  there  is  so  great  a  violation  of  continuity  in 
the  forms  of  animated  nature,  except  in  subordination  to  nature's 
laws ;  and  we  feel  almost  forced  to  seek  for  a  solution  of  our  dif- 
ficulties amidst  the  ideal  revolutions  of  former  ages. 

But  how  differently  is  the  history  of  the  same  great  period  told  off 
among  the  volcanic  mountains  of  the  Cantal  and  Auvergne !  Great 
lacustrine  formations,  of  the  same  age  with  the  rock-marl  of  the  Isle 
of  Wight,  are  there  proved  by  their  organic  contents  to  have  been 
formed  and  solidified  at  a  time  anterior  to  the  trachytic  eruptions 
which  upheaved  and  desolated  the  whole  surface  of  the  country. 
How  long  these  great  eruptive  forces  were  in  action  it  is  useless  to 
conjecture  ;  but  they  were  followed  by  ages  of  repose,  during  which 
the  surface  of  the  land  was  reformed,  and  deep  valleys  were  exca- 
vated by  the  erosive  power  of  water.  A  new  period  of  volcanic 
agency  succeeded,  marked  by  domes  of  cinders  and  scoriae  remain- 
ing to  this  day  almost  unchanged,  and  by  streams  of  lava  which 
maybe  traced  from  them  into  the  existing  valleys.  And  even  these 
last  operations,  however  recent  in  the  order  of  geological  events, 
were  anterior  to  the  records  of  history;  so  that  we  can  still  only 
approximate  to  their  date,  by  a  careful  comparison  of  the  effects 
since  produced  upon  these  streams  of  lava  by  the  destructive  power 
of  the  elements. 

A  description  by  Mr.  Murchison  of  the  lacustrine  strata  and 
fossils  of  GEningen  is  the  last  communication,  connected  with  ter- 
tiary formations,  I  am  called  upon  to  notice.  He  shows  that 
this  deposit  consists  of  horizontal  beds  of  a  considerable  aggregate 
thickness,  laid  bare  in  quarries  on  the  side  and  near  the  summit 
of  a  ridge  of  hills  the  base  of  which  is  washed  by  the  waters  of 
the  Rhine — that  they  do  not  alternate  with  the  molasse  but  repose 
upon  it  unconfonnably — and  that  from  top  to  bottom  they  are  of 
freshwater  origin.  He  enumerates  in  detail  a  great  variety  of  fos- 
sils (such  as  insects,  plants,  shells,  fishes,  tortoises,  and  mammalia,) 
discovered  at  different  times  in  these  quarries  ;  and  he  adds  a  de- 
scription (from  the  pen  of  Mr.  Mantell)  of  a  fossil  fox  not  to  be 
distinguished  from  the  Vulpes  communis,  found  in  the  middle  beds 
of  this  system.  From  all  these  geological  details,  as  well  as  from 
the  position  of  the  strata,  he  concludes  that  they  belong  to  a  very 
recent  tertiary  period.  At  the  same  time,  the  waters  of  the  Rhine 
descend  from  the  lake  of  Constance  at  a  level  no  less  than  600 
feet  below  that  of  the  old  lake  in  which  the  (Eningen  beds  origi- 


197 

nated;  and  there  is  not  in  the  present  outline  of  the  country  any 
indication  of  the  surface  over  which  they  once  extended. 

Such,  Gentlemen,  have  been  the  prominent  subjects  of  discussion 
during  our  meetings  of  the  past  year.  Before  1  proceed  to  other 
questions,  let  me  express  my  thanks  to  Mr.  Vernon,  for  the  zeal 
with  which  he  has  investigated,  and  the  fidelity  with  which  he  has 
described,  a  deep  excavation  at  North  Cliff  in  Yorkshire.  Under 
the  ancient  gravel  of  the  district  are  found  regular  deposits  of 
river  silt,  containing  bones  of  the  mammoth,  the  horse,  the  urus, 
the  rhinoceros,  the  wolf,  the  ox,  and  deer ;  mingled  with  thirteen 
species  of  land  or  lacustrine  shells,  absolutely  identical  with  those 
now  living  in  the  neighbouring  district.  Phaenomena  like  these 
have  a  tenfold  interest,  when  regarded  as  the  extreme  link  of  a 
great  chain,  binding  the  present  order  of  things  to  that  of  older 
periods  in  which  the  existing  forms  of  animated  nature  seem  one 
after  another  to  disappear. 

Twenty  years  are  not  yet  passed  away  since  MM.  Cuvier  and 
Brongniart  first  published  their  researches  on  the  geological  struc- 
ture of  the  Paris  basin.  The  innumerable  details  exhibited  in  their 
various  essays  ;  the  beautiful  conclusions  drawn  from  unexpected 
facts  ;  the  happy  combination  of  mineralogical  and  zoological  evi- 
dence;  the  proofs  of  successive  revolutions,  till  then  unheard  of 
in  the  physical  history  of  the  earth  — all  these  things  together^, 
not  merely  threw  new  light  on  a  subject  before  involved  in  compa- 
rative darkness,  but  gave  new  powers  and  new  means  of  induction 
to  those  who  should  in  after  times  attempt  any  similar  investiga- 
tions. 

Mankind  are,  however,  dazzled  and  astonished  by  great  disco- 
veries, as  well  as  guided  and  instructed :  and  for  some  years  after 
the  publication  of  these  admirable  works,  the  naturalists  of  various 
countries,  whose  attention  had  been  so  loudly  called  to  the  deposits 
above  the  chalk,  saw  in  them  only  a  repetition  of  what  was  already 
described,  and  of  which  the  true  type  was  in  every  case  to  be  sought 
among  the  formations  of  the  Paris  basin.  Investigations  conducted 
in  this  spirit  sometimes  ended  in  disappointment.  But  this  was  not 
the  spirit  recommended  in  the  incomparable  Essay  of  Cuvier*;  for 
after  exhibiting  the  true  method  of  geological  induction,  and  de- 
scribing the  intense  and  almost  tormenting  interest  with  which  he 
had  followed  out  his  own  investigations,  he  points  to  the  long  series 
of  deposits  in  the  Sub-Apennine  hills,  and  states  his  conviction  that 
in  them  lies  concealed  the  true  secret  of  the  last  operations  of  the 
ocean. 

Since  that  discourse  was  written,  much  has  been  done;  but  much 
more  still  remains  to  be  done.  It  has  been  my  pleasing  task  to  place 
before  you  the  labours  of  some  of  our  own  body  in  illustrating  the 
recent  geological  periods  in  the  history  of  the  earth  :  by  such  de- 
tails alone,  can  we  expect  to  comprehend  the  more  intricate  pheno- 
mena of  still  older  periods,  and  to  connect  them  with  the  great  phy- 
sical laws  by  which  all  matter  is  governed. 

*  See  Discours  Preliminaire,  p.  112,  1st  edition. 


198 

Considered  in  the  most  general  point  of  view,  without  any  re- 
gard to  the  lacustrine  beds  which  are  perhaps  local  or  acciden- 
tal, the  tertiary  groups  of  the  Paris  basin  may  be  described  as  a 
great  complex  system  of  deposits  belonging  to  one  protracted  zoo- 
logical period  ;  characterized  by  extinct  genera  of  mammalia,  and 
by  innumerable  marine  shells;  but  affording  very  few  species  by 
which  we  can  connect  them  either  with  the  chalk,  or  with  the  for- 
mations of  our  neighbouring  seas.  Their  position  is  therefore  en- 
tirely insulated  ;  and  by  what  new  links  they  may  be  connected  with 
the  physical  events  which  went  before  them  and  followed  after  them, 
can  only  be  determined  by  a  long  series  of  observations.  I  have 
already  pointed  out  the  source  from  which  some  of  the  older  links 
may  hereafter  probably  be  supplied.  Of  the  same  palseotherian 
age,  and  in  the  same  insulated  position,  are  the  tertiary  deposits  of 
Hampshire,  and  some  of  the  great  lignite  formations  in  the  north 
of  Germany. 

The  next  group  of  the  tertiary  system  is  ill  defined,  and  still  but 
imperfectly  understood.  Some  members  of  it  are  seen  on  the  banks 
of  the  Loire,  and  have  formed  the  subject  of  a  late  important  me- 
moir by  M.  Desnoyers;  and  the  same  portion  of  the  series  is  repre- 
sented on  the  eastern  coasts  of  England,  by  the  beds  of  Crag  over- 
lying the  London  clay.  It  contains,  like  the  former  division,  the 
bones  of  many  mammalia,  some  of  extinct,  and  some  probably  of 
living  species ;  but  the  remains  of  the  extinct  animals  do  not  be- 
long to  the  palaeotheria  of  the  older  period,  but  to  the  mammoth, 
the  rhinoceros,  and  other  animals,  of  which  the  bones  are  found  so 
constantly  in  the  superficial  gravel.  To  the  fossil  shells  of  this  di- 
vision the  same  observations  may  be  applied :  many  belong  to  spe- 
cies which  are  unknown,  and  perhaps  extinct ;  others  cannot  be  dis- 
tinguished from  the  living  shells  of  the  neighbouring  seas. 

A  third  division  of  the  system  may  comprehend  all  the  higher 
Sub-Apennine  deposits  ;  distinguished  by  the  bones  of  mammalia  in 
still  greater  abundance,  and  by  the  number  and  beauty  of  the  fossil 
shells,  many  of  which  are  of  living  species.  It  is  of  enormous 
thickness  in  some  of  the  low  regions  at  the  base  of  the  Apennines ; 
and  it  probably  extends  over  a  considerable  portion  of  the  basin  of 
the  Danube,  and  over  the  plains  beyond  the  eastern  termination  of 
the  Alps.  I  have,  however,  no  time,  nor  do  I  possess  information, 
to  give  any  detailed  account  of  its  distribution. 

During  the  periods  in  which  the  two  last  tertiary  groups  were 
elaborated  in  the  sea,  there  must  have  been  deposited  on  the  land, 
in  caverns,  in  fissures,  and  in  beds  of  superficial  gravel,  many  bones 
of  the  same  species  of  animals  by  which  those  groups  are  charac- 
terized :  and  during  the  same  periods  may  have  originated  in  inland 
lakes  some  of  the  deposits  of  which  we  now  only  see  the  traces 
in  masses  of  lacustrine  marl  found  in  various  countries  resting 
unconformably  upon  the  older  strata. 

It  is  impossible  with  our  present  knowledge,  to  form  even  a  con- 
jecture respecting  the  subdivisions  into  which  the  whole  tertiary 
series  may  finally  be  separated.  I  am  only  anxious,  in  the  mere  out- 


199 

line  I  am  now  attempting,  to  describe  the  successive  groups  above 
the  chalk  in  terms  the  most  general,  and  in  divisions  the  most  com- 
prehensive; especially,  as  they  appear  in  connexion  with  our  labours 
of  the  past  year. 

I  must,  however,  notice  one  more  group  in  the  succession  of 
marine  deposits,  before  I  can  complete  the  ascending  series  and 
reach  the  limits  of  history :  the  name  tertiary  cannot  perhaps  with 
propriety  be  applied  to  it,  as  the  animal  remains  contained  in  it 
are  almost  exclusively  of  the  species  now  living  in  the  nearest  seas. 
To  this  class  we  may  refer  certain  shelly  deposits  in  the  West  India 
Islands — on  the  shores  of  the  Red  Sea — and  on  various  parts  of 
the  shores  of  Italy,  Sicily,  and  Spain.  Their  position,  as  might  be 
expected,  is  generally  low.  But  near  the  focus  of  volcanic  action 
they  rise  to  more  considerable  elevations  :  in  proof  of  which  1  need 
only  state,  that  beds  of  shells  are  found  on  the  mountains  of  Sicily 
three  thousand  feet  above  the  level  of  the  Mediterranean,  and  of 
the  same  species  with  those  now  living  in  its  waters  *. 

Such  are  the  steps  by  which  we  ascend  through  the  divisions  of 
the  tertiary  period.  I  need  not,  however,  inform  you  that  we  can 
seldom  determine  their  relations  by  the  mere  evidence  of  super- 
position. Most  frequently  they  appear  in  detached  masses,  the  age 
of  which  can  only  be  known  by  their  fossils.  This  kind  of  evidence 
is,  however,  sometimes  brought  before  us  in  a  manner  at  once  the 
most  complicated  and  the  most  conclusive.  It  is  to  the  labours 
of  MM.  Deshayes,  Basterot,  and  other  expert  naturalists,  who  are 
devoting  their  talents  and  time  to  the  completion  of  great  works  on 
the  organic  forms  of  the  several  tertiary  groups,  that  we  must 
look  for  information,  which  in  the  end  may  give  us  the  means  of  a 
safer  and  wider  induction. 

With  the  exception  of  an  interesting  notice  by  Dr.  Buckland  of 
the  occurrence  of  agates  in  the  dolomitic  strata  of  the  Mendip 
Hills,  not  a  single  memoir  has  been  read  before  us  during  last  year, 
on  the  mineralogical  structure  of  any  part  of  the  British  Isles.  I  do 
not  mention  this  without  regret ;  for  while  any  part  of  the  struc- 
ture of  this  country  is  unexplored,  we  have  left  unfinished  that 
task,  to  perform  which  was  the  first  great  object  of  our  association. 
The  work  of  Mr.  Phillips  on  the  strata  and  organic  remains  of  the 
Yorkshire  coast  offers,  however,  a  splendid  contrast  to  this  portion 
of  our  year's  productions.  The  clearness  of  the  descriptions,  the 
accuracy  of  the  sections,  the  figures  of  more  than  400  fossils  faith- 
fully arranged  according  to  their  grouping  in  the  formations  be- 
tween the  new  red  sandstone  and  the  chalk,  combine  to  make  it 
one  of  the  most  valuable  and  instructive  Essays  in  our  language. 

Much,  Gentlemen,  remains  to  be  done,  before  the  structure  of  the 
various  formations  of  the  British  Isles  can  safely   be  appealed  to 

*  This  important  fact  was  communicated  by  Mr.  Lvell,  and  is  described 
by  him  in  a  work  now  in  the  press. 


200 

as  one  of  those  complete  middle  terms  of  comparison,  by  help  of 
which  the  disjointed  fragments  of  a  former  world  may  in  imagina- 
tion be  reunited.  Respecting  the  perplexing  phenomena  of  the  Crag 
beds  on  the  coast  of  Suffolk,  we  are  greatly  deficient  in  information. 
The  accounts  of  all  our  tertiary  strata,  however  excellent  at  the 
time  they  were  written,  must  be  entirely  remodelled.  Even  the  his- 
tory of  the  oolitic  series  (the  boast  of  English  geology,  and  the 
type  to  which  foreign  naturalists  are  attempting  to  conform  some 
of  their  own  secondary  rocks)  is  defective.  We  know,  in  admirable 
detail,  the  formations  near  Bath.  On  the  coast  of  Yorkshire  Mr. 
Phillips  has  left  us  nothing  to  desire.  But  a  promised  Memoir  on 
the  beautiful  phaenomena  near  Weymouth,  after  many  years  of  ex- 
pectation, is  still  unwritten :  and  a  detailed  transverse  section  through 
the  wide  oolitic  beds  of  Northamptonshire  is  among  our  most  im- 
portant desiderata. 

Something  is  left  to  be  done  in  illustrating  the  upper  part  of  the 
new  red  sandstone.  It  is  here  that  the  poverty  of  our  secondary 
rocks  offers  a  striking  contrast  to  the  riches  of  the  coeval  rocks 
on  the  flanks  of  the  Vosges  and  on  the  banks  of  the  Neckar  ;  and 
this  very  poverty  makes  every  scrap  of  information,  whether  derived 
from  mineralogical  or  organic  characters,  of  importance  in  assisting 
us  to  complete  this  broken  part  of  our  secondary  series. 

Even  the  history  of  our  coal  formations  is  not  yet  perfect.  The 
association  of  the  coal  and  mountain  limestone  of  Northumberland 
has  not  been  well  explained.  The  great  corresponding  deposits 
of  Cumberland  are  undescribed  :  nor  does  it  appear  in  our  pub- 
lished works,  that  coal  is  found  alternating  in  the  North  of  England 
with  all  parts  of  the  mountain  limestone  group ;  and  that  beds  of 
coal  are  worked  in  several  places,  resting  upon  transition  slate,  and 
surmounted  by  the  whole  limestone  series.  More  than  half  of 
Ireland  is  a  blank  on  our  geological  maps  ;  and  on  many  of  the 
transition  districts  of  England  our  information  is  lamentably  de- 
fective. 

The  study  of  our  older  deposits  is  indeed  difficult  and  toilsome, 
and  unenlivened  with  the  frequent  occurrence  of  organic  bodies. 
But  no  country,  hitherto  described,  shows  a  more  splendid  series  of 
phaenomena  to  illustrate  the  intrusive  agency  of  crystalline  rocks  ; 
and  to  exhibit  the  great  successive  internal  movements  by  which 
our  continents  have  been  elevated,  and  brought  under  those  laws 
of  degradation  which  have  fashioned  them  into  their  present  forms. 
In  these  investigations  there  is  still  a  rich  spoil  ready  for  any  one 
who  will  have  the  courage  to  stretch  out  his  hands  to  grasp  it.  A 
part  of  it  I  have  myself  gathered  among  the  mountains  of  Cumber- 
land, with  no  small  labour;  which  I  shall  count  for  gain,  if  I  may 
be  permitted,  hereafter,  to  lay  it  up  in  the  storehouse  of  this  Society. 

Leaving,  however,  the  subject  of  British  geology,  1  must  call 
your  attention  to  those  Papers  which,  during  our  sessions  of  the 
past  year,  have  described  the  general  phaenomena  of  secondary 
rocks. — On  the  secondary  formations  of  the  Netherlands  we  have 
heard  some  interesting  remarks  in  a  recent  Paper  by  Dr.  Fitton, 


201 

above  quoted.  He  describes  the  structure  and  distribution  of  the 
chalk,  the  firestone,  and  the  green  and  ferruginous  sands  j  shows 
their  discordant  position  over  the  coal-measures  ;  and  indicates  the 
characters,  both  in  which  they  differ  and  agree  with  the  corres- 
ponding members  of  the  English  series. 

In  a  Paper  on  the  geology  of  the  shores  of  the  Gulf  of  La  Spezia, 
beautifully  illustrated  by  sections  and  drawings,  Mr.  De  la  Beche 
describes  a  long  series  of  stratified  and  unstratified  rocks.  Among 
the  former  may  be  enumerated,  beds  of  clay,  sandstone,  and  con- 
glomerate, supposed  to  be  tertiary ;  beds  of  macigno  ;  the  marble 
of  Porto  Venere;  the  crystalline  limestone  of  Capo  Corvo,  &c. 
among  the  latter,  diallage  rock,  serpentine,  mica  schist,  &c.  He 
endeavours  to  show,  from  the  structure  of  the  district  and  the  fos- 
sils of  the  neighbouring  rocks,  that  the  marble  of  Porto  Venere  may 
belong  to  the  age  of  the  oolitic  series  ;  and  that  the  diallage  rocks 
and  serpentine  are  a  prolongation  of  the  system  of  southern  Ligu- 
ria,  and  have  been  protruded  by  igneous  action  among  the  depo- 
sitory rocks,  after  the  period  of  the  oolites. 

Among  the  contributions  to  our  knowledge  of  the  structure  of 
foreign  secondary  deposits,  -I  must  lastly  notice  the  communica- 
tion of  Mr.  Murchison  on  the  bituminous  schist  and  fossil  fish  of 
Seefeld.  This  singular  rock  rises  to  a  great  elevation  among  the 
bare  calcareous  peaks  of  the  Tyrolian  Alps,  and  contains  such  a 
quantity  of  bituminous  matter,  probably  derived  from  the  animals 
imbedded  in  it,  that  some  of  its  strata  are  broken  up  and  exposed 
to  a  process  of  distillation,  by  which  a  great  quantity  of  what  may 
be  called  mineral  fish  oil  is  extracted  for  economical  use.  Among 
the  fossil  fish  M.  Valenciennes  of  Paris  discovered  at  least  four 
species ;  one  a  clupea,  and  three  distinguished  by  quadrangular 
scales,  without  articulating  points,  and  resembling  the  Esox  osseus; 
but  differing  from  that  genus,  both  in  the  form  of  the  tail  and  the 
position  of  the  fins. 

There  is  a  large  family  of  fish,  made  up  of  many  genera  and 
species,  and  distributed  from  the  old  red  sandstone  to  the  magne- 
sian  limestone,  belonging  to  the  order  Malacopterygii  abdomi- 
nales,  and  particularly  distinguished,  like  the  Esox  osseus,  by  a 
pointed  tail,  the  lower  side  of  which  alone  is  supplied  with  rays.  It 
is  obvious  from  this  description  that  the  Seefeld  fish  are  not  com- 
prehended in  that  family  :  and  as  they  are  not  identified  with  the 
fossils  of  any  known  formation,  we  must  consider  their  place  as 
still  undetermined.  This  is  at  least  a  safe  conclusion  ;  for  minera- 
logical  indications  in  the  calcareous  regions  of  the  Alps  are  of  very 
small  value  in  determining  the  question. 

During  the  past  year,  we  have  received  from  Dr.  Buckland  several 
additional  notices,  drawn  up  with  his  well  known  sagacity  and  sin- 
gular felicity  of  illustration,  on  the  characters  and  distribution  of 
various  specimens  of  coprolites.  The  results  of  his  inquiries  are 
published  in  the  last  Part  of  our  Transactions  ;  and  on  that  account 
I  am  precluded  from  any  further  remarks  upon  them.  They  belong, 
indeed,  to  important  discoveries  of  the  former  year,  and  have  al- 


203 

ready  been  noticed  in  the  Anniversary  address  of  my  predecessor 
in  this  chair. 

From  the  same  pen  we  have  also  a  description  of  the  bones  of 
the  Iguanodon  and  other  large  reptiles,  discovered  at  Sandown 
Bay  in  the  Isle  of  Wight  and  near  Swanwich  in  the  Isle  of  Purbeck. 
In  both  localities  the  formation  is  the  same  with  that  of  the  sand- 
stone of  Tilgate  Forest,  in  which  Mr.  Mantell  first  discovered  the 
remains  of  the  Iguanodon,  an  herbivorous  reptile  of  extraordinary 
stature.  Dr.  Buckland  describes  an  external  metacarpal  bone  (six 
inches  in  length,  five  inches  in  its  greatest  breadth,  and  six  pounds 
in  weight)  of  the  right  foot  of  some  reptile,  supposed,  from  the 
stratum  in  which  it  is  found  in  Sandown  Bay  and  from  the  bones 
with  which  it  is  associated,  to  be  an  Iguanodon.  It  is  in  linear 
dimensions  twice  as  large  as  the  corresponding  bone  of  a  large 
elephant :  and  we  must  consider  the  small  proportion  which  the  legs 
of  a  reptile  bear  to  the  length  of  its  body,  in  order  to  form  any 
notion  of  the  gigantic  proportions  of  this  quadruped. 

Finally,  I  have  to  notice  a  communication  from  Mr.  Hennah, 
containing  a  systematic  and  descriptive  catalogue  of  the  fossils  of 
the  transition  limestone  of  Plymouth,  read  at  our  last  meeting. 

Such,  Gentlemen,  have  been  the  memoirs  presented  to  us  since 
our  former  Anniversary.  I  have  brought  them  before  you  in  that 
order  in  which  they  seem  to  cast  light  upon  each  other ;  and  I 
have  indulged  in  no  comments  but  such  as  sprang  immediately 
from  the  subjects  themselves. 

I  rejoice  in  the  number  and  activity  of  our  provincial  institutions  ; 
and  still  more,  that  the  same  spirit  which  has  of  late  years  induced 
so  many  Englishmen  to  combine  for  the  furtherance  of  natural 
knowledge,  is  extending  to  our  colonies  in  America  and  Asia. 
From  the  labours  of  so  many  ingenious  men,  united  for  the  same 
end,  and  with  opportunities  for  observation  so  widely  different,  the 
happiest  results  may  be  anticipated. 

I  should  wish  to  say  something  on  the  general  structure  of  the 
Alps ;  and  to  describe  the  speculations  of  one  of  our  Foreign  Mem- 
bers and  best  fellow-labourers  on  the  different  epochs  of  eleva- 
tion. These  are  inviting  topics,  to  which,  on  a  future  occasion,  I 
may  perhaps  return :  but  had  I  even  time  for  their  discussion,  it 
would  not  be  well  for  me,  at  present,  to  trust  myself  in  so  wide  a 
field. 

Of  the  various  works  poured  out  during  the  past  year  from  the 
German  and  French  press,  on  subjects  connected  with  geology, 
it  is  impossible  for  me  to  offer  an  analysis  or  even  an  enumeration. 
Most  of  them  are  the  productions  not  only  of  great  talent,  but  of 
great  good  sense ;  not  only  of  great  labour,  but  of  labour  happily 
directed.  And  it  is  no  small  matter  of  pride  to  this  Society,  that 
its  researches  have  been  highly  valued  by  the  naturalists  of  the 
Continent.  They  have  not  given  their  praises  to  us  grudgingly ; 
but  have  sometimes  scattered  them  with  a  lavish  hand  ;  and  have, 
I  fear,  awarded  to  us  higher  honours  than  we  ourselves  can  be 


203 

conscious  of  deserving.  I  think  I  could  point  out  move  than  one 
Essay,  in  which,  during  the  past  year,  the  geologists  of  the  Con- 
tinent have  injured  their  descriptions  of  secondary  formations,  and 
impeded  their  own  inductive  powers,  by  fixing  their  eyes  too  stea- 
dily on  the  types  of  the  English  series. 

I  congratulate  you  on  the  completion  of  the  geological  map  of 
Germany  by  an  illustrious  naturalist,  who  for  many  years  has  de- 
voted, and  continues  still  to  devote,  the  best  efforts  of  his  life  to  the 
promotion  of  our  science.  He  has  not  affixed  his  name  to  this 
great  work,  and  he  perhaps  still  regards  some  parts  of  it  but  as  an 
approximation.  The  elaborate  and  accurate  maps  of  north-western 
Germany  by  Professor  Hoffmann,  and  of  the  Odenwald  and  the 
neighbouring  districts  by  Dr.  Klipstein,  belong  also  to  the  produc- 
tions of  the  past  year  *.  Professor  Hoffmann's  map  is  to  us  of  pe- 
culiar interest ;  not  merely  from  the  extent  and  intricacy  of  the 
country  it  delineates ;  but  also  from  the  number  of  secondary  for- 
mations which  it  represents,  in  perfect  conformity  with  the  subdi- 
visions adopted  in  our  own  geological  maps.  Works  of  this  kind 
are  of  inestimable  value:  they  are  the  embodied  results  of  observa- 
tions without  number,  directed  to  one  object ;  and,  when  well  per- 
formed, may  be  regarded  as  the  last  generalizations  from  facts  ex- 
hibited in  their  clearest  and  simplest  form.  But  more  than  this, — 
they  guide  us  to  the  fountain-head  of  information,  and  lead  us  to 
still  more  general  conclusions,  by  giving  us  at  every  step  of  our 
way  the  means  of  comparison  with  the  structure  of  other  regions  f. 

To  some  admirable  works  on  natural  history,  now  in  progress, 
which  bear  more  or  less  directly  on  our  subject,  I  have  no  time 
to  allude.  But  I  may  point,  with  peculiar  satisfaction,  to  the  ad- 
vancement of  the  work  of  M.  Adolphe  Brongniart  on  fossil  plants, 
and  to  the  appearance  of  a  new  number  of  the  work  of  Goldfuss 
on  organic  remains.  By  the  continued  labours  of  these  excellent 
naturalists,  we  are  supplied  with  new  terms  of  geological  compari- 
son, and  new  means  of  legitimate  induction.  I  am  happy  also  to 
announce  the  approaching  publication  of  a  general  index  to  the 
volumes  of  Mr.  Sowerby's  "  Mineral  Conchology,"  in  which  the 
errors  incidental  to  such  a  work  will  be  corrected,  and  all  the  fos- 
sils arranged  according  to  their  position  in  the  successive  groups 
of  the  British  strata.  Such  an  Index  has  long  been  wanted ;  and 
its  execution  will  be  an  advantage  above  all  price  to  the  student  of 
secondary  geology. 

*  Dr.  Klipstein  has  also  executed  a  geological  map  (not,  I  believe,  yet 
published)  of  the  districts  north  of  the  Main ;  on  the  same  scale,  and  of 
the  same  extent,  with  the  Odenwald  map. 

t  The  geological  maps  of  Germany  are  sold  by  Simon  Schropp  and  Co. 
of  Berlin.  I  take  this  opportunity  of  observing,  that  the  difficulty  of  pro- 
curing copies  of  works  like  these  has  long  been  a  matter  of  complaint. 
Of  the  excellent  geological  map,  by  MM.  Oeynhausen,  von  Dechen,  and 
De  la  Roche,  though  published  in  1825,  not  a  single  copy  has,  I  believe, 
yet  found  its  way  into  the  shops  of  any  of  our  geographers.  I  only  pro- 
cured it  myself  at  Berlin. 


204 

Each  succeeding  year  places  in  a  stronger  point  of  view  the 
importance  of  organic  remains,  when  we  attempt  to  trace  the  va- 
rious periods  and  revolutions  in  the  history  of  the  globe.  Crystal- 
line rocks  are  found  associated  with  the  strata  of  almost  every 
age;  and  the  constant  laws  of  combination  which  have  produced 
a  certain  mineral  form  in  rocks  of  one  era,  may  produce  it  again 
in  another.  Nearly  all  the  modifications  of  structure  in  rocks  called 
primary  are  also  found  in  secondary  formations:  and  among  tertiary 
deposits  we  sometimes  find  millstone-grit,  red  marl  with  fibrous 
gypsum,  red  conglomerates,  compact,  subcrystalline,  and  oolitic 
limestone ;  in  short,  all  the  distinguishing  characters  of  secondary 
formations.  The  great  barriers,  which  the  fancy  or  ingenuity  of 
geologists  has  at  different  times  set  up  between  the  mineral  pro- 
ductions of  successive  periods,  have  been  thrown  down,  one  after 
the  other.  I  do  not  deny  the  importance  of  mineralogical  charac- 
ters ;  I  only  mean  to  assert  that,  taken  by  themselves,  they  are  no 
certain  indications  of  the  age  of  any  deposit  whatsoever. 

In  reasoning  from  organic  remains,  by  the  succession  of  large 
groups  alone  can  we  establish  any  safe  induction.  Positive  rules 
founded  on  the  presence  of  particular  genera  or  species  are  of  com- 
paratively small  value.  But  the  mind  becomes  wearied  and  bewil- 
dered by  the  endless  succession  of  individual  forms,  and  delights  to 
take  refuge  in  some  generalization :  and  generalizations  would  be 
excellent  things  if  we  could  be  persuaded  to  part  with  them  as  easily 
as  we  form  them.  They  might  then  be  used  like  the  shifting  hypo- 
theses in  certain  operations  of  exact  science,  by  help  of  which  we 
gradually  approximate  nearer  and  nearer  to  the  truth. 

In  England,  and  many  other  parts  of  the  north  of  Europe,  num- 
mulites  are  found  only  in  tertiary  rocks,  and  orthoceratites  only  in 
those  of  the  transition  periods  ;  but  in  the  secondary  limestone  of 
the  Alps  we  find,  abundantly,  both  orthoceratites  and  nummulites. 
Ammonites  and  belemnites  have  not  yet  been  found  among  the 
strata  called  tertiary.  But  should  the  chasm  between  the  secon- 
dary and  tertiary  systems  ever  be  filled  up,  it  may  be  as  difficult 
to  draw  any  line  between  them,  as  it  now  is  to  draw  the  line  be- 
tween the  transition  and  secondary  series.  Belemnites  descend  no 
lower  than  the  lias.  Ammonites  descend  among  the  transition  rocks ; 
and  it  has  been  remarked,  that  in  ail  the  deposits  under  the  lias, 
the  concamerations  of  this  genus  are  of  a  simpler  figure  (being 
marked  at  their  junction  with  the  outer  shell  only  by  lines  undula- 
ting or  in  zig-zag,)  than  those  of  the  corresponding  fossils  in  the 
higher  formations.  As  far  as  regards  the  English  carboniferous  and 
transition  series,  this  rule  is  true.  But  the  only  ammonite  I  ever 
found  in  the  magnesian  limestone  had  those  suture-like  markings 
which  distinguish  this  genus  in  the  upper  secondary  beds.  The 
producta  is  not  found  above  the  magnesian  limestone  (zechstein)  : 
it  occurs  abundantly  in  the  lower  part  of  that  formation,  and  it 
also  abounds  among  the  fossils  of  the  transition  periods.  Cer- 
tain plants  are  eminently  characteristic  of  our  coal  formations  ;  but 
in  England  they  also  occur  in  the  sandstone  beds  which  alternate 


205 

with  the  mountain  limestone.  Near  Magdeburg  they  are  found  in 
grauwacke;  and  M.  Elie  de  Beaumont  has,  on  the  south  flank  of  the 
Alps,  found  the  same  vegetable  forms  in  beds  of  the  age  of  our  lias. 
Positive  and  negative  rules  like  these,  when  kept  in  subordination 
to  new  facts,  are  of  the  greatest  value ;  for  they  record  in  a  few 
words  the  result  of  many  observations. 

When  we  examine  a  series  of  formations  which  are  in  contact, 
we  constantly  find  them  passing  into  each  other:  and  when  we 
place  the  groups  of  fossils  derived  from  the  successive  terms  of 
the  series  in  the  order  of  superposition,  their  passage  is  still  more 
striking.  I  do  not  mean  by  this  to  vindicate  the  transmutation  of 
species ;  because  that  doctrine  is  opposed  by  all  the  facts  of  any 
value  in  determining  such  a  question.  Neither  do  I  assume  any 
positive  law  of  continuity  such  as  may  be  predicated  of  a  formula 
in  exact  science.  I  only  wish  to  state  a  fact  of  general  observation. 
We  sometimes,  however,  find  that  this  order  in  the  works  of  na- 
ture is  interrupted ;  a  leaf  seems  to  be  torn  out  from  the  volume 
of  her  history.  At  the  same  time  all  the  connecting  links,  which 
bind  the  successive  mineral  masses  to  each  other,  are  broken ;  and 
their  sepai'ation  is  marked  by  contortions  and  disruptions,  by 
heaps  of  conglomerate,  and  by  all  the  other  proofs  of  violent  internal 
commotions.  But  these  internal  commotions  have  not  been  uni- 
versal :  and  when  we  get  beyond  their  operation,  we  recover  the 
lost  page  in  the  history  of  the  world,  as  it  is  told  in  the  succession 
of  animal  forms,  and  every  thing  is  again  reduced  to  harmony  and 
order.  I  do  not  intend  to  deny  that  there  may  have  been  certain 
great  epochs  of  elevation,  of  such  wide-spreading  violence  as  to 
affect  every  living  thing  on  the  face  of  the  earth.  This  is  a  mere 
question  of  fact,  and  to  be  resolved  solely  by  observation.  I  only 
wish  to  vindicate  a  principle  which  we  know  from  experience  to 
be  of  very  extensive  application,  and  to  which  I  have  before  alluded 
in  this  address.  I  may  therefore  again  be  permitted  to  enforce  it  by 
a  specific  illustration. 

In  many  parts  of  the  west  of  England,  the  lias  is  separated  from 
the  coal  measures  only  by  a  few  hundred  feet  of  red  sandstone 
and  conglomerate  not  containing  the  vestige  of  an  ox*ganic  fossil. 
It  might  be  supposed  (and  such  a  supposition  would  not  be  new) 
— that  the  red  sandstone  and  conglomerate  were  formed  during  some 
short  period  of  confusion  produced  by  the  dislocation  of  the  older 
rocks — that  after  a  time  the  sea  again  became  tranquil — and  that 
the  fossils  of  the  lias  were  called  into  being,  upon  the  ruins  of  an 
older  world,  by  a  new  fiat  of  creative  power.  Nor  should  I  object 
much  to  such  a  hypothesis,  if  it  were  only  regarded  as  a  mere  ex- 
planation of  local  phenomena.  But  the  fossils  of  the  coal  measures 
bear  no  resemblance  to  the  fossils  of  the  lias.  There  is,  therefore, 
such  a  break  of  continuity,  that  we  are  forced  in  imagination  to 
supply  many  new  groups  of  organic  forms  before  we  can  bring  the 
order  of  succession  into  accordance  with  the  known  analogies  of  na- 
ture. If  we  continue  our  investigations  to  the  north  of  England, 
we  see  the  coal  measures  less  disturbed  and  the  dolomitic  conglo- 

c 


206 

merates  less  developed.  We  find,  at  the  same  time,  new  divisions 
of  the  dolomites  ;  some  of  which  abound  in  organic  remains,  having 
a  resemblance  to  the  fossils  of  the  carboniferous  strata,  and  being 
in  a  few  instances  specifically  the  same  with  them.  We  also  find 
among  them  many  new  species  of  organized  beings.  Still  the 
sequence  is  incomplete  ;  the  fossils  of  the  dolomitic  beds  make  but 
little  approach  to  the  fossils  of  the  lias  :  and  no  part  of  the  British 
Isles  has  hitherto  supplied  us  with  the  intervening  terms  of  the  series. 
But  if  we  extend  our  inquiries  to  the  secondary  formations  of  Ger- 
many and  France  (particularly  in  the  regions  of  the  Vosges,  or  on 
the  banks  of  the  Neckar),  we  meet  with  a  solution  of  our  difficulties. 
In  the  place  of  our  barren  deposits,  between  the  magnesian  lime- 
stone and  the  lias,  we  have  three  great  formations,  each  charac- 
terized by  its  suite  of  fossils  ;  and  among  them  we  find  a  series  of 
zoophytes,  and  shells,  and  great  reptiles,  gradually  leading  us  to 
the  organic  types  of  the  lias  and  the  oolites.  In  proof  of  what  I  am 
stating,  I  need  only  refer  you  to  that  part  of  our  collection,  which 
we  owe  to  the  liberality  of  M.  Voltz,  whose  labours  have  thrown 
so  great  a  light  upon  this  interesting  chapter  of  the  physical  history 
of  the  earth. 

In  this  way,  by  successive  but  secure  inductions,  we  resolve  our 
first  difficulty;  and  are  no  longer  startled  at  the  change  of  organic 
types,  in  the  west  of  England,  between  the  coal  measures  and  the 
lias.  For  between  the  times  of  their  deposition,  there  were  com- 
pleted at  least  five  great  geological  periods;  each  distinguished 
by  its  own  group  of  animals,  and  each,  therefore,  probably  con- 
tinued during  a  long  succession  of  ages.  I  must,  however,  for- 
bear :  the  subject  is  boundless ;  but  our  time  allows  not  of  further 
details. 

It  is,  I  think,  a  matter  of  regret  that  there  have  not  appeared,  from 
time  to  time,  in  our  language,  works  placing  clearly  before  the  world 
the  progress  of  geology,  the  laws  of  its  induction,  and  the  subjects  of 
its  speculations.  Such  works,  however,  demand  more  than  common 
powers, — a  grasp  of  details  only  acquired  by  practical  experience ; 
and  habits  of  mind  fitted  for  the  exhibition  of  them,  in  their  most 
simple  and  general  form.  But  above  all,  they  require  a  moral  ele- 
vation, and  a  dignified  forbearance,  to  free  the  mind  from  those  at- 
tractive visions  of  ancient  cosmogony,  and  those  seductions  of  fanciful 
hypotheses,  by  which  the  history  of  geology  has  so  often  been  de- 
graded. 

It  is  indeed  true  that  an  essay  representing  our  science  as  it  now 
is,  must  in  a  few  years  be  left  at  a  distance  by  the  progress  of  new 
discoveries.  At  the  same  time,  to  no  works  in  the  history  of  physics- 
do  we  revert  with  more  pleasure  and  instruction,  than  to  those 
which  record  the  progress  of  discovery,  and  the  early  approxima- 
tions to  general  truth.  Their  lessons  of  wisdom  remain ;  and  we 
look  back  to  them  with  veneration,  as  to  ancient  monuments,  which, 
however  rude,  or  ill  suited  to  the  fashion  of  our  day,  still  bear  the 
stamp  of  the  genius  that  produced  them. 


207 

But,  Gentlemen,  if  our  science  has  not  been  adorned  in  this  country 
so  much  as  we  might  have  wished  by  its  monuments  of  wisdom,  it  has 
been  disfigured  by  its  monuments  of  folly.  There  have  issued  from 
the  English  press,  within  a  few  years,  such  dreams  of  cosmogony  as 
I  believe  find  no  parallel  in  the  recent  literature  of  continental  Europe. 
It  would  be  in  vain  to  point  out  to  such  authors  the  nature  of  our 
data,  or  the  method  of  our  inductions;  for  they  have  a  safer  and  a 
readier  road  to  their  own  conclusions.  It  would  be  in  vain  to  tell 
them — that  the  records  of  mankind  offer  no  single  instance  of  any 
great  physical  truth  anticipated  by  mere  guesses  and  conjectures— 
that  philosophic  wisdom  consists  in  comprehending  the  last  generali- 
zations derived  from  facts  each  of  which  is  only  known  by  experiment 
and  observation  ;  and  in  advancing,  by  such  means,  to  those  general 
laws  by  which  all  things  are  bound  together.  They  seem  not  to 
know  that  inventive  power  in  physics,  unlike  inventive  power  in  works 
of  art  or  of  imagination,  finds  no  employment  in  ideal  creations, 
and  only  means  the  faculty  by  which  the  mind  clearly  apprehends  the 
relations  and  analogies  of  things  already  known  ;  and  is  thereby  direct- 
ed and  urged  on  to  the  discovery  of  new  facts,  by  the  help  of  new 
comparisons — that  the  history  of  all  ages  (and  I  might  add,  the  writ- 
ten law  of  our  being,  where  it  is  declared  that  by  the  sweat  of  our  brow 
shall  we  gather  up  our  harvest)  has  proved  this  way  of  slow  and 
toilsome  induction  to  be  the  only  path  which  leads  to  physical  truth. 

Laws  for  the  government  of  intellectual  beings,  and  laws  by  which 
material  things  are  held  together,  have  not  one  common  element  to 
connect  them.  And  to  seek  for  an  exposition  of  the  phsenomena  of  the 
natural  world  among  the  records  of  the  moral  destinies  of  mankind, 
would  be  as  unwise,  as  to  look  for  rules  of  moral  government  among 
the  laws  of  chemical  combination.  From  the  unnatural  union  of 
things  so  utterly  incongruous,  there  has  from  time  to  time  sprung  up 
in  this  country  a  deformed  progeny  of  heretical  and  fantastical  con- 
clusions, by  which  sober  philosophy  has  been  put  to  open  shame,  and 
sometimes  even  the  charities  of  life  have  been  exposed  to  violation. 

No  opinion  can  be  heretical  but  that  which  is  not  true.  Conflict- 
ing falsehoods  we  can  comprehend  ;  but  truths  can  never  war  against 
each  other.  I  affirm,  therefore,  that  we  have  nothing  to  fear  from 
the  results  of  our  inquiries,  provided  they  be  followed  in  the  labo- 
rious but  secure  road  of  honest  induction.  In  this  way  we  may  rest 
assured  that  we  shall  never  arrive  at  conclusions  opposed  to  any 
truth,  either  physical  or  moral,  from  whatsoever  source  that  truth 
may  be  derived  :  nay  rather  (as  in  all  truth  there  is  a  common  es- 
sence), that  new  discoveries  will  ever  lend  support  and  illustration 
to  things  which  are  already  known,  by  giving  us  a  larger  insight  into 
the  universal  harmonies  of  nature. 

Had  the  authors  to  whom  I  have  alluded,  contented  themselves 
with  pointing  out  the  errors  of  our  logic,  and  the  fallacies  of  our  in- 
duction, they  might,  perhaps,  have  done  us  some  service.  For  it 
cannot  be  denied  that  we  have  sometimes  lost  ourselves  amidst  the 
strange  forms  of  nature  which  have  started  up  before  us,  during  our 
wanderings  among  the  monuments  of  an  older  world  :  and  in  the 

c  2 


208 

records  of  our  labours-],  a  critical  eye  may  perhaps  sometimes  discover 
that  the  modesty  of  our  facts  is  but  ill  assorted  with  the  boldness  of 
our  conclusions. 

I  should  have  been  well  content  to  have  ended  with  these  general 
censures.  But  during  the  past  year  there  has  been  sent  forth,  by 
one  of  our  own  body,  "  a  New  System  of  Geology,  in  which  the  great 
revolutions  of  the  earth  and  of  animated  nature  are  reconciled  at  once 
to  modern  science  and  to  sacred  history :"  and  to  this  title  I  will 
venture  to  add, —  in  which  the  worst  violations  of  philosophic  rule,  by 
the  daring  union  of  things  incongruous,  have  been  adopted  by  the 
author  from  others,  and  at  the  same  time  decorated  by  new  fan- 
tasies of  his  own.  I  shall  not  stop  to  combat  the  bold  and  unautho- 
rized hypothesis,  that  all  the  successive  formations  of  the  old  schistose 
rocks  were  called  into  being  simultaneously  by  a  fiat  of  creative 
power  anterior  to  the  existence  of  creatures  possessing  life  :  nor 
shall  I  urge,  that  among  these  primitive  creations  of  the  author, 
are  mountain  masses  of  rock  formed  by  mechanical  degradation  from 
rocks  which  preceded  them,  and  beds  of  organic  remains, — placed 
there,  if  we  may  believe  his  system,  in  mere  mockery  of  our  senses; — 
neither  shall  I  detain  you  by  dwelling  upon  the  errors  and  contra- 
dictions which  are  scattered  through  the  early  pages  of  his  volume. 
On  this  part  of  the  "  New  System"  all  criticism  is  uncalled  for  here  ; 
for  it  soars  far  above  us  and  our  lowly  contemplations.  Its  charac- 
ter is  written,  and  its  very  physiognomy  appears  in  that  dignified 
and  oracular  censure  which  he  himself  has  quoted  from  the  works 
of  Bacon  :  "  Tanto  magis  heec  vanitas  inhibenda  venit  et  coercenda, 
quia  ex  divinorum  et  humanorum  male-sana  admixtione,  non  so- 
lum educitur  philosophia  phantastica,  sed  etiam  religio  hasretica." 
"  This  vanity  merits  castigation  and  reproof  the  more,  as  from  the 
mischievous  admixture  of  divine  and  human  things,  there  is  com- 
pounded at  once  a  fantastical  philosophy  and  an  heretical  reli- 
gion." 

All  these  things,  Gentlemen,  I  shall  pass  over  ■  but  the  author  has 
stood  forward  as  the  popular  expositor  of  the  present  state  of  secon- 
dary geology  3  of  that  very  portion  of  our  science,  which  has  for 
so  many  years  employed  the  best  efforts  of  our  Society.  This  part 
of  the  work  appears  not  to  contain  one  original  fact,  or  the  result 
of  one  original  investigation  :  and  of  this  we  do  not  complain.  We 
have,  however,  a  right  to  look  to  it  for  information  which  shall  not 
repeat  exploded  errors  ;  but  shall  make  a  near  approach  to  the  level 
of  recent  observations.  But  is  this  the  case  in  the  work  before  us  ? 
Unquestionably  not.  All  the  old  errors  in  the  arrangement  of  the 
English  strata,  between  the  chalk  and  the  oolites,  are  unaccountably 
repeated;  —  errors  which  have  been  corrected  since  1824,  in  our 
Transactions,  in  English  and  Scotch  philosophical  journals,  and  in 
various  independent  works  of  natural  history  ;  and  have  excited,  du- 
ring the  last  five  or  six  years,  more  discussions  in  this  room  than 
have  arisen  out  of  any  other  part  of  secondary  geology.  Other  anti- 
quated errors,  of  like  kind,  have  found  a  place  of  refuge  in  the  pages 
of  this  "  New  System." 


209 

But  let  us  pass  over  what  may  be,  perhaps,  only  regarded  as  errors 
of  omission,  and  see  how  the  author  has  employed  the  materials 
before  him.  The  best  part  of  his  narrative  is  made  up  of  successive 
extracts,  often  taken  word  for  word,  yet  without  the  marks  of  quota- 
tion, from  various  well-known  works  on  geology.  Many  of  these 
extracts,  although  in  themselves  admirable,  appear  in  the  book  be- 
fore us  but  as  disjointed  fragments,  in  the  arrangement  of  which 
the  author  has  but  ill  performed  the  humble  duties  of  a  compiler. 
For  in  the  chapter  on  secondary  formations,  we  find  enormous  faults 
and  dislocations,  of  which  there  is  neither  any  written  record,  nor 
any  archetype  in  the  book  of  Nature.  Thus  we  find  the  lias  some- 
times below  the  oolites,  sometimes  between  the  oolites  and  the 
green-sand*.  In  one  page  the  cornbrash  and  forest  marble  have 
shifted  places  j  in  another  the  whole  lower  oolitic  system  is  abso- 
lutely inverted  f.  Again,  at  p.  247>  we  are  told  that  the  several  beds 
are  given  "  as  usual,  in  the  ascending  order  ;"  yet  in  this  very  page 
the  inferior  members  of  the  lower  oolites  are  copied,  word  for  word, 
from  another  book,  and  are  in  the  descending  order.  On  the  next 
leaf,  the  same  error  is  repeated  in  a  still  worse  form  :  and  within 
four  pages  of  this  last  bouleversement  we  find  the  Oxford  clay,  the 
cornbrash,  and  the  forest  marble,  twice  shuffled  under  the  great 
oolite  £.  The  goodly  pile,  Gentlemen,  which  many  of  you  have 
helped  to  rear,  after  years  of  labour,  has  been  pulled  down  and  re- 
constructed :  but  with  such  unskilful  hands  that  its  inscriptions  are 
turned  upside  down  5  its  sculptured  figures  have  their  heads  to  the 
ground,  and  their  heels  to  the  heavens ;  and  the  whole  fabric,  amid 
the  fantastic  ornaments  by  which  it  is  degraded,  has  lost  all  the  beauty 
and  the  harmony  of  its  old  proportions. 

So  much  has  been  written  in  illustration  of  the  zoological  history 
of  our  several  formations,  that  the  labour  of  a  compiler  is  now  made 
comparatively  easy.  Yet  in  the  distribution  of  organic  remains, 
given  in  the  "  New  System,"  there  is  such  a  complication  of  errors 
as  nearly  baffles  all  attempts  at  description.  In  one  place  we  are 
told,  that  the  lower  secondary  rocks  are  characterized  by  the  sim- 
plest forms  of  the  animal  kingdom.  In  another,  we  find  fish  enu- 
merated among  the  fossils  of  the  transition  (or  submedial)  strata  §. 
In  one  place  our  magnesian  limestone  is  properly  identified  with 
the  first  flotz  limestone  of  Werner.  In  another,  our  mountain  lime- 
stone is  placed  on  the  same  parallel ;  and,  by  a  double  blunder,  is 
described  "as  the  lowest  sepulchre  of  vertebral  animals  ||." 

In  one  page  orthoceratites  are  brought  near  the  order  of  corals. 
In  another,  a  coral  is  figured  as  an  encrinite.  In  a  third,  the  Steeple 
Ashton  caryophyllia  (the  characteristic  fossil  of  the  middle  oolite), 
is  figured  as  a  fossil  of  the  inferior  system.     In  a  fourth,  a  caryo- 

*  "  New  System  of  Geology."  Compare  pp.  133, 153  with  pp.  137,  197. 

f  "New  System,"  pp.  187,  195. 

%  Ibid.  p.  253. 

\  Compare  Introduction,  p.  xlix.  and  p.  143. 

||  "New  System,"  pp.  175,  177,  187- 


210 

phyllia  of  the  mountain  limestone  is  figured  among  the  organic 
remains  of  the  cornbrash.  And  lastly,  the  celebrated  lily  encrinite 
(a  characteristic  fossil  of  the  muschel-kalk,  a  formation  unknown 
in  England)  is  introduced  and  figui-ed  among  the  fossils  of  the  lower 
oolitic  system  *. 

Errors  like  these  are  above  every  thing  calculated  to  mislead  men 
who  are  unpractised  in  geology ;  and  they  do  not  terminate  here. 
But  I  have  no  right  to  detain  you  with  a  longer  enumeration  f. 
I  have  stated  enough  to  prove,  that  in  the  conduct  of  this  work,  the 
author  has  shown  neither  the  information  nor  the  industry  which 
might  justify  him  in  becoming  an  interpreter  of  the  labours  of  others, 
or  the  framer  of  a  system  of  his  own. 

*  See  pp.  149, 176,  251,  256,  257. 

f  For  the  purpose  of  illustrating  the  organic  remains  "  of  the  successive 
mineral  strata,"  there  are  at  the  end  of  the  "  New  System  "  five  plates 
representing  groups  of  fossils,  with  their  generic  and  specific  names.  Had 
the  figures  been  well  selected,  they  might  have  been  of  great  use :  as  it  is, 
they  can  only  be  the  means  of  disseminating  error. 

Plate  I.  professes  to  represent  the  "  shells  of  the  mountain  limestone." 
Of  its  thirteen  figures  three  or  four  are  well  chosen ;  none  of  the  rest  ought 
to  have  appeared.  One  of  them  is  wrong  named ;  and  a  recent  nerita,  with 
all  its  fresh  markings,  has  unaccountably  found  its  place  among  these  old 
fossils. 

Plate  II.  "  Shells  of  the  Lias."  In  this  plate,  of  twelve  species,  we  are 
astonished  to  find  a  transition  orthoceratite,  the  productus  scoticus  of  the 
mountain  limestone,  and  a  scaphite  of  the  green-sand,  placed,  side  by  side, 
with  the  grypha;a  incurva,  plagiostoma  gigas,  and  some  other  true  lias  fossils  ! 

Plate  III.  "  Shells  of  the  under  Oolite."  Thirteen  species ;  and  a  more 
uncharacteristic  assemblage  was,  perhaps,  never  before  brought  together. 
A  tertiary  mya  and  a  nummulite  have  here  found  their  way,  for  the  first 
time,  among  the  shells  of  the  under  oolite.  Two  or  three  of  the  other  species 
ought  to  have  appeared,  if  at  all,  in  the  next  plate. 

Plate  IV.  "  Shells  of  the  Cornbrash  and  upper  Oolites."  Here  the  con- 
fusion is  still  greater ;  for  of  twelve  species,  seven  are  positively  misplaced, 
the  others  are  ill  selected,  and  one  of  them  is  wrong  named.  The  mineral 
conchologist  is  confounded  at  the  sight  of  the  well  known  turrilites  and 
hamites  of  the  green-sand  group,  of  the  turritellae  and  superb  rostellaria  ma- 
croptera  of  the  London  clay,  jostled  in  among  the  fossils  of  the  oolites. 
Had  the  author  drawn  out  by  lot,  from  all  the  fossils  in  Mr.  Sowerby's 
work,  the  species  which  were  to  decorate  this  plate,  chance  might  have 
given  him  a  more  illustrative  series. 

Plate  V.  "  Shells  of  the  Chalk  and  Superior  Strata."  Among  the  nineteen 
figures  of  this  plate,  no  attempt  is  made  to  separate  the  shells  of  the  chalk 
from  those  of  the  overlying  tertiary  deposits;  although  the  two  groups  have 
not  perhaps  one  species  in  common.  In  Plate  I.  two  freshwater  shells  were 
introduced  which  were  not  characteristic;  here  freshwater  shells  are  cha- 
racteristic, but  are  omitted  altogether ;  and  the  pecten  quinquecostatus 
is  the  characteristic  fossil  of  the  green-sand. 

One  who  was  even  moderately  acquainted  with  the  characteristic  forms 
of  organic  remains,  could  never  have  been  led  into  such  a  complication  of 
errors :  and  they  are  the  more  discreditable,  as  the  greater  part  of  them 
might  have  been  avoided  by  the  mere  exercise  of  the  humblest  duty  of  a 
compiler. 


211 

Are  we  then  for  ever  to  wander  among  the  mere  perplexities  of 
details,  and  never  to  hope  for  any  system  by  which  we  may  com- 
bine them  ?  You  must  have  seen,  Gentlemen,  that  I  am  not  the  ad- 
vocate of  any  such  steril  sentiment.  It  is  indeed  true  that  in  the 
very  classification  of  our  facts  and  of  our  phenomena,  there  are 
difficulties  connected  with  all  parts  of  natural  history,  which,  for 
ages  yet  to  come,  may  continue  to  require  for  their  solution  a  com- 
bination of  the  greatest  industry  with  the  greatest  skill.  But  these 
difficulties  do  honour  to  our  science :  and  the  same  great  rule  by 
which  the  father  of  physical  astronomy  was  guided,  applies,  at 
every  step,  to  us  and  to  our  conclusions.  "  Effectuum  naturalium 
ejusdem  generis  esedem  sunt  causae,"  was  the  grand  rule  of  his  in- 
duction. In  the  same  way,  we  see  the  effects  produced  by  the  ac- 
tion of  material  things  upon  each  other  :  and  we  know  that  the  laws 
by  which  these  material  things  are  governed,  are  liable  neither  to 
change  nor  intermission.  There  is,  therefore,  one  safe  rule  in  all 
our  inquiries,  whether  they  be  simple  or  complicated.  Effects  si- 
milar in  kind  to  those  which  are  produced  now,  must  in  all  former 
times  have  been  produced  by  some  corresponding  power  of  nature. 

As  the  historians  of  the  natural  world,  we  can  describe  the  order 
of  the  events  which  are  past ;  and  we  can  trace  a  succession  of  re- 
volutions through  which  we  go  back,  till  we  arrive  at  periods  where 
the  characters  of  nature's  work  are  all  obliterated,  and  there  our 
descriptions  end.  Like  things  we  can  compare  with  like ;  and  this 
comparison  teaches  us  the  analogies  of  the  fonns  which  we  exa- 
mine :  but  we  define  not  the  length  of  time  during  which  they  were 
elaborated ;  and  still  less  do  we  dare  to  speculate  about  the  physical 
revolutions  of  the  ages  which  are  to  come. 

The  very  commencement  of  the  task  of  speculative  geology  re- 
quires a  wide  and  philosophic  knowledge  of  the  physical  world  as  it 
now  is,  and  of  all  the  great  phenomena  exhibited  by  the  fragments 
of  its  former  history.  A  mind  so  prepared  has  already  within  its 
grasp  the  means  of  a  large  induction  :  and  bur  science,  though  hardly 
yet  come  out  of  its  cradle,  has  supplied  materials  of  thought  for  in- 
tellects the  most  robust,  and  results  to  satisfy  imaginations  the  most 
ardent.  Let  us,  therefore,  go  on  as  we  have  begun  ;  giving  up  our 
best  efforts  to  the  search  of  new  facts  and  of  new  phsenomena,  and 
using  them  like  men  who  have  no  higher  passion  than  the  love  of 
truth. 

The  greatest  problems  of  astronomy  are  simple  in  their  conditions. 
A  few  physical  points  moving  in  free  space,  with  given  velocities,  in 
given  directions,  and  acting  upon  each  other  in  subordination  to  a 
given  law, — these  constitute  the  chief  data  for  the  mathematical  analysis 
of  the  system  of  the  heavens.  And  the  results  are  of  a  corresponding 
simplicity.  The  phsenomena  of  the  heavens  are  demonstratively  proved 
to  recur  in  a  fixed  order,  after  the  lapse  of  fixed  periods  of  time ;  and 
the  apparent  aberrations  from  the  general  law  are  also  proved  to  be  but 
modifications  of  that  law,  and  to  return  into  themselves  after  the  com- 
pletion of  definite  secular  periods.  But  where  are  the  secular  periods 
of  geology,  and  where  are  its  cycles  of  phsenomena  recurring,  again 


212 

and  again,  in  a  certain  order  ?  I  must  confess  that  I  cannot  discover 
even  the  traces  of  them  ;  and  I  think  we  do  injustice  to  our  subject, 
in  bringing  it  too  nearly  into  comparison  with  the  exacter  sciences. 

The  earth  has  been  brought  into  its  present  form  by  countless 
causes  of  which  we  know  nothing — by  corpuscular  and  chemical  ac- 
tion, varied  by  changes  of  temperature,  of  pressure,  and  of  all  other 
external  conditions — by  the  violence  of  volcanic  forces,  called  into 
being  by  unknown  powers  of  nature,  and  at  unknown  intervals  of 
time — by  all  the  combined  effects  of  mechanical  degradation — and  by 
all  the  endless  modifications  of  matter,  resulting  from  beings  possess, 
ing  the  organs  of  life.  These  conditions  are  infinitely  too  complex 
and  ill  defined  to  come  within  the  grasp  of  any  exact  analysis. 

I  believe  therefore  that  our  subject  will  never  be  so  far  abstracted  from 
the  materials  which  weigh  it  down,  as  to  rise  to  the  rank  of  an  exact 
science.  But  this,  at  least,  I  will  dare  to  predict ;  that  so  long  as  we 
are  of  one  mind  and  animated  by  our  present  spirit,  year  after  year, 
we  shall  find  new  fields  for  investigation,  and  new  grounds  for  ra- 
tional induction.  That  which  is  exact  in  science  must  be  circum- 
scribed and  defined  :  but  of  our  labours  we  have  no  power  to  foresee 
the  limits ;  and  there  is  an  intense  and  poetic  interest  in  the  very  un- 
certainty and  boundlessness  of  our  speculations. 

It  is  no  small  advantage  that  our  studies  are  so  large  and  so  va- 
rious, that  they  not  only  carry  us  into  all  the  kingdoms  of  nature, 
but  have  a  direct  bearing  on  the  business  of  life.  Of  their  econo- 
mical importance,  I  have,  however,  now  no  time  to  speak ;  and  I 
would  rather  conclude  by  reminding  you  of  their  importance  in  all 
questions  of  physical  geography,  to  which  they  are  as  essential  as 
anatomy  to  the  sculptor,  or  the  knowledge  of  ancient  tongues  to 
the  decipherer  of  ancient  monuments — of  the  light  they  have  shed 
on  every  branch  of  natural  history — and  of  the  problems  they  have 
suggested  to  the  investigations  of  exact  science.  Our  field  is  in- 
deed so  large,  and  our  physical  problems  of  such  complexity,  that  we 
find  at  every  step,  how  much  we  stand  in  need  of  the  support  of 
our  fellow-labourers  ;  and  this  feeling  has  produced  a  strong  social 
sympathy,  not  merely  among  us,  but  among  the  geologists  of  all  the 
nations  of  Europe.  It  is  to  this  principle  that  I  am  willing  to  attri- 
bute a  part  of  the  great  excitement  which  has  hitherto  carried  us  on, 
and  of  those  youthful  and  lusty  efforts,  which  are  the  best  indications 
both  of  our  physical  and  of  our  moral  health. 

And  now,  Gentlemen,  after  having  detained  you  so  long,  allow 
me  to  express  my  gratitude  for  the  kind  assistance  which  I  have  re- 
ceived from  you  in  discharging  all  the  duties  of  my  office  during 
the  past  year.  Should  your  lives  and  mine  be  spared  till  another 
Anniversary,  I  hope  to  have  the  delightful  task  of  recounting  to  you 
the  still  more  extended  labours  of  our  body,  and  of  rejoicing  with  you 
at  the  gathering  in  of  a  still  richer  harvest. 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE  GEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  LONDON. 

1829-1830.  No.  16. 


March  5. — Richard  Smith,  Esq.  of  Connaught  Square  ;  Sir  Thomas 
Maryon  Wilson,  Bart,  of  Charlton  House,  Kent ;  Aristides  Franklin 
Mornay,  Esq.  of  Ashburton  House,  Putney  ;  Rev.  Counop  Thirl- 
wall,  M.A.  of  Trinity  College  Cambridge;  Rev.  John  Philip  Hig- 
man,  M.A.  of  Trinity  College  Cambridge,  and  William  Parry 
Richards,  Esq.  of  Queen  Street,  Bloomsbury, — were  elected  Fellows 
of  this  Society. 

A  paper  was  read,  entitled  "On  the  Tertiary  deposits  of  Lower 
Styria;"  by  the  Rev.  Adam  Sedgwick,  Pres.  G.S.  F.R.S.  &c.  and 
Roderick  Impey  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 

The  region  described  in  this  memoir  is  a  great  depression  on  the 
north-eastern  watershed  of  the  Alps,  in  which  has  been  accumu- 
lated a  very  fine  series  of  tertiary  deposits,  terminating  eastward  in 
the  plains  of  Hungary.  This  great  trough  or  bay  of  Lower  Styria, 
which  is  intersected  by  the  river  Mur,  is  bounded  on  the  west  by  the 
Schwanberg  Alp ;  on  the  north  by  the  calcareous  chain  of  Griitz  and 
the  primary  mountains  of  Pettau,  Vorau,  and  Hartberg  ;  on  the  south 
and  south-west  by  the  Matzeland  Bacher-Gebirge. 

Two  principal  sections  are  offered,  explanatory  of  the  views  of  the 
authors. — The  first  from  the  Schwanberg  Alp  to  Radkersburg,  in  a 
direction  nearly  east  and  west,  develops  in  an  ascending  succession 
all  the  tertiary  deposits  : — The  second,  from  south  to  north,  is  con- 
fined to  the  youngest  zone  of  those  deposits,  and  exhibits  its  relations 
to  the  volcanic  rocks  of  Hungary. 

I.  Section  in  an  ascending  order  of  the  tertiary  formations  between 
Eibeswald  on  the  west  and  Radkersburg  on  the  east. 

a.  The  lowest  members  of  these  deposits  consist  near  Eibeswald,  of 
micaceous  sandstones,  grits,  and  conglomerates,  made  up  of  the  de- 
tritus of  the  primary  slaty  rocks  on  which  they  rest  at  high  angles  of 
inclination,  and  rise  into  the  lofty  mountain  of  the  Radlberg. 

b.  Shale  and  sandstone  with  coal.  There  are  various  beds  of  lignite 
near  Eibeswald,  one  of  which  is  deposited  on  the  grits  of  the  Radl- 
berg. At  Scheineck,  where  the  coal  is  extensively  worked  for  use,  it 
contains  bones  of  anthracotheria,  and  in  the  shale  are  found  gyro- 
gonites  (Chara  tuberculata  of  the  Isle  of  Wight),  many  flattened 
stems  of  arundinaceous  plants,  Cypris,  shells  of  Paludinse,  scales  of 
fish,  &c.  From  the  organic  remains  and  position  of  the  strata  it  is 
presumed  by  the  authors  that  this  coal  is  of  about  the  same  age  as 
that  of  Cadibuona  in  Piedmont. 


214 

c.  Blue  marly  shale,  sand,  &c.  The  carboniferous  strata  are  sur- 
mounted by  dark-coloured  marls  inclosing  well  preserved  shells, 
many  of  which  are  identical  with  species  found  in  the  London  clay 
and  Calcaire  grossier,  amongst  which  are  Lutraria  oblata,  Lucina 
mutabilis  and  L.  renulata,  Venus  vetula,  Cerithium  thiara,  Bulla 
cylindrica,  &c. 

d.  Conglomerate,  with  micaceo-calcareous  sand  and  millstone  con- 
glomerate. This  group  is  of  very  great  development,  and  occupies 
all  the  hilly  region  of  the  Sausal. 

e.  Coralline  limestone  and  marl.  The  preceding  group  is  seen,  both 
atEhrenhausen  andWildon  on  the  Mur,  to  pass  under  a  hard,  mottled, 
coralline  limestone  of  a  yellowish  white  colour,  which  at  the  latter 
place  forms  a  cap  several  hundred  feet  thick  in  beds  nearly  hori- 
zontal. The  fossils  seem  to  be  of  the  age  of  the  English  Crag 
and  middle  Sub-apennine  formations,  and  include  many  corals  of  the 
genera  Astrea  and  Flustra,  Crustacea,  Balanus  crassus,  Conus  Al- 
drovandi,  Pecten  infumatus,  Pholas,  Fistulana,  &c.  The  authors  com- 
pare this  coralline  limestone  with  the  tertiary  marble  of  Possagno 
near  Bassano,  and  they  also  observe  that  it  far  exceeds  in  magnitude 
the  secondary  coral  rag  of  England. 

f.  White  and  blue  marl,  calcareous  grit,  white  marlstone,  and  con- 
cretionary white  limestone.  The  Mur  in  its  easterly  course  from 
Ehrenhausen,  exposes  all  the  members  of  this  and  the  following  group, 
although  some  of  them  are  still  better  seen  in  transverse  sections  to 
the  south.  At  Santa  Egida,  concretionary  white  limestone,  alternating 
with  marls,  contains  Pecten  pleuronectes,  Ostrsea  bellovicina,  Sca- 
laria,  Cyprsea,  &c.  and  in  the  Zirknitz-thal,  Echinanthus  marginatum 
with  gigantic  oysters  and  pectens.  At  St.  Kunegund  and  Morgruben 
the  white  marls  graduate  into  a  compact  building-stone  undistin- 
guishable  from  the  clunch  or  lowest  chalk  of  Cambridgeshire.  Near 
Mureck  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Mur,  the  upper  portion  of  this  group 
is  remarkable  by  containing  a  very  white  concretionary  limestone, 
made  up  of  small  tubular  and  concentric  layers,  several  varieties  of 
which,  occurring  in  other  parts  of  this  tertiary  series,  very  much  re- 
semble concretions  in  the  magnesian  limestone  of  England. 

g.  Calcareous  sands  and  pebble  beds,  calcareous  grits  and  oolitic 
imestone.  These  form  the  superior  and  youngest  stratified  deposits 
of  the  country.  At  Radkersburg,  where  the  section  terminates  and 
the  hills  sink  into  the  plains  of  Hungary,  the  sands,  marls,  and  grits 
are  charged  with  shells,  some  of  which  are  identical  with  existing* 
species,  the  whole  group  being  similar  to  those  of  the  highest  mem- 
bers of  the  basin  of  Vienna.  Other  beds  pass  into  concretionary  masses 
of  an  oolitic  limestone,  similar  to  that  which  is  described  in  the  next 
section. 

The  second  section  from  Radkersburg  on  the  south  to  Riegersberg 
on  the  north,  exhibits  the  structure  of  the  youngest  zone  of  the 
tertiary  deposits  of  Styria,  and  its  relations  to  certain  volcanic  rocks. 

Several  lofty  and  serrated  ridges  of  volcanic  rocks  range  from  Hain- 

*  Mactra  carinata  and  Cerithium  vulgatum. 


215 

feldt  on  the  Raab  towards  Radkersburg,  and  a  section  made  along 
their  western  face  offers  the  following  phenomena. 

At  Straden,  shelly  sands  and  pebble  beds  are  capped  by  irregularly 
columnar  basaltic  lava  with  olivine,  &c. 

The  hill  of  Poppendorf  exhibits  in  great  detail  the  structure  of  this 
younger  tertiary  zone.  Marls,  sands,  and  conglomerates,  occupy  its 
lower  and  middle  parts,  together  with  many  beds  of  calcareous,  shelly 
grits,  indurated  marlstone,  limestone,  &c.  the  whole  being  very  mi- 
caceous, and  the  organic  remains  identical  with  those  of  Radkersburg. 
These  are  overlaid  by  micaceo-calcareous  sand,  containing  concre- 
tionary masses  of  a  perfect  oolite  which  is  quarried  as  a  building  stone, 
and  which  differs  from  the  great  oolite  of  Bath  only  by  its  concretionary 
structure  and  the  tertiary  shells  associated  with  it. 

The  fine-grained  oolite  passes  upwards  into  other  concretionary 
beds  something  like  English  cornbrash,  and  the  whole  is  surmounted 
by  micaceous  sands  and  marls.  In  an  adjoining  hill  near  Gnaess, 
these  beds  inclosing  shells  alternate  with  volcanic  peperino  made 
up  of  basaltic  lava,  scoria,  vitreous  felspar,  olivine,  pyroxene,  the 
detritus  of  tertiary  rocks  and  shells,  &c. ;  and  on  the  summit  the 
peperino  in  a  more  compact  state  is  quarried  as  a  building-stone* 
The  conical  hills  of  Gleichenberg,  overlying  the  shelly  sands,  are 
entirely  of  volcanic  origin,  and  were  probably  the  centre  of  igneous 
eruption  in  these  parts.  Here  the  predominating  rock  is  a  coarse 
trachyte  used  for  millstones  (felspathic  porphyry,  probably  analogous 
to  the  Porphyre  molaire  of  Beudant),  and  with  it  are  associated  ba- 
saltic lavas,  scoria,  and  fine  peperino,  which  near  Hainfeldt  repose 
upon  the  sands.  Considerably  to  the  north  of  the  Raab  the  volcanic 
conglomerate  on  which  the  castle  stands  is  also  recumbent  upon  the 
shelly  sands  and  pebble  beds. 

From  these  and  several  other  examples  in  the  neighbourhood,  the 
authors  infer,  that  no  tests  can  be  established  by  which  the  relative 
ages  of  these  various  igneous  rocks  can  be  fixed,  since  the  same  ter- 
tiary strata  are  in  one  place  covered  by  basaltic  lava,  in  a  second  by 
trachyte,  in  a  third  by  volcanic  conglomerate,  whilst  in  a  fourth  they 
alternate  with  peperino. 

In  conclusion  they  remark  : — 

That  the  lowest  tertiary  strata  near  Eibeswald  must  from  their 
high  inclination  have  been  considerably  elevated  after  their  de- 
position. 

That  the  various  groups  described,  unquestionably  represent, — 
1st,  the  Paleotherian  and  Calcaire  grossier  period  : — 2ndly,  The  Crag 
and  middle  Sub-Apennine  formations  : — 3rdly,  Newer  deposits  identi- 
cal with  those  of  the  adjoining  bay  of  Vienna,  which  is  shown  to  have 
been  connected  with  the  bay  of  Gratz  by  the  intervention  of  the  great 
tertiary  sea  which  once  occupied  all  the  plains  of  Hungary. 

That  the  volcanic  forces  in  this  region  were  first  called  into  action 
during  the  most  recent  of  these  periods,  and  were  probably  continued 
in  activity  through  the  long  succession  of  ages  in  which  the  sea  was 
spread  over  these  countries. 

Lastly,  That  the  volcanic  rocks  stand  out  in  such  prominent  masses, 
as  to  offer  emphatic  proofs  of  the  enormous  degradation  and  waste 


216 

of  the  surface  of  the  country,  since  the  formation  of  some  of  the 
newest  regular  strata  known  in  geology. 

March  19th. — Henry  Rowland  Brandretb,  Esq.  of  the  Royal 
Engineers,  Woolwich  ;  Sir  Thomas  Phillips,  Bart,  of  Middle  Hill, 
Worcestershire ;  and  Robert  Alfred  Cloyne  Austen,  Esq.  of  Lin- 
coln's Inn, — were  elected  Fellows  of  this  Society. 

Extracts  were  read  from  a  paper  entitled  "  Reference  to  a  Geo- 
logical Map  and  Section  of  Pembrokeshire, "  by  Alfred  Thomas, 
Esq.,  Mineral  Surveyor,  Haverfordwest. 

The  author  accompanies  the  map  and  section  with  geological 
and  economical  remarks.  The  map  comprehends  all  that  north- 
ern part  of  Pembrokeshire  not  described  by  Mr.  De  la  Beche,  and 
the  section  is  drawn  from  St.  Gowan's  Head  on  the  south  to  Car- 
digan on  the  north.  The  alternations  of  the  different  formations 
in  the  county  are  detailed  in  a  series  of  descriptive  sections  :  the 
chief  masses  are  coal  measures,  including  culm  and  coal  grits, 
mountain  limestone,  old  red  sandstone  and  conglomerate,  trans- 
ition limestone,  grauwacke,  grauwacke  slate.  All  these,  in  the  cen- 
tral and  southern  parts  of  the  county,  are  traversed  by,  or  alternate 
with  trap  rocks  which  are  of  various  kinds,  some  being  syenitic, 
others  hornblendic  and  amj'gdaloidal,  whilst  near  Fishguard  they 
are  columnar  and  basaltic.  The  beds  of  the  stratified  deposits  are 
frequently  contorted,  and  their  nature  altered  in  contact  with  the 
intrusive  rocks.     The  transition  limestone  contains  trilobites. 

The  first  of  two  letters  addressed  to  R.  I.  Murchison,  Esq.,  Sec. 
G.S.  F.R.S.  &c  "  On  the  Lacustrine  Basins  of  Baza  and  Alhama  in 
the  province  of  Granada,  and  similar  deposits  in  other  parts  of 
Spain,"  by  Col.  Charles  Silvertop,  F.G.S.,  was  then  read. 

The  Sierra  Nevada,  rising  to  the  height  of  11,000  and  12,000  feet 
above  the  sea,  is  the  culminating  point  of  a  number  of  subordinate 
mountain  groups  which  form  a  lofty  chain  stretching  from  Anda- 
lusia on  the  W.S.W.  to  Murcia  on  the  E.N.E.  and  bisecting  in  its 
range  the  kingdom  of  Granada. 

This  chain  is  composed  of  a  central  axis  of  gneiss  and  mica  schist, 
with  successively  overlying  zones  on  each  flank  of  transition  and 
secondary  i-ocks,  which  on  the  south  and  along  the  shores  of  the 
Mediterranean  are  here  and  there  covered  with  patches  of  tertiary 
marine  deposits  containing  Sub-Apennine  shells ;  whilst  on  the 
northern  flank  of  the  chain,  or  towards  the  interior  of  Spain,  the 
secondary  rocks  are  succeeded  by  formations  of  lacustrine  origin, 
which  in  the  kingdom  of  Granada  occupy  two  large  and  separate 
basins,  one  near  Baza,  the  other  near  Alhama.  These  great  and 
elevated  depressions  in  the  secondary  rocks,  though  at  little  dis- 
tances from  the  Mediterranean,  are  so  cut  off  from  that  sea  by  the 
Sierra  Nevada,  that  their  drainage  is  effected  in  a  north-westerly 
direction  into  the  Guadalquivir,  and  thence  into  the  more  distant 
Atlantic.  The  author  describes  in  detail  the  basin  of  Baza,  which, 
traversed  by  an  insignificant  stream  called  the  Rio  Baza,  is  sur- 
rounded upon  three  of  its  sides  by  a  secondary  nummulite-limestone  ; 
the  precise  age  of  which  he  does  not  pretend  to  determine5  although 


217 

he  states  that  it  very  much  resembles  certain  varieties  of  the  younger 
Alpine  limestone. 

Unconformably  deposited  on  this  and  other  older  rocks,  within 
a  district  the  average  diameter  of  which  is  about  thirty-five 
miles,  there  are  spread  out  formations  of  considerable  thick- 
ness, the  organic  remains  of  which  are  exclusively  lacustrine 
and  tertiary.  These  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of  Baza  are 
divided  into  two  principal  groups  ;  the  lowest,  consisting  of  marls 
with  laminated  gypsum,  sulphur  and  brine  springs,  is  zoologically 
distinguished  by  the  presence  of  Cypris  ;  the  uppermost  is  a  com- 
pact, cream-coloured  limestone,  charged  with  many  small  Paludinae 
of  a  species  identical  with  one  which  is  found  in  the  lacustrine  for- 
mations of  Central  France.  The  united  thickness  of  these  fresh- 
water groups  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Baza  cannot  be  estimated  at 
less  than  300  and  400  feet;  they  are  generally  horizontal,  but  the 
face  of  the  country  everywhere  exhibits  striking  proofs  of  immense 
degradation,  the  gypsiferous  marls  being  denuded  throughout  the 
greater  part  of  the  centre  of  the  basin,  and  but  rarely  exhibiting* 
caps  of  the  compact  paludina-limestone.  On  the  southern, 
eastern,  and  south-western  flanks  of  the  basin,  particularly  near 
Gaudix,  there  are  vast  accumulations  of  pebble  beds,  conglomerate, 
&c,  the  exact  relations  of  which  to  the  marls  and  limestone  the 
author  could  not  satisfactorily  determine,  owing  to  the  obscurity  of 
the  sections  ;  although  he  is  of  opinion  that  there  are  conglomerates 
which  in  some  places  pass  under  the  marls,  whilst  in  others  they 
are  decidedly  overlying. 

The  reading  of  the  Tetter  on  the  Basin  of  Alhama  was  deferred 
until  another  evening. 

April  2nd.— William  Hallows  Miller,  Esq.,  M.A.,  of  St.  John's 
College,  Cambridge  ;  Lloyd  Baker,  jun.,  Esq.,  of  Hardwick,  Glou- 
cestershire ;  William  Granville  Eliot,  Esq.,  Lieut. -Col.  of  the 
Royal  Artillery,  Hastings  ;  Rev.  Henry  Engleheart,  of  Caius  Col- 
lege Cambridge,  and  Seal,  Kent ;  Josias  Lambert,  Esq.,  of  Liver- 
pool Street,  London;  and  Thomas  Morgan,  Esq.,  of  Thames  Ditton, 
Middlesex, — were  elected  Fellows  of*  this  Society. 

The  reading  of  a  paper  on  the  Geology  of  Weymouth,  and  the 
adjacent  parts  of  the  coast  of  Dorsetshire,  by  the  Rev.  William 
Buckland,  D.D.,  F.G.S.,  F.R.S.  &c,  and  Henry  Thomas  De  la 
Beche,  Esq.,  F.G.S.,  F.R.S.  &c,  was  begun. 

April  16th. — John  Rennie,  Esq.,  of  15,  Whitehall  Place;  George 
Rennie,  Esq.,  of  21,  Whitehall  Place;  Alfred  Thomas,  Esq.,  of 
Haverfordwest,  Pembrokeshire  ;  Charles  Mundy,  jun.,  Esq.,  of 
Burton  Hall,  Loughborough  ;  and  Alexander  Turnbull  Christie, 
M.D.,  of  the  East  India  Medical  Service, — were  elected  Fellows  of 
this  Society. 

The  reading  of  a  paper  on  the  Geology  of  Weymouth,  and  the 
adjacent  parts  of  the  coast  of  Dorsetshire,  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Buck- 
land,  and  Henry  Thomas  De  la  Beche,  Esq.,  begun  at  the  last 
Meeting,  was  concluded. 


218 

The  authors  take  up  the  history  of  the  geology  of  the  coast  of 
Dorset  at  the  point  where  Mr.  Webster  terminates,  viz.  at  the 
chalky  promontory  of  White  Nore,  about  eight  miles  E.N.E.  of 
Weymouth,  and  continue  their  account  of  the  coast  thence 
westwards  to  the  lias  at  Charmouth.  The  Memoir  is  accom- 
panied by  a  map  and  many  sections  both  of  the  cliffs  and  of  the 
adjacent  inland  district,  including  the  space  intermediate  between 
the  escarpment  of  the  chalk  downs  of  Dorsetshire  and  the  sea.  The 
authors  divide  this  district  into  two  compartments,  viz.  the  Vale  of 
Weymouth  and  the  Vale  of  Bredy. 

The  structure  of  the  Vale  of  Bredy  is  comparatively  simple,  being 
chiefly  composed  of  chalk,  greensand,  Kimmeridge  clay,  Oxford 
oolite,  forest  mai'ble,  and  inferior  oolite,  dipping  for  the  most  part 
to  the  E.  and  N.E.  and  divided  by  thick  beds  of  clay. 

The  Valley  of  Weymouth  is  more  complicated,  comprehending 
tertiary  strata,  chalk,  greensand,  Purbeck  and  Portland  beds,  Kim- 
meridge sand  and  clay,  Oxford  oolite,  Oxford  clay,  cornbrash  and 
forest  marble.  To  the  forest  marble  belong  the  lowest  strata  that 
form  the  axis  of  this  district.  Nearly  all  these  strata  are  highly 
inclined,  and  dip  respectively  in  two  opposite  directions  from  an 
anticlinal  line  which  runs  through  a  saddle  of  forest  marble  from  E. 
to  W. 

The  uppermost  of  these  strata  on  the  N.  side  constitute  the  chalk 
escarpment  of  the  ridgeway,  capped  with  patches  of  plastic  clay ; 
whilst  on  the  S.  no  strata  appear  above  the  sea  more  recent  than 
those  which  form  the  Isle  of  Portland. 

Between  the  ridgeway-chalk-  escarpment  and  the  Isle  of  Portland, 
the  strata  are  disposed  in  a  succession  of  long  and  narrow  belts 
of  clay  and  stone,  the  clay  constituting  valleys,  and  the  stone 
rising  into  ridges  between  the  valleys  ;  all  these  belts  are  terminated 
eastward  by  the  bay  of  Weymouth,  and  westward  by  the  Chesil 
Bank. 

The  formations  composing  this  district  are  described  in  the  fol- 
lowing order. 

1.  Plastic  clay  and  sands,  with  blocks  of  puddingstone,  and  beds 
of  angular  flints  forming  a  breccia  in  place,  occur  on  the  surface  of 
the  chalk. 

2.  Chalk  presenting  no  remarkable  peculiarities. 

3.  Greensand  formation  exhibiting  no  distinct  traces  of  gault. 
The  Weal  den  formation  terminates  a  little  W.  of  Lul  worth  Cove. 

4.  Purbeck  beds  appearing  in  two  long  insulated  patches  at  Os- 
mington  and  Upway. 

5.  Portland  stone  occurring  not  only  throughout  the  island  of  that 
name,  but  forming  a  high  and  narrow  ridge  parallel  and  immedi- 
ately subjacent  to  the  escarpment  of  the  chalk  along  nearly  the 
whole  north  frontier  of  the  Vale  of  Weymouth. 

6.  Between  the  Purbeck  and  Portland  formations  there  is  a  very 
remarkable  bed  of  black  earth  called  the  "  Dirt  Bed,"  already  de- 
scribed by  Mr.  Webster  as  being  mixed  with  slightly  rolled  pebbles 
of  Portland  stone  *,  and  containing,  in  a  silicified  state,  long  pros- 

*  Geol.  Trans.,  Second  Series,  vol.  ii.  p.  42. 


219 

trate  trunks  of  coniferous  trees  and  stems  of  Cycadeoideae.  These 
trunks  lie,  partly  sunk  into  the  black  earth,  like  fallen  trees  on  the 
surface  of  a  peat  bog,  and  partly  covered  by  the  incumbent  lime- 
stone. Many  stumps  of  trees  also  remain  erect,  with  their  roots 
attached  to  the  black  soil  in  which  they  grew,  and  their  upper  part 
in  the  limestone;  and  show  that  the  surface  of  the  subjacent  Port- 
land stone  was  for  some  time  dry  land,  and  covered  with  a  forest, 
and  probably  in  a  climate  such  as  admits  the  growth  of  the  modern 
Zamia  and  Cycas.  This  forest  has  been  submerged  ;  first  beneath 
the  fresh  waters  of  a  lake  or  estuary,  in  which  were  deposited  the 
Purbeck  beds  and  sands  and  clays  of  the  Wealden  formation, 
(amounting  together  to  nearly  1000  feet),  and  subsequently  beneath 
the  salt  water  of  an  ocean  of  sufficient  depth  to  accumulate  all  the 
great  marine  formations  of  greensand  and  chalk. 

7.  Below  the  Portland  stone,  and  dividing  it  from  the  Kimmeridge 
clay,  the  authors  establish  a  deposit,  hitherto  unnoticed,  of  sand  and 
sandstone  80  feet  thick,  which  they  call  the  Kimmeridge  sandstone  j 
it  is  full  of  grains  of  green  earth,  and  scarcely  distinguishable,  ex- 
cept by  its  fossils,  from  the  greensands  immediately  below  the 
chalk:  they  also  have  ascertained  that  the  pseudo-volcano  still  burn- 
ing on  the  north  of  Weymouth  is  in  the  bituminous  beds  of  the 
Kimmeridge  clay,  and  that  there  has  been  at  some  unknown  former 
period  a  similar  combustion  of  the  same  clay  on  the  shore  near 
Portland  ferry. 

8.  The  Oxford  oolite  is  very  fully  developed  near  Weymouth,  as 
it  is  near  Scarborough,  passing  into  beds  of  sand,  sandstone,  and 
clay  at  its  upper  and  lower  extremities ;  containing  Ostrea  deltoi- 
dea  in  the  upper,  and  Gryphsea  dilatata  in  the  lower  beds  ;  and 
gradually  passing  into  Kimmeridge  clay  above,  and  into  Oxford  clay 
below  :  its  thickness  exceeds  150  feet.  The  history  and  character  of 
this  oolite  formation  at  Weymouth  have  been  fully  described  in  all 
their  details,  and  accompanied  by  a  valuable  list  of  its  fossils,  in  a 
paper  on  the  strata  of  the  Yorkshire  coast,  by  Professor  Sedgwick  ; 
Ann.  Phil.,  May  1826. 

9.  The  Oxford  clay  is  about  300  feet  thick,  and  contains  large 
septaria,  which  are  cut  into  beautiful  tables,  under  the  name  of 
Turtle  Marble.  This  clay  abounds  throughout  with  shells  of  Gry- 
phaea  dilatata. 

10.  The  cornbrash  and  forest  marble  form  the  axis  of  the  Valley 
of  Weymouth,  and  occupy  much  of  the  Valley  of  Bredy.  The  forest 
marble  formation  abounds  in  beds  of  clay,  and  is  often  composed 
of  clay  without  the  marble.  The  Bradford  Encrinite  (Apiocrinites 
rotundus)  is  found  in  several  parts  of  it,  e.  g.  at  Abbotsbury,  at 
Bothenhampton,  and  in  the  cliff  west  of  Bridport  Harbour. 

11.  There  is  no  Bath  oolite  stone  in  Dorsetshire,  but  the  inferior 
oolite  occupies  a  large  extent  near  Bridport,  affording  coarse  lime- 
stone like  that  of  Dundry  in  its  upper,  and  micaceous  sand  with 
beds  and  concretions  of  calcareous  sandstone  in  its  lower  part.  Its 
total  thickness  is  about  300  feet.  Near  its  middle  region  are  masses 
of  breccia,  containing  slightly  rolled  fragments  of  the  lower  strata> 


220 

and  having  the  entire  circumference  of  these  fragments  drilled  all 
over  by  some  small  lithodomous  shells  ;  these  fragments  attest  the 
consolidation  of  the  lower  strata  before  the  deposition  of  the 
central  beds,  and  mark  an  interval  in  the  formation  sufficient  for 
the  fragments  to  have  been  rounded  and  perforated. 

12.  The  lowest  strata,  within  the  district  described,  are  the  upper 
marl  beds  of  the  lias  formation  on  the  east  of  Charmouth ;  these 
are  loaded  with  belemnites,  and  may  represent  the  Calcaire  h 
Belemnite  of  the  French  geologists  ;  as  the  lower  stony  beds  of 
lias  at  Lyme  are  equivalent  to  their  Calcaire  a  Gryphite.  On  the 
shore  east  of  Charmouth  the  marl  beds  present  an  almost  continu- 
ous pavement  of  belemnites,  and  also  contain  saurians. 

13.  The  elevation  which  has  raised  all  the  component  formations 
of  the  Valley  of  Weymouth  towards  an  anticlinal  axis,  has  been  ac- 
companied by  extensive  faults,  the  most  remarkable  of  which  are 
parallel  to  the  anticlinal  axis,  and  appear  to  have  been  contempo- 
raneous with  the  general  elevation  of  the  district.  One  of  these 
faults  is  continuous  nearly  15  miles  along  the  escarpment  of  the 
chalk  of  the  ridgeway,  on  the  north  of  Weymouth,  and  at  various 
places  brings  up  strata  of  oolite,  Portland  stone,  and  Purbeck 
stone  into  contact  with  chalk  and  greensand ;  many  sections  are 
given  illustrating  the  effects  of  these  faults,  not  one  of  which  ap- 
pears to  be  anterior  to  the  deposition  of  the  most  recent  strata  in 
the  district. 

14.  Subsequently  to,  or  perhaps  contemporaneously  with  the 
elevation  of  the  strata  and  production  of  the  faults,  the  surface  has 
been  ravaged  by  a  tremendous  inundation  which  has  swept  away 
all  the  ruins  and  rubbish  of  the  elevated  masses,  and  has  exca- 
vated valleys  of  many  hundred  feet  in  depth  on  the  surface  of 
the  strata  that  remain.  Outlying  summits,  composed  of  residuary 
portions  of  strata  which  are  continuous  along  the  escarpments  on 
the  north  and  east  of  the  Vale  of  Bredy,  indicate  the  original  con- 
tinuity of  these  strata  over  large  portions  of  that  district,  from 
which  they  have  been  removed. 

15.  Small  deposits  of  diluvium  are  scattered  over  many  of  the 
hills  as  well  as  the  valleys,  but  there  are  no  very  thick  and  con- 
nected accumulations  of  gravel ;  the  force  of  the  water  that  could 
produce  such  enormous  excavations  must  have  been  far  too  great 
to  allow  the  excavated  materials  to  subside  so  near  the  rocks  from 
which  they  were  torn,  and  must  have  drifted  them  far  away  into 
the  continuation  of  these  valleys,  in  the  bottom  of  the  English 
Channel. 

The  authors  conclude  that  they  have  sufficient  evidence  to  es- 
tablish the  following  succession  of  changes,  in  the  state  of  that 
small  portion  of  England  which  occupies  the  coast  of  Dorsetshire 
and  Hants. 

1st.  There  is  a  continuous  succession  of  marine  deposits  from  the 
lias  upwards  through  the  oolites,  terminating  in  the  deposition  of 
the  Portland  stone :— during  the  period  of  all  these  formations  the 
district  must  have  been  the  bottom  of  an  ancient  sea. 


221 

2ndly.  Some  part  of  the  bottom  of  this  sea  appears  for  a  certain 
time  to  have  become  dry  land,  and  whilst  in  that  state,  to  have 
been  covered  with  a  forest  of  large  coniferous  trees  and  cycadeoi- 
deous  plants  which  indicate  a  warm  climate.  We  have  a  measure 
of  the  duration  of  this  forest  in  the  black  earth  which  is  accu- 
mulated to  the  thickness  of  more  than  a  foot  from  the  wreck  of 
its  vegetation :  the  regular  and  uniform  preservation  of  this  thin 
bed  of  black  earth  over  a  distance  of  many  miles,  shows  that  the 
change  to  the  next  state  of  things  was  not  accompanied  by  any  vio- 
lent denudation  or  rush  of  waters,  since  the  trees  that  lie  prostrate 
on  this  black  earth  would  have  been  swept  away  by  any  such  vio- 
lent catastrophe.  Dr.  Buckland  has  found  this  same  black  earth 
on  the  surface  of  the  Portland  stone  near  Thame  in  Oxfordshire. 
It  has  also  been  found  by  Dr.  Fitton  in  the  Boulonnois. 

3rdly.  The  dry  land  on  which  this^forest  grew,  in  Dorsetshire,  be- 
came converted  to  something  like  an  estuary,  in  which  the  lowest 
deposits  contain  freshwater  shells,  succeeded  by  a  thick  bed  of 
oyster  shells  ;  and  above  the  oyster  bed,  by  strata  containing  an  ad- 
mixture of  freshwater  shells  with  shells  that  are  marine.  This  fresh- 
water formation,  including  both  the  Purbeck  and  the  Wealden  strata, 
extends  with  certain  interruptions  from  Upway  on  the  N.  of  Wey- 
mouth to  the  E.  extremity  of  Purbeck,  and  reappears  in  the  Isle  of 
Wight  and  the  Weald  of  Sussex  and  Kent ;  but  of  the  boundaries 
of  the  estuary  or  estuaries  in  which  these  freshwater  strata  were 
deposited  we  have  no  indications  beyond  those  afforded  by  the  area 
of  the  strata  themselves.  Its  breadth  probably  extended  about  30 
miles  from  Purbeck  to  Tisbury  on  the  west  of  Salisbury,  across 
the  intermediate  portion  of  Dorset  and  Wilts,  which  is  now  covered 
up  with  chalk. 

4thly.  We  have  a  return  of  the  sea  over  the  estuary,  and  in  this 
sea  an  accumulation  of  the  successive  and  thick  marine  deposits 
which  constitute  the  greensand  and  chalk  formations. 

5thly.  Although  no  freshwater  formations  occur  in  the  tertiary 
strata  above  the  chalk  on  the  coast  of  Dorset,  we  have  on  the 
adjacent  coast  of  Hants  and  the  Isle  of  Wight,  a  re-appearance  of 
freshwater  deposits  above  the  chalk,  mixed  and  alternating  with 
others  that  are  mai'ine. 

6thty.  All  these  deposits  appear  to  have  been  succeeded  by 
powerful  convulsions,  producing  elevation  and  depression  of  the 
strata,  intersecting  them  with  tremendous  faults,  and  followed  by  an 
inundation  competent  to  excavate  deep  valleys  of  denudation,  and 
to  overspread  the  country  with  diluvial  gravel. 

7thly.  This  inundation  has  been  succeeded  by  a  state  of  tran- 
quillity, which  has  continued  to  the  present  hour. 

A  paper  entitled  "  Description  of  a  New  Species  of  Ichthyosau  • 
rus,"  by  Daniel  Sharpe,  Esq.,  F.G.S.,  was  then  read. 

This  specimen  of  Ichthyosaurus  was  found  in  a  quarry  of  lias  lime" 
stone  about  four  miles  from  Stratford-upon-Avon.  The  whole  length 
of  the  animal  must  probably  have  been  about  seven  feet ;  the  parts 


222 

of  it  which  remain  exhibit  the  upper  portion  of  the  head  from 
the  nostrils  backwards,  in  a  very  crushed  state,  a  continuous  series 
of  52  vertebrae,  from  the  atlas  to  the  commencement  of  the  tail, 
with  nearly  all  the  spinous  processes ;  one  scapula,  and  nearly  the 
whole  of  one  fore  paddle.  The  teeth  (by  which  the  four  species 
formerly  described  have  been  chiefly  distinguished)  are  entirely 
wanting  in  this  individual;  the  author,  however,  considers  it  to  be  a 
new  species,  from  the  following  peculiarities  of  character. 

1.  The  length  of  each  vertebra  is  uniformly  three-fifths  of  its 
breadth,  a  proportion  not  found  to  exist  in  any  hitherto  described 
species. 

2.  The  paddle  is  of  great  size,  and  including  the  humerus  must 
have  been  equal  to  one-fifth  of  the  length  of  the  whole  animal. 
In  the  ulna  or  radius  (it  is  difficult  to  say  which)  there  is  a  notch 
on  the  outer  edge,  and  all  the  other  bones  of  the  paddle  are  very 
nearly  circular  or  oval ;  thus  differing  essentially  from  the  angular- 
shaped  phalanges  of  I.  communis,  tenuirostris,  and  intermedius. 

On  account  of  the  large  size  of  its  paddle,  the  author  names  this 
species  "  Ichthyosaurus  grandipes." 


Printed  by  Richard  Taylor, 
lied  Lion  Court,  Fleet  Street. 


186* 

The  Report  having  been  read,  it  was  resolved, — 

1st.  That  this  Report  be  received. 

2ndly.  That  the  thanks  of  this  Society  be  given  to  the  Rev.  W. 
Buckland,  D.D.,  and  George  Bellas  Greenough,  Esq.,  retiring  from 
the  Office  of  Vice-Presidents. 

Srdly  That  the  thanks  of  this  Society  be  given  to  William  John 
Broderip,  Esq.,  retiring  from  the  Office  of  Secretary. 

4thly.  That  the  thanks  of  this  Society  be  given  to  James  Ebenezer 
Bicheno,  Esq.,  John  Bostock,  M.  D.,  Decimus  Burton,  Esq.,  Captain 
George  Everest,  Michael  Faraday,  Esq.,  William  Henry  Fitton,  M,D. 
and  the  Rev.  James  Yates,  retiring  from  the  Council. 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE  GEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY   OF  LONDON. 

1830.  No.  17^ 


May  7.— Thomas  England,  Esq.  B.A.  of  Pembroke  College,  Cam- 
bridge; Howard  Elphinstone,  Esq.  M.A.  of  Trinity  College,  Cam- 
bridge ;  and  Robert  Edmond  Grant,  M.D.  F.R.S.  Ed.  Professor  of 
Comparative  Anatomy  and  Zoology  in  the  University  of  London, — 
were  elected  Fellows  of  this  Society. 

A  Paper  was  read,  entitled  "  Sketches  explanatory  of  Geological 
Maps  of  the  Archduchy  of  Austria  and  of  the  South  of  Bavaria:"  by 
Ami  Boue,  M.D.  For.  Mem.  G.S.  &c. 

The  accompanying  maps  of  the  Archduchy  of  Austria  and  of  Ba- 
varia were  made  during  repeated  visits  to  those  countries,  and  partly 
with  the  assistance  of  M.  Partsch  of  Vienna. 

The  author  premises  that  in  consequence  of  his  last  visit,  in  1829, 
he  has  changed  some  classifications,  and  rectified  certain  errors  which 
appear  in  his  former  works. 

I.  Structure  of  the  Archduchy  of  Austria. — Dr.  Bou^  describes  the 
principal  part  of  Austria  as  consisting  of  the  primary  chain  of  South- 
ern Bohemia  on  the  north,  and  of  the  great  secondary  calcareous 
Alpine  chain  on  the  south,  which  are  separated  from  each  other  by 
the  tertiary  and  alluvial  valley  of  the  Danube.  He  divides  this  last 
region  into  three  parts  : — 

1 .  The  molasse  and  alluvial  basin  of  Upper  Austria,  extending  from 
Bavaria  to  near  Blindenmarkt  and  St.  Leonhard. 

2.  The  basin  of  St.  Polten,  containing  shelly  sand,  sandstone,  marl, 
alluvial  marl,  and  gravel. 

3.  The  basin  of  Vienna,  which  is  now  united  with  that  of  St.  Polten 
by  a  narrow  gorge  of  the  Danube. 

The  direction  of  the  primary  chain  of  Bohemia  is  from  south-west 
to  north-eastj  gneiss  being  the  predominant  rock,  with  some  sub- 
ordinate masses  of  granular  limestone  and  diorite.  Granite  occurs  in 
the  western,  and  sienite,  leptinite,  and  serpentine  in  the  eastern  part 
of  this  range.  The  central  ridges  of  the  Alps  are  primary,  and  these 
are  succeeded,  in  an  ascending  order,  by  talco-quartzose  rocks,  distin- 
guished by  masses  of  compact  limestone  with  iron  ore.  Between  the 
preceding  rocks  and  the  escarpments  of  the  Alpine  limestone,  are  an- 
cient longitudinal  valleys,  which  certain  rivers  occupy  in  their  early 
course,  and  afterwards  quitting  abruptly,  run  at  right  angles 
through  newer  and  transverse  rents  in  the  secondary  formations.  At 
the  base  of  the  Alpine  limestone,  and  subordinate  to  it,  are  red  sand- 
stone and  shale,  with  gypsum,  but  without  porphyry.  This  group 
can  be  traced  from  Mont  Blanc  to  Hungary,  and  it  again  appears- 


224 

in  the  Tatra,  or  northern  Carpathians.  The  Alpine  limestone  is  cha- 
racterized generally  by  organic  remains  common  to  the  superior  se- 
condary formations,  such  as  Belemnites,  Ammonites,  Nautili,  Echini, 
and  many  zoophytes ;  but  accurate  subdivisions  of  it  are  made  with 
great  difficulty. 

One  of  the  most  important  of  these  subdivisions  is  marked  by  the 
presence  of  salt  and  gypsum,  which  are  found  in  shale,  associated 
with  gray  sandstone  and  limestone,  containing  Belemnites,  Ammonites 
and  Fuci ;  and  in  some  places,  as  at  Hallein,  with  orthoceratite  and 
madreporic  limestone. 

Dolomite  prevails  in  the  upper  part  of  the  Alpine  limestone,  and  is 
usually  connected  with  peculiar  anomalies  of  stratification  and  incli- 
nation, which  according  to  the  author  offer  evidence  of  the  rupture  and 
friction  of  the  displaced  masses ;  the  whole  having,  he  conceives,  been 
elevated  and  depressed  by  the  action  of  subterranean  gaseous  forces. 

Another  member  of  the  Alpine  limestone  is  characterized  by  lead 
and  iron  ores. 

The  Alpine  limestone  passes  into  a  superior  sandstone  (designated 
as  "  Viennasandstone"),  with  alternations  of  marl  and  schistose,  litho- 
graphic limestone  and  whetstones.  This  part  of  the  series  contains 
coal  at  Greater  Ipsitz,  &c.  with  Cycadese ;  and  in  other  places  this  group 
is  capped  by  ruiniform,  compact  limestone,  with  Ammonites,  Belem- 
nites, and  Fucoides.    (St.  Veit,  Sontagsberg,  Elixhausen,  &c.) 

Serpentine  and  greenstone  traverse  secondary  sandstone  at  Ipsitz, 
and  both  sandstone  and  Alpine  limestone  at  Willendorff. 

The  author  then  proceeds  to  identify  certain  rocks  having  a  similar 
mineralogical  character,  whether  in  the  northern  Carpathians,  where 
they  rest  upon  the  "Vienna  sandstone",  or  at  Griinbach  near  Vienna, 
where  they  are.  stated  to  contain  Belemnites  and  Ananchytes  ovata, 
with  the  formations  of  Gosau-thal,  which  Messrs.  Sedgwick  and  Mur- 
chison,  he  states,  have  erroneously  described  as  tertiary.  He  does  not 
admit  that  this  deposit  of  Gosau  can  be  considered  as  intermediary 
between  the  secondary  and  tertiary  formations,  but  he  assigns  to  it 
the  place  of  the  lowest  secondary  green-sand. 

The  tertiary  character  of  many  of  the  remains  is  not  considered  by 
him  to  prove  the  age  of  this  deposit,  for  he. states  that  some  fossils  in 
the  oldest  secondary  rocks  at  Halle,  Bleiberg,and  Maibel  in  Carinthia, 
have  also  a  tertiary  appearance. 

The  true  green-sand  of  the  Alps  is  then  described  ;  and  the  author 
identifies  the  iron  ores  of  Sonthofen  with  those  of  the  Kressenberg, 
which  Count  Munster,  as  well  as  Messrs.  Sedgwick  and  Murchison, 
has  considered  tertiary*. 

Chalk  is  stated  not  to  exist  in  the  German  Alps,  though  the  lower 
green-sand  of  Gosau  contains  beds  like  the  Planer  Kalk  or  upper  green- 
sand.     The  tertiary  deposits  of  Austria  are  stated  to  belong  entirely 

*  In  this  part  of  the  paper  Dr.  Boue  has  been  led  into  an  error  in  conse- 
quence of  misunderstanding  a  passage  in  the  abstract  of  a  communication 
by  Messrs.  Sedgwick  and  Murchison,  published  in  the  Phil.  Mag.  and  Annals 
for  January  1830,  p.  53.  The  deposit  of  Sonthofen  was  never  considered 
tertiary  :  but  on  the  contrary,  was  distinctly  stated  by  them  to  be  secondary. 


225 

to  the  superior  division  of  that  great  class  of  rocks,  and  the  author 
asserts  that  they  in  no  case  enter  into  the  Alpine  regions,  except  on 
the  eastern  side,  viz.  in  the  drainage  of  the  Mur,  the  Scive,  and  the 
Drave,  where  they  occupy  ancient  longitudinal  valleys. 

Haring,  described  by  Messrs.  Sedgwick  and  Murchison  as  an  an- 
cient estuary,  or  area  of  the  great  tertiary  sea  of  Bavaria,  is  consi- 
dered by  the  author  to  be  a  continental,  local,  freshwater  formation. 

The  lowest  tertiary  formations  of  Austria  are,  he  says,  characterized 
by  blue,  shelly  marl,  and  marly,  shelly  molasse  (Schlier),  which  he 
assimilates  to  sub-apennine  marl.. 

In  lower  Austria  this  blue  marl  is  succeeded  by  sands,  marls,  lig- 
nite, and  shells,  both  marine  and  fluviatile,  and  these  again  by  gravel 
and  conglomerate,  and  lastly  by  nummulite  and  coralline  limestone, 
alternating  with  sands  and  conglomerates,  which  separate  the  true 
tertiary  basins  of  Vienna  and  Hungary  from  the  deposits  of  the  allu- 
vial period. 

The  oldest  alluvial  gravel  follows  many  Alpine  valleys  in  the  form 
of  terraces,  and  the  same  is  extended  with  beds  of  marl  far  into  the 
actual  valleys  of  the  Danube  and  the  March,  and  also  into  the  plains 
of  Hungary,  where  bones  of  extinct  quadrupeds  and  terrestrial  shells 
are  found  in  it. 

It  is  in  the  marl  of  this  old  alluvium  near  Krems  that  the  human 
skulls  have  been  found,  which  have  been  described  by  Count  Breunner. 
The  author  remarks  on  the  peculiar  form  of  these  skulls,  and  their 
resemblance  to  those  of  the  Caribs  and  Chilians,  &c.;  also  that  he  has 
himself  found  human  skulls  in  alluvial  marl  of  the  same  age  at  Lahr 
in  the  valley  of  the  Rhine. 

II.  Structure  of  the  south  of  Bavaria. — The  south  of  Bavaria  is 
chiefly  occupied  by  an  extensive  tertiary  basin,  from  1600  to  2000 
feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea,  which  is  bounded  by  the  primary  range 
of  Bohemia  and  the  German  Jura  on  the  north,  and  by  the  Alpine  chain 
on  the  south  ;  whilst  it  communicates  with  the  tertiary  deposits  of 
Vienna  and  Hungary  by  the  valley  of  the  Danube,  and  with  the 
molasse  of  Switzerland  on  the  west. 

The  German  Jura  offers  no  fissures  or  transverse  valleys  by  which 
this  basin  of  Bavaria  could  have  communicated  with  the  Neckar  and 
the  Maine ;  and  at  the  period  of  the  tertiary  deposits  this  great  de- 
pression must  have  been  equally  shut  out  from  all  communication 
with  the  Mediterranean,  by  the  intervention  of  the  Alpine  chain,  which 
the  author,  differing  from  M.  Von  Buch,  has  in  former  memoirs  de- 
monstrated to  have  been  elevated  at  various  periods  ;  an  idea  which 
has  subsequently  been  adopted  and  enlarged  upon  by  M.  Elie  de 
Beaumont. 

The  German  Jura  contains  also  the  subdivisions  of  the  oolitic  series, 
from  lias  up  to  Stonesfield  slate  and  cornbrash,  viz. — 1.  Lias  with- 
out the  white  beds.  2.  Lias  marl.  3.  Lias  sandstone.  4.  Inferior 
oolite,  with  iron  ores.  5.  Great  oolite,  mostly  compact.  6.  Dolo- 
mitic  limestone.  7.  Calcareous  slate  of  Solenhofen,  with  tortoises, 
fishes,  Crustacea,  Sepiee,  Ammonites,  Belemnites,  Lepadites,  insects, 
and  vegetables. 


226 

Upon  this  system  of  Jura  limestone  there  are  small  patches  of  iron 
and  green-sand  at  Ratisbon  and  elsewhere.  In  this  deposit,  asso- 
ciated with  argillaceous  marl,  are  found  the  pisiform  iron  ores,  or 
Bohnerz  of  the  Germans;  concretionary  masses  of  siliceo-calcareous 
millstone,  with  many  univalve  shells  and  corals  (Natheim) ;  and 
beautifully  zoned,  chalcedonic  nodules,  or  kugel  jaspis,  with  Echini 
and  microscopic  shells  (near  Basel). 

The  author  agrees  with  Mr.  Schiibler  that  it  is  essential  to  distin- 
guish this  deposit  of  Bohnerz  from  those  alluvial  accumulations  with 
iron  ore  made  up  of  the  detritus  of  older  rocks,  and  in  which  are 
found  the  bones  of  many  extinct  quadrupeds.  (Kandern,  Haiberg  near 
Tuttlingen,  &c.) 

The  Alpine  chain  south  of  the  tertiary  basin  of  Bavaria  is  consti- 
tuted of  materials  nearly  the  same  as  in  its  range  through  Austria ; 
viz.  1.  A  base  of  red-sandstone  and  conglomerate.  2.  Lower  lime- 
stone with  fishes  (Seefeld).  3.  Gray  sandstone  and  shale  with  salt 
and  gypsum.  4.  Gray  dolomite  and  oolite.  5.  Sandstone  of  Vienna, 
which  though  thin  and  obscure  at  Salzburg  and  Sonthofen,  expands 
into  a  vast  formation  in  its  westward  range  into  the  Voralberg. 
6.  Green-sand,  filling  cavities  in  the  Vienna  sandstone,  from  which 
it  is  separated  by  conglomerates  made  up  partly  of  Alpine  limestone, 
but  chiefly  of  primary  rocks,  which  are  not  found  in  situ  nearer  than 
the  Black  Forest.  The  author  conceives  this  conglomerate  to  be  of 
the  same  age  as  those  at  the  base  of  the  Gosau  formations,  and  in 
the  Allgau  ;  and  he  further  identifies  with  it  the  Nagelflilh  of  Switz- 
erland, which,  although  hitherto  considered  tertiary,  he  places  in  the 
lower  green-sand  ;  and  as  proofs  of  this  he  cites  the  existence  of  a 
similar  conglomerate  or  Nagelfluh  on  the  summit  of  the  Voisons  near 
Geneva,  and  also  near  Saanen,  where  it  overlies  and  is  united  with 
what  he  considers  to  be  the  equivalent  of  the  Vienna  sandstone. 

The  green-sand  of  the  Allgau  consists  of  marls  and  calcareous  sands 
of  various  colours  containing  plants,  with  here  and  there  subordinate 
masses  of  true  green-sand,  having  some  characteristic  fossil  shells  of 
that  formation,  and  iron  ore. 

For  the  details  of  the  tertiary  rocks  of  Bavaria  the  author  refers  to 
his  last  work  (Geognostisches  Gemdlde  von  Deutschland).  In  speaking 
of  the  vast  alluvial  accumulations  which  encumber  this  basin,  he  re- 
marks that  the  debris  are  all  primary  near  the  primary  chain  of 
Bohemia,  and  secondary  on  the  flanks  of  the  Alps  or  Jura.  Erratic 
boulders  of  large  size  are  spread  out  in  lines,  and  extend  to  some 
distance  in  front  of  the  mouth  of  the  valley  of  the  Rhine ;  whilst  lesser 
detritus  only  is  found  at  the  debouchure  of  the  Inn.  According  to  the 
author,  the  elevatory  forces  which  so  greatly  affected  the  western  Alps, 
must  have  operated  less  powerfully  upon  the  eastern  prolongation  of 
these  mountains. 

Alluvial  marl,  as  in  Austria,  covers  the  sides  of  the  Danube  in  its 
course  through  Bavaria  ;  and  all  the  lower  regions  of  the  latter  country 
offer  innumerable  proofs  of  various  changes  during  the  alluvial  period 
in  the  successive  drainage  of  lakes,  and  in  the  alteration  of  the  course 
of  rivers. 


227 

May  21. — Grenville  Lonsdale,  Esq.  Ensign  in  the  Third  Foot,  was 
elected  a  Fellow  of  this  Society. 

A  Paper  was  read,  entitled  "  A  Sketch  of  the  Structure  of  the 
Austrian  Alps;"  by  the  Rev.  Adam  Sedgwick,  Pres.  G.S.  F.R.S. 
Woodwardian  Professor  in  the  University  of  Cambridge,  &c,  and 
Roderick  Impey  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S.  &c.  &c. 

The  authors,  after  briefly  noticing  some  of  the  memoirs  which  have 
been  written  in  explanation  of  the  geological  structure  of  the  Alps, 
proceed  to  exhibit  the  results' of  their  own  observations,  made  in  the 
summer  of  1829,  during  several  traverses  among  the  eastern  parts  of 
the  chain.  They  state  that  the  structure  of  the  eastern  Alps,  when 
considered  only  in  a  general  point  of  view,  is  of  great  simplicity ;  the 
chain  being  composed  of  an  axis  of  primary  and  transition  rocks, 
chiefly  of  a  slaty  texture ;  flanked  and  surmounted  by  two  great  se- 
condary calcareous  zones,  which  are  in  their  turn  surmounted  by 
tertiary  deposits,  descending  on  one  side  into  the  plains  of  Italy,  and 
on  the  other  side  into  the  elevated  plains  of  the  Upper  Danube.  They 
then  notice  the  extraordinary  derangements  in  the  position  of  some 
of  the  great  mineral  masses  of  the  Alps  ;  and  afterwards  describe  in 
considerable  detail  a  section  from  the  plains  of  the  Friuli  to  the  valley 
of  the  Traun  near  Salzburg  over  the  metalliferous  hills  of  Bleiberg, 
and  over  the  crests  of  the  Katsberg  and  Tauern  Alp.  They  also  de- 
scribe a  second  section  parallel  to  the  former,  from  the  primary  moun- 
tains of  Gastein,  through  the  saliferous  deposits  of  Hallein  and  the 
hippurite-limestone  of  Untersberg  to  the  tertiary  piains  of  Bavaria. 

The  formations  appearing  in  the  lines  of  these  two  sections  are  the 
following,  in  ascending  order  :  — 

1.  Primary  rocks  forming  the  central  axis. — The  range  of  the  pri- 
mary peaks,  eastwards  from  the  confines  of  the  Tyrol,  is  described. 
It  is  remarked  that  as  the  chain  decreases  in  elevation  in  its  range 
eastward,  the  prevailing  character  of  granitoid  gneiss  gives  way  to 
that  of  mica  schist ;  it  is  then  stated  that  in  both  the  sections  these 
rocks  pass  into  the  next  superior  system  through  the  intervention  of 
chloritic  schist  with  subordinate  beds  of  crystalline,  white  limestone. 

2.  Crystalline  rocks  containing  calcareous  beds,  with  traces  of  organic 
remains  and  graduating  into  other  rocks  conforming  to  the  ordinary  tran~ 
sition  type. — This  series  contains  many  beds  not  to  be  distinguished 
from  the  former  class  ;  but  it  appears  to  be  characterized  by  a  greater 
quantity  of  limestone,  many  parts  of  which  are  perfectly  crystalline. 
At  the  southern  base  of  the  Tauern  the  authors  discovered  mica-slate 
with  garnets,  and  chlorite-slate  containing  thin  layers  of  white  dolomite, 
alternating  with  thicker  beds  of  a  dark  blue  colour,  containing  many 
encrinital  stems.  The  whole  system  is  described  as  passing  into  a 
series  of  calcareous  peaks,  some  of  which  rise  to  the  height  of  nearly 
9000  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea.  The  whole  series  is  considered 
to  terminate  with  a  system  of  beds,  composed  of  variously  coloured 
shales,  passing  into  grauwacke-slate,  alternating  with  greenish-gray 
and  reddish  fine-grained  grauwacke-sandstone,  subordinate  to  which 
are  beds  of  highly  calcareous  slate  and  limestone,  and  masses  of 
sparry  iron  ore.    The  authors  give  some  details  respecting  the  chief 


228 

localities  of  the  sparry  iron  ore,  and  they  place  the  principal  deposits 
of  the  mineral  on  the  confines  of  the  secondary  system. 

In  confirmation  of  their  views  they  describe  sections  on  the  south 
side  of  the  central  axis,  especially  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Bleiberg, 
where  they  state  that  the  secondary  system  is  immediately  underlaid 
by  grauwacke-slate,  containing  calcareous  beds  with  many  organic 
remains,  chiefly  composed  of  encrinital  stems  and  shells  of  thefollowing 
genera,  viz.  Producta,  Terebratula  and  Pecten.  Two  or  three  of  these 
shells  have  been  identified  with  species  characterizing  the  English 
mountain  limestone.  They  therefore  conclude  from  the  evidence  of 
organic  remains,  as  well  as  from  mineralogical  characters,  that  in  this 
part  of  the  eastern  Alps  there  is  a  zone  of  true  transition  rocks,  inter- 
posed between  the  primary  and  the  secondary  series. 

3.  Red  and  variegated  sandstone,  gypseous  marls,  and  conglomerates ; 
sometimes  with  subordinate  beds  and  masses  of  fetid  limestone,  rauch- 
wacke,  &c.  %c. — It  is  stated  that  this  formation  is  found  nearly  through 
the  whole  extent  of  the  Austrian  Alps,  overlying  the  transition  series, 
and  forming  the  base  of  the  precipices  of  older  Alpine  limestone.  A 
detailed  section,  south  of  Werfen,  exposes  beds  of  red  conglomerate, 
sandstone,  and  red  gypseous  marls,  not  to  be  distinguished  minera- 
logically  from  the  new  red  sandstone  of  England.  Other  sections  in 
the  valley  of  Bleiberg  in  Carinthia,  and  on  the  north  side  of  the 
Erzberg,  exhibit  similar  deposits  of  red  sandstone  and  gypseous  marls, 
separating  the  grauwacke,  with  the  organic  remains  abovementioned, 
from  the  Alpine  limestone  ;  they  are  accompanied  by  great  dislocations, 
and  the  appearance  of  masses  of  dark-coloured  augitic  trap  and  of  trap 
breccia.  Subordinate  to  the  red  sandstone  series  between  Haring,  Soil 
and  Schwatz,  are  many  masses  of  limestone  of  very  varied  structure. 
Some  of  them  are  compact,  some  white  and  crystalline,  some  yellow 
and  earthy,  and  some  cavernous.  The  greatest  number  of  them  are 
magnesian,  and  some  of  them  bituminous  and  fetid.  These  masses  of 
limestone  were  formerly  considered  as  transition.  As,  however,  these 
different  varieties  of  limestone  appear  to  be  subordinate  to  the  red 
sandstone,  they  are  placed  by  the  authors  in  the  secondary  system, 
and  are  compared  with  the  beds  of  magnesian  limestone,  which  in  so 
many  parts  of  Europe  are  subordinate  to  the  great  group  of  the  new 
red  sandstone. 

The  rocks  above  described  are  immediately  surmounted  by  the 
Alpine  limestone,  under  which  term  are  included  the  two  great  se- 
condary calcareous  zones  of  the  Alps  overlying  the  red  sandstone 
groups.  This  enormous  deposit  is  subdivided  into  older  Alpine  lime- 
stone, limestone  with  subordinate  saliferous  marls,  &c,  and  younger 
Alpine  limestone. 

4.  Older  Alpine  limestone. — Near  Bleiberg  the  red  standstone 
group  is  surmounted  by  a  thinly  bedded  fetid  limestone,  which  forms 
the  base  of,  and  appears  to  pass  into  the  lower  portion  of  the  older 
Alpine  limestone.  A  detailed  section  of  the  beds  forming  the  base  of 
the  northern  calcareous  zone  near  Werfen,  brings  the  two  zones  un- 
der comparison.  It  is  shown  that  the  thin-bedded  bituminous  lime- 
stone is  sometimes  so  much  expanded  (e.  g,  at  Seefeld)  as  to  occupy 


229 

a  considerable  portion  of  the  formation.  In  the  Bleiberg  country 
specimens  of  Gryphaea  incurva  have  been  found  in  the  calcareous  sy- 
stem overlying  the  red  sandstone ;  and  the  beautifully  iridescent  Am- 
monites have,  by  some  geologists,  been  identified  with  the  fossils  of 
the  lias.  On  the  whole,  the  authors  are  led  to  conclude,  that  in  the 
Bleiberg  sections  grauwacke  with  transition  fossils,  new  red  sand- 
stone, and  lias,  are  exhibited  in  regular  succession. 

On  the  north  side  of  the  axis  the  evidence  is  by  no  means  so  clear. 
The  lower  Alpine  limestone  is  said  on  that  side  to  contain  a  few  Am- 
monites and  Belemnites  ;  and  from  the  analogy  of  the  Bleiberg  sec- 
tion the  authors  conclude  that  its  inferior  portion  is  probably  of  the 
age  of  the  lias.  From  its  enormous  development  it  is  supposed  to 
ascend  into  the  oolitic  series  3  but  they  possess  no  means  of  defining 
its  superior  limits. 

5.  Limestone  with  subordinate  saliferous  marls,  8fc.  fyc. — For  a  de- 
tailed account  of  this  subdivision  the  authors  refer  to  the  published 
works  of  M.  de  Lill.  It  is  obviously  superimposed  on  the  older 
Alpine  limestone,  and  must  not  therefore  be  confounded  with  the  in- 
ferior gypseous  mails ;  it  is  not  continuous,  but  appears  in  the  form 
of  enormous  lenticular  masses  of  gypseous  and  saliferous  marls,  and 
of  sandstone  often  brecciated,  &c.  &c.  These  are  associated  with,  and 
encased  in,  great  masses  and  contorted  beds  of  Alpine  limestone. 
The  several  deposits,  commencing  at  Halle  and  ranging  through 
Berchtolsgaden,  Hallein,  Ischel,  Hallstadt,  and  Aussee,  though  not 
strictly  continuous,  are  supposed  to  be  nearly  on  the  same  parallel. 
Several  detailed  sections  are  given  in  confirmation  of  the  ideas  of  the 
authors,  who  in  this  part  of  the  series  appear  to  be  in  perfect  agree- 
ment with  the  statements  in  the  most  recent  works  of  Dr.  Boue. 
There  are  great  difficulties  in  ascertaining  the  upper  and  lower  limits 
of  this  group,  and  also  in  determining  its  exact  epoch.  It  contains 
some  Orthoceratites,  especially  in  the  beds  of  limestone  below  the 
saliferous  marls  ;  but  the  greatest  number  of  the  fossils,  Ammonites, 
Belemnites,  Pentacrinites,  with  various  bivalves  and  univalves,  &c.  &c, 
appear  on  the  whole  to  conform  to  the  types  of  the  oolitic  series, — 
a  conclusion  which  is  in  accordance  with  the  position  of  the  deposit 
among  the  secondary  formations  of  the  Alps. 

6.  Younger  Alpine  limestone. — Under  this  designation  are  included 
all  the  secondary  formations  of  the  Alps,  which  are  superior  to  the 
system  containing  the  saliferous  marls.  The  authors  do  not  pretend 
to  define  correctly  the  lower  limits  of  this  great  subdivision,  but  they 
place  it  somewhere  in  the  upper  portion  of  the  oolitic  series.  The 
highest  beds  forming  the  outskirts  both  of  the  Italian  and  German 
Alps,  they  identify  with  the  green-sand  and  the  chalk.  In  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Trieste,  and  on  the  eastern  shores  of  the  Adriatic,  this 
upper  system  consists  of  micaceous  shale  and  sandstone,  with  very 
rare  traces  of  fossils,  alternating  with  beds  of  Alpine  limestone  full 
of  Nummulites. 

The  authors  then  describe  the  upper  Alpine  limestone  in  Austrian 
and  Bavarian  Alps.  They  point  out  its  extraordinary  contortions  ; 
the  masses  of  dolomite  into  which  it  sometimes  passes  5  its  subordi- 


230 

nate  deposits  of  gypsum  and  rauchwacke  ;  and  its  great  masses  of 
compact  and  subcrystalline  limestone,  sometimes  containing  innume- 
rable Hippurites,  &c.  &c.  They  show  that  the  higher  part  of  the 
series  is  often  made  up  of  inclined  and  contorted  beds  of  compact 
limestone,  indurated  shale,  calcareous  sandstone,  &c.  &c.  containing 
Ammonites  and  Belemnites ;  that  the  system  here  and  there  passes 
into  a  true  green-sand  with  the  characteristic  fossils  of  that  forma- 
tion ;  that  a  granular  iron  ore  is  worked  in  this  part  of  the  series  at 
Sonthofen  not  distinguishable  from  some  of  the  ferruginous  green- 
sands  of  Kent  ;  that  iron  ore  occurs  in  the  same  system  south  of 
Bregenz,  associated  with  a  nummulite-limestone  and  thick  beds  of 
shale.  Finally,  they  state,  that  they  found  no  great  masses  of 
conglomerate  subordinate  to  this  group.  It  is,  however,  here 
and  there  succeeded  and  surmounted  by  enormous  masses  of  alter- 
nating sandstone  and  conglomerate;  which  (as  they  graduate  into 
beds  containing  tertiary  fossils)  are  considered  as  the  true  base  of 
the  tertiary  system. 

7.  Tertiary  deposits. — The  authors  having  described  these  deposits 
of  the  Austrian  Alps  in  former  papers,  only  return  to  the  subject  for 
the  purpose  of  noticing  some  remarks  which  have  appeared  in  the- 
recent  publications  of  Dr.  Boue. 

1.  Dr.  Boue  is  mistaken  in  supposing  that  they  confounded  the 
iron  sand  of  Sonthofen  with  rocks  of  the  tertiary  age.  It  was 
described  by  them  as  containing  Ammonites  and  Belemnites,  and 
as  alternating  with  beds  of  the  newer  Alpine  limestone  *  ;  and 
they  are  surprised  that  Dr.  B.  persists  without  any  grounds  in  at- 
tributing to  them  a  contrary  opinion. 

2.  Dr.  Boue  states  that  the  tertiary  formation  of  Haring  is  en- 
tirely of  freshwater  origin.  The  authors  prove  that  it  contains  se- 
veral species  of  marine  shells  ;  from  which  they  conclude  (contrary 
to  the  opinion  of  Dr.  B.)  that  the  marine  tertiary  formations  of  the 
Alps  do  sometimes  ascend  far  up  the  transverse,  secondary  valleys. 

3.  Dr.  Boue  maintains  that  the  tertiary  formations  on  the  flanks 
of  the  Austrian  Alps  commence  with  the  superior  division  of  that 
great  class  of  rocks.  The  authors  on  the  other  hand  have  shown 
by  other  transverse  sections  and  suites  of  fossils,  that  some  of  the 
inferior  groups  of  the  tertiary  deposits  in  the  Gratz  basin  are  of  the 
age  of  the  London  clay.  So  far  they  consider  that  there  is  a  differ- 
ence between  themselves  and  Dr.  Boue  on  questions  of  fact. 

4>.  They  also  differ  from  that  author  on  questions  of  opinion. — 
The  overlying  deposits  of  Gosau,  and  in  some  of  the  lateral  valleys  of 
the  Traun.  were  considered  from  their  fossils  as  of  an  age  newer  than 
the  chalk.  He,  on  the  contrary,  identifies  them  with  the  lower  green- 
sand.  But  the  Gosau  beds  are  unconformable  to,  and  do  not 
appear  to  form  any  part  of  the  system  of  newer  Alpine  limestone  or 
green-sand,  &c. ;  and  they  appear  to  be  identical  with  certain  de- 
posits on  the  outskirts  of  the  Alps,  which  are  associated  with  the 
tertiary  series.    They  are  not  interlaced  with  the  secondary  system, 

*  See  Annals,  Jan.  1830,  p.  53. 


231 

and  do  not  contain  Ammonites  and  Belemnites ;  in  which  respects 
they  cannot  be  compared  with  the  deposits  of  Sonthofen,  &c.  Out 
of  more  than  100  species  of  fossils  collected  from  Gosau,  there  are 
from  SO  to  40  species  of  bivalves,  and  of  those  capable  of  being  iden- 
tified, about  equal  numbers  are  referrible  to  the  youngest  secondary 
and  the  oldest  tertiary  formations. 

The  univalves  are  much  more  numerous  than  the  bivalves,  espe- 
cially in  the  quantity  of  each  species,  a  fact  never  observed  in  any  de- 
posit of  secondary  age.  Amongst  upwards  of  50  species  of  univalves 
which  the  authors  collected,  three  only  are  found  in  the  chalk  and 
green-sand,  whilst  7  species  are  identical  with  known  tertiary  fossils  j 
and  several  of  the  genera,  such  as  Volvaria,  Pleurotoma,  and  Voluta, 
they  conceive  have  never  been  seen  in  any  secondary  formation. 

In  confirmation  of  their  views,  the  authors  refer  to  the  catalogue 
of  the  Kressenberg  fossils  published  by  Count  Miinster,  with  whose 
opinions  they  coincide.  They  also  refer  to  the  lists  of  fossils  found 
in  the  beds  over  the  chalk  near  Maestricht,  and  they  conclude  that 
the  deposit  of  Gosau,  like  that  at  Maestricht,  forms  one  of  the 
terms  of  a  new  series,  younger  than  the  chalk,  and  to  be  interpo- 
lated  between  that  formation  and  the  calcaire  grossier. 

The  abstracts  of  the  papers  on  the  Tertiary  Formations  of  Austria 
and  Bavaria,  published  in  the  Phil.  Mag.  and  Annals  of  Philosophy, 
for  January  1830,  were  necessarily  incomplete,  and  in  some  respects 
erroneous,  owing  to  the  detention  at  Paris  of  nearly  all  the  fossils 
collected  by  the  authors.  This  memoir  contains  the  opinions  of  the 
authors,  after  a  careful  revision  of  all  the  facts,  on  which  their  con- 
clusions are  founded. 

June  4. — Rev.  Richard  Dawes,  M.A.,  Fellow  and  Tutor  of  Down- 
ing College,  Cambridge;  Rev.  Charles  Currie,  M.A.  Fellow  of  Pem- 
broke College,  Cambridge;  Rev.  Thomas  Musgrave,  M.A.  Fellow 
of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge;  William  Devonshire  Saull,  Esq.  of 
Aldersgate  Street,  London ;  and  Francis  Ellis,  Esq.  of  the  Royal 
Crescent,  Bath, — were  elected  Fellows  of  this  Society. 

A  paper  was  read,  entitled  "  On  the  Geological  Relations  of  the 
South  of  Ireland,  by  ThomasWeaver,  Esq.  F.G.S.  F.R.S.  M.RJ.A., 
&c." 

This  Memoir  gives  an  outline  of  the  mineral  constitution  of  a 
large  tract  in  the  south  of  Ireland,  comprising  the  counties  of  Cork, 
Kerry,  and  Clare,  with  part  of  those  of  Galway,  Tipperary,  and 
Waterford;  and  thus  connecting  this  portion  of  the  island  with  the 
eastern  part  of  it,  formerly  described  by  the  author. 

This  hilly  and  diversified  region  is  chiefly  composed  of  ridges, 
having  generally  a  direction  from  east  to  west,  and  attaining  their 
greatest  elevation  in  the  mountains  of  Kerry,  where  Gurrane  Tual, 
one  of  Magillycuddy's  Reeks,  near  Killarney  (the  highest  land  in 
Ireland),  is  3410  feet  above  the  sea. 

The  rocks  in  this  elevated  country  are  chiefly  of  the  transition 
class  :  they  decline  gradually  towards  the  north,  and  finally  pass 
under  the  old  red  sandstone  and  carboniferous  limestone  of  the 
midland  counties. 


232 

I.   Transition  Series. 

In  Kerry  there  is  a  persistent  series  of  transition  rocks,  having  a 
general  direction  from  east  to  west,  and  dipping  to  the  north  and 
south  with  vertical  beds  in  the  axes  of  the  ridges  :  the  strata  as  they 
diminish  in  inclination  on  each  side,  form  a  succession  of  troughs. 
The  principal  rock- masses  are  composed  of  grauwacke,  slate,  and 
limestone ;  but  the  general  series  is  distinguished,  by  the  author, 
into  simple  and  compound  rocks ;  the  simple  being  clay-slate, 
quartz-rock,  hornstone,  lydian-stone,  and  limestone.  The  com- 
pound sandstone  and  conglomerates  with  bases  of  clay- slate,  quartz, 
and  sandstone  ;  grauwacke,  and  grauwacke-slate  ;  sandstone  and 
sandstone-slate  ;  greenstone  ;  and  hornstone-porphyry.  Roofing- 
slate,  though  comparatively  rare,  is  found  of  an  excellent  quality  in 
the  island  of  Valentia. 

Organic  remains  occur  more  frequently  in  the  limestone  of  this 
series  than  in  the  slate  and  grauwacke.  In  Kenmare  these  remains 
consist  of  a  few  bivalves,  and  some  crinoidal  remains;  and  these  also 
are  most  numerous  in  the  Muckruss  and  Killarney  limestones.  At 
the  foot  of  the  Slieve-meesh  range  this  limestone  includes  Asa- 
phus  caudatus,  Calymene  macrophthalma,  and  perhaps  a  third  crus- 
taceous  animal,  with  Orthoceratites,  Ellipsolites  ovatus,  an  Am- 
monite, Euomphalites,  Turbinites,  Neritites,  Melanites,  and  seve- 
ral species  of  Terebratula,  Spirifer,  and  Producta.  Other  bivalves 
in  this  locality  are  referrible  to  species  figured  by  Schlotheim,  as 
from  transition  rocks  on  the  Continent. 

Near  Smerwick  harbour,  similar  organic  remains  are  abundant  in 
slate,  and  fine-grained  grauwacke,  together  with  Hysterolites,  and 
many  genera  of  polyparia ;  the  whole  resembling  both  in  mineral 
and  zoological  characters  the  rocks  of  Tortworth  in  Gloucestershire, 
formerly  described  by  the  author,  as  well  as  those  of  the  Taunus  in 
Nassau,  more  recently  described  by  Sir  Alexander  Crichton.  Again, 
the  same  fossils  are  found  in  the  limestone  of  Cork,  associated 
with  impressions  of  vertebra?  of  fishes;  and  analogous  remains  are  to 
be  met  with  also  in  a  portion  of  the  slate  of  that  neighbourhood. 

Transition  coal. — All  the  coal  of  the  province  of  Munster,  except 
that  of  the  county  of  Clare,  is  referrible  to  one  of  the  earliest  periods 
at  which  that  mineral  has  been  produced ;  the  true  coal  overlying 
the  mountain  limestone  being  found  in  that  county  alone.  At 
Knockasartnet,  near  Killarney,  and  on  the  north  of  Tralee,  thin  an- 
thracitic  beds,  inclined  at  various  angles  from  70  degrees  to  vertically, 
are  included  in  grauwacke  and  slate.  In  the  county  of  Cork  this  old 
coal  is  more  extensively  developed,  particularly  near  Kanturk,  ex- 
tending from  the  north  of  the  Blackwater  to  the  Allow.  The  gorges 
of  the  latter  river,  and  various  other  neighbouring  defiles,  expose 
clay-slate,  grauwacke,  shale,  and  sandstone,  in  nearly  vertical  beds, 
directed  from  west  to  east.  This  transition  tract  extends  to  the 
river  Shannon  on  the  north-west.  As  the  systems  range  from  west 
to  east,  in  a  series  of  parallel,  acutely  angled  troughs,  the  beds  have 
great  diversity  of  inclination,  dipping  rapidly  either  to  north  or  south, 
and  bending  to   horizontality   between  the  ridges.     This   coal   or 


233 

anthracite  is  raised  in  sufficient  quantities  for  the  purpose  of  burning 
the  limestone  of  the  adjoining  districts ;  and  the  most  considerable 
collieries,  those  of  Dromagh,  have  yielded  25,000  tons  per  annum, 
at  from  10s.  to  15s.  per  ton. 

The  coal,  and  accompanying  pyritiferous  strata  are  abundantly 
charged  with  the  remains  or  impressions  of  plants,  belonging  chiefly 
to  Equisetaand  Calamites,  with  some  indications  ofFucoides.  Beds 
of  transition  coal  occur  also  in  the  county  of  Limerick,  on  the  left 
bank  of  the  Shannon,  north  of  Abbeyfeale,  and  at  Longhill  ;  and  are 
seen,  though  in  very  small  quantity,  on  the  right  bank  of  the  river  at 
Labbasheada.  Several  other  places  where  coal  strata  occur,  are 
mentioned  by  the  author. 

The  transition  rocks  of  Kerry  and  Limerick  are  prolonged  into 
Cork  and  Waterford,  preserving  with  certain  modifications  an  ana- 
logous character  and  composition.  The  carboniferous  limestone  re- 
posing upon  this  tract,  on  the  north,  is  usually  unconformable  to  it, 
but  is  conformable  to  the  old  red  sandstone,  wherever  that  rock  in- 
tervenes. In  this  system  of  strata,  organic  remains,  such  as  poly- 
paria,  bivalves,  Trilobites,  &c.  occur  near  the  Bonmahon  river ;  the 
horizontal  planes  which  they  occupy  crossing  the  vertical  cleavage  of 
the  slaty  grauwacke  nearly  at  right  angles.  The  series  rests  upon, 
and  passes  into  clay-slate,  and  is  capped  by  old  red  sandstone  and 
strata  of  the  carboniferous  order.  Metalliferous  veins  with  indications 
of  copper  and  lead  are  seen  in  the  cliffs  of  the  transition  series,  east 
and  west  of  the  Bonmahon  river. 

II.  Metalliferous  relations  in  Kerry  and  Cork. 

The  author  having  succeeded  in  restoring  the  copper  mines  at 
Ross  Island,  on  the  Lake  of  Killarney,  and  in  effectually  draining  off 
the  water,  was  enabled  to  prove  that  the  ore  did  not  constitute  a  me- 
talliferous bed,  or  any  real  vein,  but  was  contemporaneous  with 
the  rock  in  which  it  is  irregularly  distributed  in  the  form  of  ribs, 
branches,  strings,  &c,  analogous  to  those  of  calcareous  spar,  in 
limestone.  The  rocks  at  Ross  Island  consist  of  blue  limestone,  and 
beneath  it  of  siliceous  limestone,  but  the  ore  is  confined  exclusively 
to  the  former ;  and  various  trials  have  proved  the  non-existence  of 
any  vein  communicating  with  the  metalliferous  deposit.  Copper  ore 
is  similarly  distributed  at  Crow  Island  :  —  but  at  the  Muckruss  mines 
the  ore  was  obtained  chiefly  from  a  metalliferous  bed.  The  author 
has  ascertained  exactly  the  extent  of  the  limestone  bearing  lead  in 
Kenmare,  where  most  of  the  unsuccessful  trials  in  search  of  ore  have 
shown  that  the  mineral  deposits  are  discontinuous,  and  nearly  parallel 
to  the  range  and  dip  of  the  beds  ;  and  in  Castlemaine  mine,  where 
lead  ore  was  formerly  worked  in  a  mass  of  calcareous  spar  and 
quartz,  it  thinned  out  into  an  unproductive  pipe.  Near  Tralee  and 
Ardfort,  and  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Shannon,  lead  ore  has  been  un- 
profitably  worked  in  limestone,  sandstone  and  slate. 

In  the  county  of  Cork,  the  copper  mines  are  those  of  Allihies, 
Audley,  and  Ballydehol ;  and  those  producing  lead  are  situated  at 
Doneen  and  Rinabelly*  The  mine  at  Allihies  is  one  of  the  richest 
mines  in  Ireland  ;  it  was  discovered  only  in  1812,  and  has  already 


234 

yielded  more  than  2000  tons  of  copper  ore  per  annum.  The  ore  occurs 
in  a  large  quartz-vein,  which  generally  intersects  the  slaty  rocks  of  the 
country  from  north  to  south,  but  in  some  places  runs  parallel  to  the 
stratification.  It  is  remarked  that  all  this  portion  of  the  county  of 
Cork  indicates  a  very  general  diffusion  of  cupreous  particles,  so  much 
so,  that  in  the  year  1812  there  existed  a  cupriferous  peat-bog  on  the 
east  side  of  Glandore  harbour,  forty  or  fifty  tons  of  the  dried  peat 
producing  when  burnt,  one  ton  of  ashes,  containing  from  ten  to  fifteen 
per  cent  of  copper.  The  lead  mines  of  Doneen  and  Rinabelly  are  in 
slate. 

In  concluding  a  long  series  of  observations  on  the  mines  of  the 
tracts  described  in  this  paper,  the  author  remarks  that  the  diffusion 
of  metallic  substances  throughout  the  mass  of  rock*  is  far  from  being 
an  uncommon  occurrence — the  metalliferous  matter  .appearing  in 
isolated  particles,  and  in  strings,  veins  or  filaments,  more  or  less  con- 
nected with  each  other,  but  not  continuous  or  persistent,  and  there- 
fore of  contemporaneous  origin  with  the  rock  itself. 

III.  Carboniferous  series  of  Clare. 

The  clay-slate  formation  in  this  county  is  bordered  by  a  belt  of  old 
red  sandstone,  to  which  succeed,  in  ascending  order  and  conformable 
position,  the  mountain  limestone  and  coal  measures,  both  of  which 
occupy  flat  and  undulating  hills,  and  the  strata  usually  dip  from  the  east 
of  north  to  the  west  of  south  ;  but  seldom  at  a  greater  angle  than  5°. 
The  best  sections  are  seen  in  the  cliffs  of  the  west  coast,  where  shale, 
sandstone  and  sandy-flag-stone  overlie  limestone.  Coal,  however, 
is  there  of  very  rare  occurrence,  and  when  disclosed  is  of  very  indif- 
ferent quality  ;  and  the  author  infers,  that  the  lower  part  of  the  series 
in  the  county  of  Clare  is  comparatively  poor  in  this  mineral :  he,  how- 
ever, suggests  that  the  best  chances  of  discovering  valuable  seams 
must  lie  in  the  elevated  regions  of  Mount.  Cullun  ;  where  if  coal  be 
found,  the  beds  being  nearly  horizontal,  it  might  be  worked  with  ad- 
vantage. 

The  Memoir  concludes  with  some  observations  on  the  distribution 
of  diluvial  matter  in  the  South  of  Ireland. 

1.  Boulders,  gravel  and  sand,  derived  from  the  transition  series  are 
lodged  along  the  borders  and  sides  of  the  mountains  in  Kerry. 

2.  In  a  small  district  of  Limerick  and  Tipperary,  situated  between 
the  Gaultees  and  Slieve-na-rnuck,  the  rolled  debris  consist  not  only 
of  portions  of  the  contiguous  rocks,  but  contain  also  porphyry,  which 
is  not  to  be  found  in  situ  near  the  vicinity  of  Pallis  Hill. 

3.  In  the  peninsula  of  Renville,  near  Galway,  the  surface  of  the 
carboniferous  limestone  is  strewed  over  with  numerous  boulders  of 
red  and  gray  granite,  syenite,  greenstone,  and  sandstone,  which  must 
apparently  have  been  conveyed  from  the  opposite  side  of  the  bay  of 
Galway. 

June  18. — Robert  Dawson,  Esq.  of  the  Royal  Engineers,  and  em- 
ployed on  the  Ordnance  Survey  of  Ireland,  was  elected  a  Fellow  of 
this  Society. 

A  letter  on  the  Basin  of  Alhama,  in  the  Province  of  Granada,  in 


235 

Spain,  being  the  second  of  two  letters  addressed  to  Roderick  Impey 
Murchison,  Esq.,  Sec.  G.S.,  F.R.S.  &c,  by  Col.  Charles  Silvertop, 
F.G.S.,  was  then  read*. 

The  basin  of  Alhama  is  situated  about  50  miles  to  the  south-west  of 
the  basin  of  Baza,  which  was  described  in  the  former  letter.  It  occupies 
a  large  circular  area,  bounded  on  the  south  and  east  chiefly  by  the 
primitive  chain  of  the  Sierra  Nevada,  and  on  the  north-west  and 
south-west  by  ridges  of  nummulite-limestone.  The  greater  diameter 
of  the  basin,  namely,  between  the  village  of  Huerta  de  Santillana  on 
the  north,  and  the  ridge  near  Alhama  on  the  south,  is  about  3G  miles  ; 
and  the  smaller  diameter,  between  the  village  of  Escujar  on  the  east, 
and  the  town  of  Loja  on  the  west,  is  about  30  miles.  The  principal 
river  traversing  the  basin  is  the  Genii,  which  takes  its  rise  in  the 
Sierra  Nevada  to  the  east  of  Granada ;  and  having  received  all  the 
minor  streams  which  water  the  basin,  it  passes  through  a  chasm  in 
the  nummulite-limestone  near  Loja,  and  afterwards  unites  with  the 
Guadalquiver. 

The  whole  area  of  the  basin,  with  the  exception  of  an  insulated 
group  of  transition  limestone  rocks  near  Granada,  is  occupied  by  con- 
glomerates, marl,  gypsum,  and  limestones  containing  freshwater 
shells.  The  conglomerates  predominate  to  the  north  and  east  of 
Granada,  and  form  a  high  tract  of  waving  hilly  ground  between  that 
city  and  the  eastern  part  of  the  Sierra  Nevada  ;  and  the  other  depo- 
sits prevail  through  the  southern  portion  of  the  basin.  The  valley 
through  which  the  Genii  flows  is  the  lowest  part  of  the  district,  and 
is  composed  near  Granada  of  a  disintegrated  conglomerate. 

The  author  gives  a  detailed  account  of  the  geological  appearances 
presented  along  the  line  of  road  from  Granada  to  Alhama.  The  lower 
strata  consist  of  beds  of  gypsum  alternating  with  strata  of  marl  and 
marly,  micaceous  sandstone.  The  gypsum  is  in  general  of  the  ordinary, 
fibrous  variety  ;  but  near  the  village  of  Escuzar,  alabaster  of  a  beau- 
tiful whiteness  is  quarried.  In  the  bed  of  a  rivulet  passing  by  La  Mala 
a  brine-spring  issues,  which  yields  from  18,000  to  24,000  fanegas  of 
salt  yearly  ;  the  fanega  being  equal  to  251bs  Spanish.  The  strata  of 
marl  and  gypsum  are  covered  with  a  compact  limestone,  containing 
casts  of  Paludinse ;  and  on  this  limestone  rest  irregular  masses  com- 
posed almost  entirely  of  comminuted  shells  of  the  genera  Limnsea  and 
Planorbis.  The  fossils  found  in  these  limestones  have  been  examined 
by  Mr.  J.  Sowerby,  who  has  supplied  the  following  list:  — 

Planorbis  rotundatus,  found  in  the  Paludina  pusilla,  of  Deshayes. 

Isle  of  Wight.  Paludina  Desmarestii. 

Planorbis  rotundatus  vel  planu-  Paludina  pyramidalis. 

latus.  Ancylus. 

Planorbis,  new  species.  Cypris. 

Bulimus  pusillus,  of  Broard.  Limnsea. 

The  structure  of  the  country  around  Alhama  is  explained  by  three 
sections  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  that  village.  One  of  these,  ob- 
served by  following  the  horse-road  from  Alhama  towards  Loja,  presents 

*  For  the  first  letter,  see  Phil.  Mag.  and  Ann.  of  Phil.,  vol.  vii.  p.  453. 


236 

in  an  ascending  order  the  following  succession  of  horizontal   strata, 
and  may  be  taken  as  the  type  of  the  others. 

1.  The  nummulite  limestone,  which  constitutes  the  boundary  of  part 
of  the  basin. 

2.  A  coralline  limestone,  which  in  some  parts  alternates  with  a 
calcareous  sandstone  and  a  fine-grained  conglomerate  ;  the  sandstone 
abounds  with  a  Pecten,  which  resembles  the  Pecten  reconditus  of  the 
London  clay. 

3.  The  rock  composed  of  alternate  strata  of  gypsum  and  marl. 

4.  The  freshwater  limestone  with  Paludina,  above  described,  which 
forms  a  table  land,  extending  in  the  direction  of  Lojaas  far  as  the  eye 
can  reach. 

Under  the  freshwater  limestone,  near  the  village  of  Arenas,  is  a 
large  deposit  of  brown  coal  of  unknown  depth.  The  remains  of  Pla- 
norbis  are  abundant  in  the  upper  layers  of  it. 

In  conclusion,  the  author  states  that  he  had  observed  a  compact 
limestone  containing  Limnasa  and  Planorbis,  near  Partaloba,  in  the 
province  of  Granada ;  Montesa,  in  the  province  of  Valencia  and  La 
Gineta  ;  and  Ocana,  in  the  province  of  La  Mancha  ; — that  he  had  like- 
wise ascertained  the  existence  of  an  extensive  lacustrine  basin  near 
the  town  of  Terruel  in  the  province  of  Arragon,  composed  of  a  coarse 
limestone  containing  Limnaea  pyramidalis  (a  fossil  of  the  Isle  of 
Wight),  resting  upon  gypsurn  and  marl. 

At  the  close  of  this  Meeting,  which  terminated  the  Session,  the  So- 
ciety adjourned  till  Wednesday  Evening,  the  3rd  of  November. 


Printed  by  Richard  Taylor, 
Red  Lion  Court,  Fleet  Street. 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE  GEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY   OF  LONDON. 

1830-1831.  No.  18. 

Nov.  3. — In  consequence  of  the  Resolutions  passed  at  the  general 
meeting  held  on  the  18th  of  last  June,  changing  the  evenings  of 
ordinary  meeting  from  the  first  and  third  Fridays  in  each  month, 
from  November  to  June,  inclusive,  to  the  alternate  Wednesdays, 
the  Society  assembled  on  this  evening  for  the  session. 

The  Rev.  Thomas  Boyles  Murray,  M.  A.  of  Hart-street,  Crutched 
Friars  ;  James  Edward  Winterbottom,  Esq.  M.A.  of  Southampton- 
buildings  ;  William  Taylor,  Esq.  of  Canonbury-square ;  Charles 
Shaw  Lefevre,  Esq.  of  Whitehall-place  ;  Rev.  Dr.  Arnold,  head- 
master of  Rugby  School ;  Henry  Ellis,  Esq.  of  Wei  beck  street ;  the 
Right  Hon.  the  Earl  of  Selkirk;  and  Dr.  Bayne  of  Trinity  College 
Cambridge ; — were  elected  Fellows  of  this  Society. 

The  reading  of  a  paper  entitled  "  Remarks  on  the  Formation  of 
Alluvial  Deposits,"  by  the  Rev.  James  Yates,  M.A.  F.G.S.,  F.L.S., 
was  begun. 

Nov.  17 The  Rev.  William  Kirby,  M.A. ;  Prideaux  John  Selby, 

Esq.  of  Twizell-house,  near  Belford,  Northumberland  ;  and  James 
Dickson,  Esq.  of  Kidbrooke,  Blackheath ;  were  elected  Fellows  of 
this  Society. 

The  reading  of  the  paper  on  the  Formation  of  Alluvial  Depo- 
sits, by  the  Rev.  James  Yates,  begun  at  the  last  meeting,  was  con- 
cluded. 

After  adverting  to  the  importance  of  this  branch  of  Geology  to- 
wards the  successful  study  of  all  the  more  ancient  sedimentary  depo- 
sits, and  to  the  explanation  of  the  methods  by  which  bare  rocks  are 
converted  into  productive  soils,  the  author  proposes  to  describe 
some  of  the  processes  which  regulate  the  production  of  alluvium, 
and  the  principal  forms  which  it  assumes. 

I. — He  considers  first  those  processes  of  disintegration,  not  de- 
pendent upon  the  action  of  running  water,  by  which  materials 
are  supplied  for  the  formation  of  alluvium.  These  are  of  two 
kinds. 

1.  —  Earthquakes  and  landslips,  by  which  large  masses  are  detached 
suddenly  from  the  mountains,  and  fall  occasionally  with  so  great 
an  impetus  as  to  extend  across  valleys. 

2. — Other  processes,  such  as  frost  and  oxidation,  which  are  far 
more  important  in  their  effects.  The  agents  of  this  class  always  di- 
vide rocks  according  to  their  natural  structure  of  separation,  so 
that  every  fragment  of  the  debris  is  bounded  by  the  plane  of  its 
cleavage.    The  fragments  as  they  fall  produce  two  principal  forms  j 


238 

(a)  the  lengthened  talus,  which  in  general  covers  the  base  of  all 
calcareous,  and  conglomerate  or  sedimentary  rocks ;  and  (6)  the 
acute  cone,  which  is  discharged  from  the  ravines  of  highly  inclined 
schistose  rocks,  having  a  cleavage  which  meets  the  planes  of  stra- 
tification at  an  acute  angle. 

II. The  materials  thus  furnished  are  distributed  by  streams, 

which  round  off  their  angles  by  continual  friction,  so  as  to  convert 
them  into  pebbles,  sand,  and  mud.  The  hard  and  heavy  fragments 
driven  along  by  streams,  also  wear  down  the  rocks  in  place,  the 
latter  being  acted  upon  according  to  their  degrees  of  softness  and 
their  proneness  to  disintegration. 

When  the  detritus  thus  produced  is  discharged  from  a  lateral 
into  a  principal  ravine,  or  valley,  the  divergence  of  the  stream  gives 
it  the  form  of  a  cone  ;  but  as  the  force  of  running  water  carries 
loose  materials  much  further  than  they  would  fall  by  their  own 
weight,  the  form  thus  produced  is  not  an  acute  but  an  obtuse  cone. 
In  the  Alps  some  of  these  obtuse  cones  attain  500  feet  in  height, 
and  three  miles  in  diameter,  bearing  upon  their  surfaces  forests 
and  villages. 

The  quantity  of  solid  materials  descending  over  the  apex  of  an 
obtuse  cone,  is  sometimes  so  great  as  to  stop  up  the  valley.  The 
waters  of  the  principal  stream  then  accumulate  above  the  obstruc- 
tion, and  after  the  subsidence  of  the  lateral  stream,  tear  away  the 
base  of  the  encroaching  cone.  This  form  the  author  designates 
as  the  obtuse  cone  dipt  at  the  base. 

Narrow  valleys  and  plains  are  frequently  divided  by  transverse 
ledges  of  gravel.  The  formation  of  these  is  attributed  to  the  opera- 
tion of  rivers,  which  it  is  supposed  had  first  accumulated  their  de- 
tritus in  dams,  and  that  these  dams,  having  been  successively  broken 
down  after  the  subsidence  of  floods,  were  re-produced  upon  a  rise 
of  the  streams. 

Numerous  causes  are  assigned  which  vary  the  depth  of  streams. 
These  are,  rains ;  the  melting  of  Alpine  snows  and  glaciers  ;  the 
breaking  up  of  ice  in  rivers;  and  the  bursting  of  lakes. 

III. — Whenever  detritus  is  conveyed  by  running  into  standing 
water,  a  separation  takes  place  between  those  finer  particles  which 
are  held  in  suspension,  and  those  which  it  only  rolls  along  the 
bottom. 

As  the  debris  of  horizontally  stratified  rocks  forms  a  length- 
ened talus  at  their  base,  so  the  loose  and  heavy  materials  washed 
down  the  side  of  a  mountain,  and  conveyed  into  a  lake,  as  soon  as 
they  reach  its  margin  fall  in  a  steep  slope  of  the  same  description. 
Layer  after  layer  is  thus  deposited,  the  result  of  which  is,  that  a 
terrace  is  gradually  formed,  dipping  under  the  surface  of  the  lake 
with  a  gentle  slope,  and  then  abruptly  terminating  in  a  steep  de- 
clivity. 

The  author  next  endeavours  to  show,  that  what  is  commonly 
called  a  Delta  is  more  strictly  speaking  the  Sector  of  a  Circle. 

After  describing  numerous  examples  of  forms  of  alluvial  matter,  in 
artificial  reservoirs  and  in  lakes,  the  author  alludes  to  the  probable 


239 

existence  of  similar  deposits  upon  a  vast  scale  in  the  deep  and  still 
waters  of  the  ocean;  and  considering  the  English,  St.  George's  and 
Bristol  Channels,  to  be  of  the  nature  of  estuaries,  he  observes,  that 
the  arc  of  the  Sector  is  found  encircling  the  south-western  extremity 
of  Ireland  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  north-western  angle  of  France  on 
the  other,  and  coinciding  with  a  line  along  which  the  water  deepens 
suddenly  from  one  hundred  to  more  than  two  hundred  French  fathoms. 

It  is  then  shown  that  lakes  are  filled  up,  not  by  depositions  in 
their  deep,  central  water,  but  by  the  gradual  advance  of  all  their 
lateral  terraces  and  cones. 

IV. — When  two  streams  meet,  they  neutralize  each  other's  mo- 
tion, and  a  deposition  takes  place  at  the  point  of  quiescence. 

Peculiar  appearances  ensue,  when  streams  meet  at  different  levels. 
If  a  lateral  stream  brings  down  a  disproportionate  quantity  of  de- 
tritus, its  bed  is  raised,  but  is  abruptly  terminated  by  the  action 
of  the  principal  stream.  Hence  the  valleys  of  mountainous  re- 
gions exhibit  not  only  level  terraces  formed  in  lakes,  but  others  the 
edge  of  which  have  a  steep  declivity. 

Finally,  the  author  presumes  that  the  forms  which  alluvium  puts 
on  in  rivers,  are  produced  also  in  seas,  and  in  the  ocean,  by  the 
opposition  and  union  of  currents  flowing  either  at  the  same  or  at 
different  levels. 

A  short  Memoir  was  then  read,  entitled  "  Remarks  on  the  Ex- 
istence of  Anoplotherium  and  Palaeotherium  in  the  Lower  Fresh- 
water Formation  at  Binstead,  near  Ryde,  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,"  by 
S.  P.  Pratt,  Esq.  F.G.S.  F.L.S. 

The  author  lately  discovered,  in  the  lower  and  marly  beds  of  the 
quarries  of  Binstead,  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  and  which  belong  to  the 
lower  fresh-water  formation,  a  tooth  of  an  Anoplotherium,  and  two 
teeth  of  the  genus  Palaeotherium,  animals  characteristic  of  strata  of 
the  same  age  in  the  Paris  basin. 

These  remains  were  accompanied,  not  only  by  several  other  frag- 
ments of  the  bones  of  Pachydermata  (chiefly  in  a  rolled  and  in- 
jured state),  but  also  by  the  jaw  of  a  new  species  of  Ruminantia, 
apparently  closely  allied  to  the  genus  Moschus.  From  the  oc- 
currence of  the  latter  fossil,  the  author  infers  that  a  race  of  ani- 
mals existed  at  this  geological  epoch,  whose  habits  required  that 
the  surface  of  the  earth  should  have  been  in  a  very  different  state 
from  that  which  it  has  been  supposed  to  have  presented,  in  con- 
sequence of  the  frequent  discovery  of  the  remains  of  animals  who 
lived  almost  entirely  in  marshes. 

Dec.  1. — The  Rev.  Daniel  Pettiward,  M.A.  of  Trinity  College, 
Cambridge  ;  and  John  William  Bowden,  Esq.  M.A.  of  Grosvenor- 
place,  London,  were  elected  Fellows  of  this  Society. 

A  paper  was  read,  entitled  "  An  Explanatory  Sketch  of  a 
Geological  Map  of  Moravia,  and  the  West  of  Hungary,"  by  Dr.  A. 
Boue,  For.  Mem.  G.S.  &c. 

The  author  in  presenting  this  Map  to  the  Geological  Society, 
states  that  it  has  been  made  with  the  assistance  of  Messrs.  Teubner, 
Rittler,  and  Von  Lill  von  Lilienbach  ;  and  that  with   the  latter 


240 

gentleman,  in  particular,  he  has  recently  worked  out  many  details, 
which  it  is  hoped  may  rectify  certain  errors  in  the  great  Geological 
Map  of  Germany,  published  by  Schropp  of  Berlin. 

Moravia  has  been  in  part  described  by  Andre,  Von  Albin  Hein- 
rich,  Von  Lill,  Von  Oeynhausen,  and  Beudant ;  but  the  two  last- 
mentioned  writers,  it  is  stated,  have  not  visited  the  country. 

This  region  is  made  up  of  the  union  of  three  principal  chains 
of  hills,  the  Eastern  or  Bohmerwaldgebirge,  the  Sudeten  or  Silesian 
mountains,  and  the  Western  Carpathians,  the  contact  of  the  two 
first  of  which  is  hidden  by  a  red  sandstone  of  the  coal-measures,  and 
green-chalk-marl. 

The  hilly  region  called  the  Gesenke,  consists  of  grauwacke,  and 
extends  across  Moravia  to  near  the  Bohemian  range.  The  Gesenke 
is  separated  from  the  Carpathians  by  the  tertiary  and  alluvial  val- 
leys of  the  Upper  Oder. 

The  more  ancient  and  longitudinal  valleys,  in  Moravia,  have  a 
general  direction  from  W.S.W.  to  E.N.E. ;  and  are,  with  some  few 
exceptions,  cut  through  transversely  by  the  present  streams. 

In  the  part  of  Hungary  and  Gallicia  indicated  on  this  Map,  the 
rivers  on  the  contrary  flow  for  the  most  part  in  longitudinal  valleys, 
parallel  to  the  Carpathians,  as  the  Nitra,  Gran,  Vistula,  and  the 
Waag,  although  the  latter  for  a  certain  space  runs  through  a  trans- 
versal rent  in  primary  rocks. 

In  the  Western  groups  are  numerous  Scotch  and  Scandina- 
vian minerals.  Many  of  the  oldest  stratified  rocks  are  crossed 
by  large,  dyke-like,  elliptic  bodies,  running  from  south-west  to 
north-east.  The  respective  characters  of  the  primary  Sudeten 
and  Tatra  mountains  are  then  described.  The  grauwacke  dis- 
tricts are  stated  to  differ  little  from  those  of  the  Hartz  and  the 
South  of  Scotland ;  and  the  caverns  which  abound  in  the  blueish  gray 
limestone,  subordinate  to  this  formation,  may,  the  author  conceives, 
have  been  produced  by  the  acidulous  waters  which  are  still  so 
abundant  in  the  country,  as  at  Gefatter  Loch,  &c.  This  old  lime- 
stone formation  abounds  in  Madrepores,  Caryophyllia,  Encrinites, 
and  Orthoceratites. 

The  author  is  of  opinion,  that  the  sienite  was  erupted  during  the 
period  between  the  formation  of  the  grauwacke,  and  the  primary 
chain  of  Bohemia.  This  sienite  has  very  various  characters,  being 
sometimes  porphyritic,  at  other  times  associated  with  talcose  and 
quartzose  rocks.  &c. 

Above  the  sienite  lies  a  coarse,  red  conglomerate,  which  is  con- 
nected in  Bohemia  with  a  great  deposit  of  red  sandstone  with 
coal.  Here  the  author  corrects  an  error  in  Schropp's  Map,  where 
the  district  is  coloured  as  new  red  sandstone;  instead  of  which,  he 
considers  it  to  be  of  the  age  of  the  Scotch  red  coal-grits. 

The  other  coal  deposit  of  the  basin  of  the  Oder  is  in  aluminous 
and  bituminous  slate,  with  gray  sandstone,  and  many  vegetable  im- 
pressions, but  without  red  sandstone. 

The  Zechstein  is  wholly  absent  in  these  parts,  and  the  true  red 
marl  is  very  scarce. 


24-1 

The  Muschelkalk,  however,  occupies  some  space  in  Upper  Silesia 
and  Poland,  and  contains  most  of  its  characteristic  fossils. 

The  Jurassic  and  Alpine  limestones  extend  over  a  large  portion 
of  the  Map  ;  and  the  dolomite,  the  upper  beds  of  which  abound 
with  Madrepores,  Encrinites,  Diceras,  and  Terebratulee,  is  overlaid 
by  the  Carpathian  or  Vienna  sandstone  (Andrychow,  &c). 

The  Carpathian  sandstone  fills  a  cavity  between  a  range  of  true 
Alpine  limestone  on  one  side,  and  Jura  limestone  on  the  other,  and 
is  easily  divisible  into  three  parts. 

1 .  The  lowest  division  is  marly  and  calcareous,  containing  Fu- 
coides  intricatus  and  F.Jurcalus,  and  has  been  mistaken  on  Schropp's 
Map  for  transition  limestone.  It  is  cut  through  by  dykes  of  ser- 
pentine and  greenstone. 

2.  The  middle  group  is  more  quartzose. 

3.  The  highest  is  characterized  by  reddish  marls,  several  beds 
of  ruiniform,  compact  limestone,  some  Fucoides,  Encrinites,  Lepa- 
dites,  Tellinites,  resembling  those  of  Solenhofen  ;  Posidonia,  Tere- 
bratulae,  Ammonites,  and  Belemnites.  This  triple  system  of  the 
Carpathians  is  overlaid  by  a  group  of  sandstone  which  the  author 
considers  to  be  the  "green-sand;"  this  is  composed  of  conglome- 
rate, nummulite  limestone,  and  green,  calcareous  beds  with  Gry- 
phcea  columba,  Ostrea  vesicularis,  &c,  also  with  superior  beds  re- 
sembling the  Planer  Kalk  of  the  Germans.  The  greensand  of  Mo- 
ravia has  all  the  characters  of  that  of  North-western  Europe,  pass- 
ing upwards  into  a  superior,  marly  greensand,  with  fossils,  and  form- 
ing long,  continuous  plateaux.  For  details  the  author  here  refers 
to  previous  publications  of  his  own,  and  to  sections  with  which  his 
Map  is  accompanied. 

Chalk  does  not  exist  in  the  Carpathians,  nor  could  the  author 
recognise  it  at  Cracow,  the  limestone  of  which  he  refers  to  the 
Upper  Jurassic,  although  he  states  that  chalk  is  found  in  the  plains 
of  Poland,  Eastern  Gallicia,  Podolia,  Volhynia,  and  Southern 
Russia. 

The  tertiary  deposits  of  the  countries  described,  though  be- 
longing to  two  distinct  basins,  have  everywhere  the  same  cha- 
racters. The  low  grounds  of  Gallicia  are  supposed  to  have 
formed  a  part  of  the  great  basin  of  Northern  Europe,  which  must 
have  connected  the  Baltic  with  the  Black  Sea,  and  perhaps  with 
th  e  seas  and  lakes  of  Asia.  The  tertiary  beds  of  Moravia,  on  the 
contrary,  he  considers  to  have  been  deposited  in  an  arm  of  that 
sea,  which  must  have  occupied  the  great  depressions  of  Hungary 
and  Austria,  communicating  with  the  Mediterranean  through  Ba- 
varia and  Switzerland,  inasmuch  as  these  deposits,  whether  on 
the  North  or  on  the  South  of  the  Carpathians,  have  a  common 
ch  aracter.  The  various  tertiary  groups  are  identified  with  those 
of  the  sub-Apennines  ;  the  blue  marls,  and  yellow,  sandy  marls, 
besides  the  characteristic  shells,  contain  salt,  sulphur,  gypsum, 
&c. ;  and  in  some  parts  there  are  fresh-water  shells,  including  the 
Mytilus  of  the  Danube.  In  respect  to  the  place  of  the  salt  of 
Wieliczka,  the  author,  differing  from  MM.  von  Lill  and  Keferstein 


242 

who  had  placed  it  in  the  Carpathian  sandstone,  considers  it  to  be 
of  tertiary  age,  because  it  is  associated  with  sub-Apennine  shells, 
and  is  connected  with  upper  marine  sandstone,  and  limestone. 

Above  the  blue  saliferous  marls  is  a  vast  extent  of  molasse  with 
Pectens,  Ostreae,  and  many  fossil  vegetables.  The  beds  of  this  de- 
posit are  highly  inclined  along  the  foot  of  the  Carpathians.  At 
Nicholschitz  and  Krepitz  in  Moravia,  and  at  Zazlusin  and  Dobro- 
mil  in  Gallicia,  it  is  represented  by  marly,  siliceous  deposits,  with 
semiopal,  and  fishes,  as  well  as  Hymenopterous,  Dipterous,  and 
Coleopterous  insects. 

The  sandy  banks,  with  Ostreee  and  Cerithia,  which  abound  in 
Moravia,  Hungary  and  Gallicia,  are  referred  to  an  age  interme- 
diate between  the  blue  saliferous  marl  and  the  molasse  just  de- 
scribed, and  are  considered  to  be  older  than  the  conglomerates 
and  coral  limestone  of  Austria. 

The  older  alluvium  of  these  districts,  and  particularly  that  of  the 
valley  of  the  Oder,  besides  boulders  and  gravel,  contains  existing 
species  of  fresh-water  shells  mixed  in  beds  of  marl  with  bones  of  ex- 
tinct animals  and  fossils. 

Of  basaltic  rocks,  the  cone  of  Randenberg  is  scoriaceous,  and  has 
been  protruded  through  grauwacke.  Near  Barrow  a  felspathose 
rock  has  pierced  the  Carpathic  sandstone,  converting  it  into  jaspi- 
deous  rocks  resembling  those  of  the  Giant's  Causeway,  and  the 
Isle  of  Skye,  &c. 

The  author  refers  to  M.  Beudant  for  full  particulars  of  the  tra- 
chyte, but  begs  to  distinguish  certain  trachytic  conglomerates,  as 
being  of  aqueous  origin,  from  the  trachytic  or  igneous  breccia. 

An  original  manuscript  Map  of  all  the  districts  described  in  the 
previous  Memoir  of  Dr.  Boue,  was  presented  by  M.  von  Lill  von 
Lilienbach,  who  amongst  other  novelties  has  discovered  two  cones 
of  trachyte  near  the  mercury  mines,  in  the  Carpathian  sandstone 
of  Krosciensko. 

Dec.  15. — The  Rev.  William  Turner,  MA.  of  Christ  Church  Ox- 
ford, and  Trinity  College  Cambridge ;  Anthony  Todd  Thomson, 
M  D.,  F.L.S.,  Professor  of  Materia  Medica  and  Therapeutics  in  the 
University  of  London  ;  and  George  Townshend  Fox,  Esq.,  F.L.S., 
and  F.Z.S. ; — were  elected  Fellows  of  this  Society. 

A  paper  was  first  read,  entitled  "An  Explanatory  Sketch  of  a  Geo- 
logical Map  of  Transylvania,"  by  Dr.  Ami  Bou£,  For.  Mem.  G.S. 

The  author  premises  that  this  sketch,  having  been  written  before  his 
specimens  were  unpacked,  is  necessarily  incomplete,  both  from  that 
cause  and  from  various  impediments  which  obstructed  his  observa- 
tions. 

Transylvania  is  described  as  being  chiefly  occupied  by  a  high  tertiary 
basin,  surrounded  by  four  chains  of  mountains,  viz.:  1.  On  the  south 
by  the  primary  range  of  Wallachia  or  Taganrasch.  2.  On  the  west 
by  another  primary  range,  usually  omitted  by  geographers;  and 
connected  with  a  high  calcareous  chain  near  Kronstedt,  and  a  ridge 
of  Carpathian  sandstone  near  the  pass  Oytosch.  3.  By  the  trachytic 
hills  separating  the  low  tertiary  and  saliferous  districts  from  the  great 


243 

valley  of  the  Secklerland.  4.  By  a  large  group  of  conical  porphyritic 
hills,  with  metalliferous  summits,  ranging  by  Korosch  Banya,  Zala- 
thria,  Vorospatak,  &c.  Many  of  these  hills  are  stated  to  average 
from  3000  to  4000  feet  in  height,  and  the  highest  peaks  to  exceed 
6000  feet.  The  author,  describing  the  course  of  the  rivers,  remarks 
that  the  hydrographical  features  are  inaccurately  given  in  all  maps, 
and  that  most  of  the  streams  cut  through  the  above  chains  by 
gorges  of  very  recent  fracture.  The  primary  rocks,  he  says,  consist 
of  gneiss  and  slate ;  that  in  the  latter,  serpentine,  granular  lime- 
stone, and  metalliferous  veins  are  found  wherever  sienite  comes  into 
contact  with  the  slate.  The  Carpathian  sandstone  with  Fucoids 
(Vienna  sandstone)  is  mentioned  as  occurring  in  the  N.E.  and  S.E. 
of  Transylvania ; — that  it  surrounds  the  auriferous  porphyries  of 
Nagy  and  Banya,  and  that  at  Laposbanya  the  marls  and  slaty  sand- 
stones of  this  formation  are  much  altered  by  dykes  of  sienitic  por- 
phyry, presenting  examples  of  jaspideous  rocks  like  those  of  Portrush, 
Skye,  &c. 

The  author  is  disposed  to  think  that  there  are  evidences  of  two  or 
even  more  periods  of  igneous  eruption,  and  that  the  scoriaceous  tra- 
chytic  porphyries  cut  through  and  frequently  overflowed  the  me- 
talliferous porphyries.  These  porphyry  districts  are  cited  as  offering 
repeated  and  decisive  proofs  of  the  igneous  origin  of  metalliferous 
veins 5  all  the  walls  of  which  are  altered  and  discoloured: — large 
masses  of  the  rock  are  traversed  by  millions  of  auriferous  rents, — 
and  that  gold  is  found  in  the  sandstone  as  well  as  in  the  porphyry. 

The  remaining  secondary  formations  are  stated  to  consist  of  a 
kind  of  recent  Jurassic,  compact  limestone,  associated  with  conglome- 
rate, covered,  here  and  there,  by  patches  of  sandstone  and  marl 
containing  some  of  the  fossils  of  Gosau.  Near  Sass  Vorosch,  Kis 
Numtschel,  Kis  Aranyos,  &c,  deposits  of  about  the  same  age  are 
said  to  have  been  observed  by  M.  Partsch,  and  that  they  have  been 
further  described  in  the  Buskowine  by  that  gentleman,  and  by  Messrs. 
Von  Lill  and  Rudolph.  The  tertiary  deposits,  like  those  of  Hungary, 
are  considered  to  be  entirely  of  the  upper  class,  and  they  are  shown 
to  consist  of  clay,  marl,  and  molasse,  with  salt,  gypsum,  lignite,  &c. 
The  molasse,  the  author  says,  is  generally  covered  by  shelly  sands  and 
gravel,  but  occasionally  by  a  sandy,  coarse  limestone  ;  and  that  near 
Illyefalvaa  Arapatak,  these  sands  contain  many  freshwater  mixed  with 
some  marine  shells.  Near  the  Rothethurm  pass,  and  west  and  north  of 
Klaurenburg,  he  shows  there  are  thick  deposits  of  nummulitic  and  coral 
limestone,  equivalent  to  the  highest  tertiary  limestone  of  Austria  and 
Hungary.  Fichtel  is  quoted  as  the  earliest  and  best  geological  writer 
upon  Transylvania,  particularly  as  to  the  localities  of  shelly  deposits 
and  salt  springs ;  and  it  is  stated  that  from  his  work  alone  M  Beudant 
was  enabled  to  compile  a  map  of  this  country. 

For  an  account  of  the  eastern  chain  of  trachytes  the  author  refers 
to  what  he  has  already  written  in  Dr.  Daubeny's  work  on  Volcanos  : 
— he  inclines  to  the  supposition  that  the  scoriaceous  trachytic  porphy- 
ries were  erupted  during  the  cretaceous  or  perhaps  even  during  the  old 
tertiary  period ;  and  he  dissents  from  M.  Beudant  as  to  the  possibility 


244 

of  drawing  any  distinct  line  of  demarcation  between  the  trachyte  and 
porphyry  in  those  places  where  these  rocks  are  contiguous,  although 
when  at  great  distances  from  each  other  he  allows  the  dissimilarity 
of  their  respective  characters.  A  stratified,  pumiceous  and  trachytic 
conglomerate,  it  is  stated,  frequently  overlies  the  salt  in  Transylvania, 
and  contains  impressions  of  dicotyledonous  plants,  leaves,  and  fishes. 
The  extinct  craters  of  St.  Annalake  and  the  solfatarra  still  burning  in 
the  trachyte  of  Budoskegy,  and  the  many  acidulated  and  mineral 
springs,  are  considered  by  the  author  clearly  lo  indicate  the  recent  age 
of  some  of  the  volcanic  phenomena  in  this  country,  to  the  principal  en- 
trance of  which,  the  Romans  assigned  the  name  of  "Vulcan's  Pass." 

A  paper  was  then  read,  "  On  the  Astronomical  Causes  which 
may  influence  Geological  Phenomena;  "  by  J.  F.W.  Herschel,  Esq. 
F.R.S.  F.G.S.,  &c,  &c. 

The  author  states  his  object  in  this  paper  to  be,  an  inquiry  into 
the  possible  geological  influence  of  slow  periodical  changes  in  the 
orbits  of  the  earth  and  moon,  such  as  have  been  demonstrated  by 
geometers  to  take  place  in  consequence  of  planetary  and  solar  per- 
turbation. Such  influence  he  regards  as  extending  only  to  the  pro- 
duction of  changes  in  the  amount  of  the  tides  and  their  consequent 
erosive  action  on  our  continents,  and  of  periodical  fluctuations  in 
the  quantity  of  solar  heat  received  by  the  earth,  every  such  fluc- 
tuation being  of  course  accompanied  with  a  corresponding  altera- 
tion of  climates ;  and  therefore,  if  sufficiently  extensive  and  con- 
tinued, giving  room  for  a  variation  in  the  animal  and  vegetable 
productions  of  the  same  region  at  different  and  widely  remote 
epochs. 

The  subject  of  the  tides  is  first  considered.  Since  any  approach 
of  the  moon  to  the  earth  produces  an  increase  of  the  lunar  tide  in 
the  triplicate  ratio  of  such  approach,  it  follows  that  any  diminution 
of  the  moon's  mean  distance  must  produce  an  increase  in  the  ave- 
rage tide  during  the  whole  period  that  such  approach  subsists. 
The  mean  distance  of  the  moon  is  actually  on  the  decrease,  and  has 
been  so  for  ages  past,  producing  the  astronomical  phenomenon 
of  her  secular  acceleration.  The  mean  amount  of  the  tides,  there- 
fore, has  long  been,  and  will  long  continue  to  be,  on  the  increase 
from  this  cause,  but  the  effect  of  it  is  shown  to  be  confined  to  such 
moderate  limits  as  to  be  of  no  geological  importance. 

The  author  next  considers  the  possible  effect  of  an  increase  in 
the  excentricity  of  the  lunar  orbit,  which  would  affect  not  the  ave- 
rage but  the  extreme  rise  and  fall  of  the  tides.  Such  an  increase, 
however,  he  regards  as  necessarily  limited,  so  as  to  be  incapable  of 
producing  such  an  enormous  increase  of  tides  as  would  account  for 
any  of  the  greater  diluvial  phaenomena,  though  possibly  cases  of 
great  local  devastation  in  estuaries  and  confined  channels  would 
arise,  and  the  outlines  of  the  continents,  in  particular  parts  of  their 
coasts,  might  be  materially  modified  by  such  increased  occasional 
action.  No  change  in  the  earth's  orbit  within  the  limits  of  possibility 
would  produce  any  material  change  in  the  solar  tides. 

He  next  considers  the  effect  of  planetary  perturbation  on  the 


245 

earth's  orbit,  and,  dismissing  the  variation  of  the  obliquity  of 
the  ecliptic,  which  is  known  to  be  confined  within  very  narrow 
limits,  he  regards  the  excentricity  as  the  only  element  whose 
variation  can  possibly  have  any  effect  of  the  kind  in  view ; 
and  that  by  affecting,  first,  the  mean,  and  secondly,  the  extreme 
quantities  of  solar  heat  received  by  the  earth  in  its  annual  revolu- 
tion, and  at  the  different  seasons  of  the  year.  First,  with  respect 
to  the  mean  quantity,  he  announces  as  a  consequence  of  geome- 
trical reasoning,  the  following  theorem  : — That  the  mean  annual 
amount  of  heat  and  light  received  from  the  sun  by  the  earth,  is  inversely 
proportional  to  the  minor  axis  of  the  ellipse  it  describes  at  different 
epochs.  And  since  the  orbit  of  the  earth  is  actually,  and  has 
been  for  ages,  beyond  the  records  of  history,  becoming  less  ellip- 
tic, and  the  minor  axis  consequently  increasing,  it  follows  that 
the  mean  temperature  of  its  surface  is  on  the  decrease.  The 
orbit  being  now  very  nearly  a  circle,  this  decrease  cannot  go  much 
further ;  but  should  it  ever  have  been  very  elliptic,  the  mean  tem- 
perature must  have  been  sensibly  greater  than  at  present.  The  au- 
thor regards  the  limits  within  which  the  earth's  excentricity  is  con- 
fined, as  (although  calculable)  not  actually  known ;  and  he  denies 
in  particular  that  the  theorem  demonstrated  by  Laplace,  in  the 
57th  article  of  the  Second  Book  of  the  Mecanique  Celeste,  equation 
(«),  which  is  usually  cited  as  proving  the  narrowness  of  such  limits, 
affords  any  ground  for  that  conclusion  in  the  case  of  the  earth's 
orbit,  however  it  may  do  so  for  those  of  the  great  preponderant 
planets. 

Under  this  uncertainty  he  considers  himself  authorized  to  assume, 
that  excentricities  actually  existing  in  the  orbits,  both  of  superior 
and  inferior  planets,  may  not  be  impossible  in  that  of  the  earth  ;  and 
admitting  this,  he  calculates  the  mean  and  extreme  amounts  of  solar 
radiation  in  an  orbit  so  circumstanced.  The  mean  amount  he  finds 
to  exceed  the  present  by  about  three  per  cent,  a  quantity  apparently 
small ;  but  he  adduces  considerations  tending  to  show,  that  on  cer- 
tain suppositions  not  impossible  or  improbable  in  themselves,  this 
per-centage  on  the  whole  quantity  of  solar  heat  may  have  influ- 
enced our  climates  to  as  great  an  extent  as  geological  indications 
appear  to  require. 

Considering  next  the  extreme  effects  of  such  a  state  of  things,  and 
adopting  a  view  taken  by  Mr.  Lyell  in  his  Geology,  he  shows  that 
by  reason  of  the  precession  of  the  equinoxes  combined  with  the  mo- 
tion of  the  apogee  of  the  earth's  orbit,  the  two  hemispheres  would 
alternately  be  placed  in  climates  of  a  very  opposite  nature,  the  one 
approaching  to  a  perpetual  spring,  the  other  to  the  extreme  vicis- 
situdes of  a  burning  summer  and  a  rigorous  winter ;  and  that,  du- 
ring periods  sufficiently  long  to  impress  a  corresponding  character 
of  the  vegetable  and  perhaps  the  animal  productions  of  each. 


tfc* 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE  GEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY   OF  LONDON. 

1831.  No.  19. 

Jan.  5,  1831. — A  paper  was  read  entitled,  "  On  the  general  struc- 
ture of  the  Lake  Mountains  of  the  North  of  England,  and  on  the 
great  dislocations  by  which  they  have  been  separated  from  the 
neighbouring  chains  ;"  by  Prof.  Sedgwick,  M.A.  Pres.  G.S.  F.R.S. 

The  country,  of  which  the  author  hopes  to  give  a  detailed  descrip- 
tion in  a  series  of  communications,  is  bounded  to  the  west  and  the 
south  by  the  waters  of  the  Irish  Sea  and  Morecambe  Bay.  Towards 
the  north  it  descends  into  the  plain  of  the  new  red  sandstone  within 
the  basin  of  the  Eden ;  and  on  the  east  side  it  presses  against,  and 
partly  encroaches  on,  the  central  carboniferous  chain  of  the  north. 
Within  these  limits  are  found  two  distinct  classes  of  rocks,  all  the  cen- 
tral region  being  composed  of  crystalline  unstratified  rocks,  irregu- 
larly associated  with  great  formations  of  schist,  which  are  subdivided 
(agreeably  to  the  system  first  published  by  Mr.  Otley  of  Keswick,) 
into  three  well  defined  groups  ;  while  on  the  outskirts  of  these  older 
formations  is  a  broken  zone  of  carboniferous  limestone,  and  exten- 
sive deposits  of  superior  [secondary]  strata.  The  author  avoids  all 
mineralogical  details  ;  and  after  noticing  the  effects  produced  by  the 
several  formations  on  the  external  features  of  the  country,  describes 
at  great  length  the  range  of  a  band  of  transition  limestone  (from 
Millam  in  Cumberland,  to  the  neighbourhood  of  Wasdale  Head  in 
Westmoreland)  nearly  across  the  whole  physical  region  under  con- 
sideration ;  and  states  that  it  is  finally  cut  off  by  a  protruding  boss 
of  granite,  which  he  regards  as  newer  than  the  limestone.  Upon  this 
description  he  founds  the  following  conclusions. 

1st.  Great  cracks  and  fissures  were  formed  at  a  very  ancient  pe- 
riod, diverging  from  the  central  regions,  and  intersecting  the  line 
of  bearing  of  the  strata.  All  the  great  valleys  in  the  range  described, 
are  scooped  out  in  the  prolongation  of  these  breaks,  which  were 
in  all  cases  accompanied  with  internal  movements  ;  the  present  po- 
sition of  the  systems  of  strata  on  the  opposite  sides  of  a  transverse 
valley  sometimes  indicating  a  relative  lateral  movement  of  more 
than  a  mile  in  extent.  These  singular  changes  of  position  are  re- 
ferred partly  to  a  true  lateral  shift,  and  partly  to  subsidence. 
Reasoning  from  analogy,  the  author  concludes  that  all  the  great 
diverging  valleys  of  the  Lake  Mountains  took  their  origin  in  fissures 
probably  formed  during  the  period  of  the  protrusion  of  the  central 
syenite  and  granite. 

?ndly.  He  observes  that  the  upper  and  lower  systems  of  the  slate 


248 

rocks  are  often  violently  contorted;  while  the  central  system,  though 
cracked  and  fissured  as  above  described,  hardly  ever  exhibits  the  in- 
dications of  any  flexures.  This  is  explained  by  the  presence  of  enor- 
mous unbending  masses  of  compact  felspar,  porphyrj',  &c,  which 
are  so  intimately  associated  with  the  middle  division  of  the  slate  that 
the  formations  cannot  be  separated.  The  appearance  is  explained  by 
referring  the  felspathic  rocks  to  some  modification  of  sub-marine 
volcanic  action;  by  supposing  that  igneous  and  aqueous  causes  acted 
together,  and  that  the  operations  were  many  times  repeated. 

Srdly.  The  mean  line  of  bearing  of  the  different  systems  is  shown 
to  be  nearly  N.E.  by  E.,  and  S.W.  by  W.  This  makes  them,  one 
after  the  other,  to  abut  against  the  carboniferous  zone ;  from  which 
it  follows  that  they  must  also  be  unconformable  to  it.  The  author 
confirms  this  inference  by  referring  to  detailed  sections  ;  and,  from 
the  wholeof  the  evidence,  he  concludes,  that  the  central  Lake  Moun- 
tains were  placed  in  their  present  position, — not  by  a  long-con- 
tinued, but  by  a  sudden  movement  of  elevation,  before  or  during  the 
period  of  the  old  red  sandstone. 

Lastly,  He  enters  into  some  details,  from  which  he  endeavours 
to  show,  that  if  lines  be  drawn  in  the  principal  bearing  of  the  fol- 
lowing chains  (viz.  the  southern  chain  of  Scotland  from  St.  Abbs 
Head  to  the  Mull  of  Galloway  ;  the  grauwacke  chain  of  the  Isle 
of  Man,  the  slate  ranges  of  the  Isle  of  Anglesea ;  the  principal  grau- 
wacke" chains  of  Wales,  and  the  Cornish  chain),  they  will  be  nearly 
parallel  to  each  other,  and  to  the  line  of  bearing  of  the  Lake  Moun- 
tains, as  above  indicated.  The  elevation  of  all  these  chains  is  referred 
to  the  same  period  ;  and  the  parallelism  is  not  regarded  as  acci- 
dental ;  but  as  a  confirmation  of  one  of  the  great  principles  upon 
which  are  founded  some  of  the  most  beautiful  generalizations  of  the 
Essays  recently  published  by  M.  Elie  de  Beaumont. 

The  author  next  describes  the  system  of  faults  by  which  the  Lake 
Mountains  were  broken  off  from  the  central  carboniferous  chain. 
After  some  speculations  on  the  original  extent  of  the  carboniferous 
deposits,  which  were  spread  out  from  the  Scotch  border  to  the 
central  plains  of  England,  and  perhaps  continuous  with  the  similar 
deposits  on  the  Bristol  Channel,  he  points  out  some  peculiarities  of 
the  western  coal-fields. 

lstly.  The  axes  of  the  sevei*al  contemporaneous  basins  are  not 
parallel. 

2ndly.  The  causes  which  produced  this  arrangement  appear  to 
have  partially  affected  the  then  neighbouring  grauwacke  regions. 
Thus  the  transition  slate  of  North  Devon  does  not  range  parallel 
to  the  mean  bearing  of  the  grauwacke  chain,  but  to  that  of  the  Welsh 
coal-field. 

Srdly.  These  coal-fields  are  contrasted  with  the  carboniferous 
chain  of  the  north,  extending  from  the  latitude  of  Derby  to  the 
mouth  of  the  Tweed  :  and  it  is  inferred,  from  the  nature  of  the 
beds  resting  on  the  edges  of  the  dislocated  strata,  that  the  eleva- 
tions of  the  south-western  and  northern  systems  were  not  perfectly 
contemporaneous. . 


249 

4thly.  The  coal-fields  of  the  Bristol  Channel  have  no  well- 
defined  line  of  bearing,  and  have  produced  but  small  effects  on  the 
range  of  the  superior  secondary  formations,  which  from  the  south 
coast  to  the  latitude  of  Derby  are  nearly  parallel  to  the  mean  range 
of  the  grauwacke  chains  above  indicated.  On  the  contrary,  the  great 
carboniferous  chain  north  of  Derby  has  produced  a  direct  influence 
on  the  bearings  of  the  newer  formations. 

He  then  briefly  describes  the  structure  of  the  great  carboniferous 
chain  of  the  North  of  England.  The  forces  of  elevation  appear  on 
the  whole  to  have  acted  (though  not  without  considerable  devia- 
tions) on  a  line  bearing  nearly  north  and  south.  The  position  of 
the  High  Peak  limestone,  and  the  great  north  and  south  faults  on 
its  western  side,  are  first  noticed ;  and  the  axis  of  elevation  is  con- 
tinued by  help  of  an  anticlinal  line  through  the  region  of  millstone 
grit,  separating  the  Yorkshire  and  Lancashire  coal-fields.  The  re- 
appearance of  the  carboniferous  limestone,  its  high  elevation,  and  pro- 
longation to  the  Scotch  border,  and  the  faults  which  range  near  its 
western  escarpment  are  then  noticed ;  and  the  great  Craven  fault  (de- 
scribed in  detail  by  Mr.  Phillips)  is  traced  still  further  towards  the 
north  from  the  hills  of  Barbondale  to  the  foot  of  Stainmoor.  The  na- 
ture of  the  dislocations  is  illustrated  by  sections  ;  and  it  is  shown 
that  the  prolongation  of  the  Craven  fault  from  Mollerstang  to  Stain- 
moor  foot  has  thrown  down  the  carboniferous  system  with  an  in- 
verted dip  into  the  valley  of  the  Eden,  and  produced  a  dislocation 
precisely  similar  in  kind  to  that  near  Ingleton,  described  in  detail 
by  Mr.  Phillips,  and  indicated  in  one  of  Mr.  Conybeare's  sections. — 
It  is  further  shown  that  these  dislocated  mountain  masses,  becom- 
ing more  expanded  and  less  inclined,  are  prolonged  without  any 
further  break  of  continuity  into  the  northern  zone  of  the  Lake  Moun- 
tains. A  great  fault  which  ranges  at  the  foot  of  the  Cross  Fell  Chain, 
and  meets  the  Craven  fault  at  the  foot  of  Stainmoor  at  an  obtuse 
angle,  is  then  described ;  and  it  is  shown  that  when  it  strikes  the 
carboniferous  chain  above  Brough,  an  effect  is  produced  precisely 
similar  to  that  which  accompanies  the  prolongation  of  the  Craven 
fault.  By  the  intersection  of  these  faults,  the  very  complex  rela- 
tions of  the  mountain  masses,  in  the  last  ramifications  of  the  Eden, 
and  the  insulated  position  of  the  Lake  Mountains  are  at  once  ex- 
plained. 

Lastly.  The  author  speculates  on  the  origin  of  the  phenomena 
described,  and  points  to  the  different  crystalline  rocks  appearing  near 
the  carboniferous  chain.  He  proves  that  the  great  breaks  took 
place  immediately  before  the  oldest  deposits  of  the  new  red  sand- 
stone, and  endeavours  to  show  that  they  were  produced  by  a  vio- 
lent and  transitory,  and  not  by  a  long-continued  action. 

Jan.  19. — Robert  Trotter,  Esq.  of  Borde  Hill, Cuckfield,  Sussex; 
and  Thomas  Hodgson  Holdswerth,  Esq.  of  Gray's  Inn  Square,  were 
elected  Fellows  of  this  Society. 

The  reading  of  a  paper,  entitled  "  Supplementary  Observations 
on  the  Structure  of  the  Austrian  and  Bavarian  Alps,"  by  Roderick 
Impey  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S.  was  begun. 


250 

Feb.  2. — Robert  Francis  Seale,  Esq.  Secretary  to  the  Governor 
of  St.  Helena,  was  elected  a  Fellow  of  this  Society. 

The  reading  of  the  paper,  by  Roderick  Impey  Murchison,  Esq. 
Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S.,  begun  at  the  last  Meeting,  was  concluded. 

This  memoir  contains  the  results  of  observations  made  by  the  au- 
thor during  last  summer,  with  the  view  of  extending  the  researches 
of  Professor  Sedgwick  and  himself*  :  the  present  remarks  being 
limited  to  the  consideration  of  that  portion  of  the  Alps,  on  the 
northern  side  of  the  axis,  which  is  included  between  the  lake  of 
Constance  on  the  west,  and  Vienna  on  the  east,  followed  by  a  short 
description  of  the  valley  of  the  Danube. 

1.  Primary  Rocks. — He  notices  that.  Mr.  Partsch  and  himself 
discovered  that  traces  of  the  primary  axis  of  the  Alps  reappear  in 
the  Leitha-gebirge,  and  are  there  overlaid  on  each  side  by  tertiary 
deposits. 

2.  Transition  Rocks  frith  Iron  Ores  are  briefly  alluded  to,  merely 
for  the  purpose  of  marking  their  place  in  the  series. 

3.  Rauchtvacke  or  Magnesian  Limestone. — The  author  shows  that 
the  formation  is  much  developed  near  the  eastern  termination  of 
the  Austrian  Alps,  (St.  Johann,  Kirchbiichel,  Sobenstein,  &c.) 
that  it  there  dips  under  red  sandstone  and  Alpine  limestone,  and 
is  quite  similar  to  rocks  occupying  the  same  position  in  the  Tyrol 
(Schwatz,  Soil,  &c). 

4.  Next)  Red  Sandstone  frith  Salt  and  Gypsum. — In  former  sections, 
(published  by  Professor  Sedgwick  and  the  author,)  this  formation 
is  only  designated  in  one  line  of  valleys,  i.  e.  along  the  great  es- 
carpment of  the  Alpine  limestone  ;  recent  observations  have,  how- 
ever, convinced  the  author,  that  it  is  reproduced  in  other  longitu- 
dinal depressions,  further  removed  from  the  axis  of  the  chain.  In 
the  valley  of  Abtenau,  for  instance,  he  ascertained  that  the  red 
sandstone  containing  thick  masses  of  gypsum  and  several  salt- 
springs,  dips  conformably  on  one  side  under  black  shale  and  lime- 
stone, of  the  age  of  the  lias,  and  on  the  other  is  overlaid  uncon- 
formably  by  the  shelly  deposits  of  Gosau.  He  also  cites  Berchtes- 
paden,  with  its  salt-mines,  as  another  case  of  a  valley  in  which 
the  new  red-sandstone  is  denuded,  and  he  shows  that  the  strata 
there  dip  beneath  the  whole  of  the  oolitic  series  of  the  Kneifel- 
berg  and  Untersberg. 

5.  Lower  Alpine  Limestone,  or  Lias  and  Inferior  Oolite. — It  is 
stated  that  the  dark-coloured  limestone  and  shale  which  surmount 
the  red  sandstone  at  Abtenau,  range  northwards  with  various  con- 
tortions, and  are  well  exposed  in  the  gorge  of  the  Mertelbach  be- 
low Crispel ;  where,  accompanied  by  M.  Von  Lill,  the  author  col- 
lected several  fossils,  viz. :  Ammonites,  two  species,  (one  very  near 
to  A.   Conybeari,)  Pecten,   three    species,  small  Gryphsea,  Mya, 

*  One  of  Prof.  Sedgwick  and  Mr.  Murchison's  papers  on  the  Austrian 
Alps,  here  alluded  to,  will  be  found  in  the  Philosophical  Magazine  and  An- 
nals, vol.  viii.  p.  81.  See  also  the  Proceedings  of  the  Geological  Society, 
pp.  153,  227. 


251 

Perna,  two  species,  Ostrsea,  Corallines,  &c.  In  mineral  characters 
these  beds,  it  is  said,  closely  resemble  some  of  those  of  Whitby, 
from  which,  together  with  the  complexion  of  the  fossils,  and  their 
place  in  the  series,  the  author  refers  the  group  to  the  lias.  An 
overlying  red,  encrinite  limestone,  contains  at  least  five  or  six  species 
of  Ammonites  and  some  Belemnites;  amongst  the  former  is  the 
A.  multicostatus.  This  red  limestone  crops  out  on  both  sides  of 
the  valley  of  the  Salza  near  Hallein,  and  reappears  in  various  places 
in  the  Salzburg  Alps  (Aussee,  Ebensee,  &c). 

6.  Salt  Deposits. — The  place  assigned  to  most  of  the  salt-mines  of 
the  Austrian  Alps  in  the  memoir  of  last  year,  has  been  confirmed ; 
and  additional  sections  are  given  at  Halstadt  and  Aussee  to  prove 
that  the  salt  masses  in  these  places  are  fairly  encased  in  Alpine  lime- 
stone. In  other  localities,  however,  as  above  indicated,  this  mine- 
ral is  shown  to  occur  in  the  same  formations  as  in  England. 

7.  Upper  Alpine  Limestone,  or  Upper  Oolite. — In  this  group  the 
author  comprehends  semi-crystalline,  brecciated,  scaly,  compact 
and  dolomitic  limestones.  The  Hippurite  limestone,  though  with 
some  doubt,  is  considered  to  mark  the  superior  limit  of  the  series, 
the  author  having  been  led  to  this  conclusion  from  the  relations 
seen  on  the  north  flank  of  the  Untersberg,  at  Windischgarsten,Gosau 
and  the  Wand,  in  all  of  which  places  there  are  passages  from  the 
Alpine  limestone  into  the  Hippurite  rock. 

8.  Sandstone,  Calcareous  Grit  and  Shales,  Slaty  Limestone,  fyc— 
The  Gres  de  Vienne  is  placed  by  the  author  as  the  lowest  member 
of  this  group  ;  although  in  the  eastern  termination  of  the  Alps  he 
agrees  with  M.  Boue,  that  its  separation  from  the  Alpine  limestone 
cannot  well  be  effected.  All  along  the  chain,  however,  from  the  Enns 
to  the  lake  of  Constance,  he  thinks  that  the  grits  and  shales  with 
fucoids  constitute  a  natural  group  distinguished  in  external  charac- 
ters from  the  Alpine  limestone,  and  that  they  there  form  the  lowest 
term  of  the  green  sand.  He  then  describes  several  transverse,  pa- 
rallel sections  across  that  zone.  The  first  of  these  is  in  the  valley  of 
the  Allgau  or  Sonthofen,  in  the  upper  end  of  which,  near  Miesel- 
stein,  the  grits  and  fucoid  shales  are  broken  through  by  gneiss, 
which  appears  to  have  been  heaved  up  in  a  solid  form  posterior  to 
the  deposition  of  the  former ;  whilst  in  an  adjoining  gorge  dikes 
of  igneous  rocks  seem  to  have  made  unavailing  efforts  to  pierce 
through  the  overlying  mountain  of  the  Schwarzenberg.  The  dis- 
locations and  inversions  of  dip  in  the  parallel  ridges  of  the  Allgau 
are  described  in  detailed  sections.  At  the  mouth  of  the  valley,  the 
Grinten,  a  narrow  serrated  mountain,  ranging  E.N.E.  and  W.N.W., 
is  composed  of  many  of  the  same  rocks  described  last  year  at  Nes- 
selwang,  but  owing  to  a  complete  reversal  of  dip  the  lowest  beds 
or  inferior  green  sand  are  thrown  into  juxtaposition  with  a  ridge 
of  conglomerate  of  tertiary  age,  which  dips  to  the  north  beneath 
the  molasse  of  the  plain.  The  lowest  beds  are  nearly  vertical,  and 
consist  of  brown  chert ;  these  are  succeeded  by  green,  calcareous 
sandstone  and  grit  highly  inclined,  containing  Inoceramns  concentric 


252 

cus,  Myaplicata,  Plicatulapectinoides,  a  small  Gryphaea,  Ammonites 
and  Belemnites, — fossils  characteristic  of  the  middle  and  lower 
green  sand.  The  overlying  strata  are  a  cream-coloured  limestone 
with  Ammonites,  passing  up  into  a  slaty,  red,  marly,  limestone  un- 
distinguishable  from  Scaglia.  The  formations  seen  in  the  Grinten, 
therefore,  are  a  part  of  the  lower,  all  the  upper  green  sand,  and 
probably  a  portion  of  the  chalk. 

9.  Loioer  Nummulitic  Limestone  and  Shale,  8fc.  (Sonthofen  Iron 
Ores). — The  strata  containing  the  iron  ores  at  Sonthofen  surmount 
the  preceding  series  in  the  gorge  of  the  Starzlach.  The  author 
considers  them,  from  the  character  of  their  fossils,  particularly  Spa- 
tangi,  certain  species  of  Nummulites,  Belemnites,  Terebratulae, 
and  Trigoniae,  to  be  more  connected  with  the  cretaceous  than  with 
the  superior  formations.  To  show  the  essential  difference  be- 
tween the  age  of  these  iron  ores  of  Sonthofen  and  those  of  the 
Kressenberg,  a  detailed  section  is  described  from  south  to  north  on 
the  banks  of  the  Traun,  where  a  vast  thickness  of  lower,  nummu- 
litic, calcareous  grit,  with  shales,  marls,  and  cretaceous  beds  (as  ex- 
hibited in  vertical  strata  opposite  the  town  of  Arzt),  are  shown  to 
be  of  the  same  age  as  those  of  Sonthofen,  and  are  clearly  proved 
to  be  overlaid  by  the  nummulitic  iron  ores  of  the  Kressenberg. 

10.  Upper  Nummulitic  Iron  Ores. — It  is  to  the  shelly  iron  ores  at 
Kressenberg,  and  not  to  those  of  Sonthofen,  that  Professor  Sedg- 
wick and  the  author  assigned  the  place  of  transition-tertiary  beds, — 
a  place,  the  correctness  of  which,  it  is  contended,  is  now  established 
as  clearly  by  the  evidences  of  superposition,  given  in  this  memoir, 
as  it  formerly  was  by  Count  Miinster,  from  the  vast  predominance 
of  tertiary  fossils. 

The  natural  section  on  the  Traun  is  then  completed,  by  showing 
that  the  transition-tertiary  beds  are  conformably  overlaid  by  inclined 
strata  of  pebbly  sandstone  and  marls,  in  the  higher  part  of  which, 
near  Traunstein,  there  are  a  number  of  shells  unquestionably  of 
tertiary  age.  All  these  inclined  strata  are  capped  by  a  thick  range 
of  horizontal  coarse  conglomerate.  Sections  made  on  the  flanks  of 
the  Untersberg  confirm  the  observations  of  the  previous  year,  and 
show  the  Hippurite  limestone  dipping  under  the  green  sand  and 
shale, — the  green  sand  and  cretaceous  beds  surmounted  by  a  vast 
thickness  of  nummulitic,  green  grit;  and  this  again  overlaid  by  blue 
marls  with  shells  of  the  age  of  Gosau  and  Kressenberg*. 

Other  localities  are  noticed,  where  detached  remnants  of  both 
the  lower  and  upper  nummulitic  groups  were  visited  by  the  author, 
(St.  Pancratz,  Mattsee,  &c),  and  the  Gryphite  abounding  in  these 
beds  is  stated  to  be  not  the  Gryphcea  columba,  but  a  new  spe- 
cies. Through  the  labours  of  Mr.  Lonsdale,  eight  species  at  least  of 

*  This  section  as  given  last  year  (Phil.  Mag.  vol.  viii.  pi.  2.  fig.  1.)  ne- 
cessarily terminated  in  ascending  order  with  the  river  Saal,  because  the 
Hogl  on  its  northern  bank  consists  of  secondary  grit  and  shale  (green  sand), 
which  being  thrown  off  from  the  Stauffen,  a  promontory  of  Alpine  lime- 
stone, abuts  unconformably  against  the  tertiary  strata  described. 


253 

Nummulfteshave  been  distinguished,  some  of  which  characterize  the 
lower  or  secondary  strata  at  Sonthofen,  Arzt,  and  Mattsee,  others 
together  with  a  coral  ( Nummulina  complanata)  prevail  in  the  transi- 
tion-tertiary groups  of  Kressenberg,  Schweiger  Mill,  &c.  Having 
thus,  both  by  superposition  and  by  fossils,  shown  the  existence  on 
the  flanks  of  the  chain  of  a  deposit  with  a  predominance  of  tertiary 
and  very  few  secondary  shells,  as  distinguished  from  a  lower  group 
in  which  secondary  fossils  prevail,  the  author  proceeds  to  point  out 
accumulations  of  the  same  age,  at  various  heights,  within  the  great 
secondary  chain  of  the  Alps. 

In  the  valley  of  Gosau  several  new  facts  are  enumerated.  The 
edges  of  the  shelly  deposit  are  seen  to  rest  on  red  sandstone,  on 
Alpine  and  Hippurite  limestone,  and  on  green  sand.  Besides  the 
underlying  conglomerate  *,  the  shelly  system  is  considered  to  be 
clearly  divisible  into  two  parts,  of  which  the  inferior  contains  many 
secondary  as  well  as  tertiary  fossils,  with  Tornatella  (Turbinel- 
lus,  Sow.),  Nerinea,  rolled  Hippurites,  &c. ;  whilst  the  superior  blue 
marls  abound  with  myriads  of  shells  of  a  tertiary  aspect,  and  many 
corals,  of  species  figured  by  Goldfuss,  from  the  tertiary  formations 
at  Castel  Arquato,  Bassano,  &c. 

As  all  the  conchologists  who  have  seen  the  unmixed  shells  of 
these  upper  blue  marls  have  declared  that  they  belong  to  formations 
newer  than  the  chalk,  the  author  conceives  this  case,  therefore,  to 
be  now  established  beyond  dispute,  both  by  stratigraphical  and 
zoological  evidence  :  and  he  further  is  of  opinion  that  the  slaty 
overlying  psammites  of  the  Horn  and  the  Ressenberg  clearly  repre- 
sent the  molasse. 

A  case  of  more  extraordinary  elevation  than  that  of  Gosau  was 
this  year  discovered  by  the  author,  in  the  Alpine  pasturage  of 
Zlam  above  Aussee  and  Grundelsee,  where  blue  marls  with 
Cerithea,  sharks'  teeth,  &c,  overlie  calcareous  grits  and  conglome- 
rate, with  Tornatella  and  Nerinea,  and  are  carried  up  in  a  cleft  of 
Alpine  limestone  to  at  least  6000  feet  above  the  sea.  Several  lo- 
calities mentioned  by  Dr.  Boue  are  then  alluded  to  :  Windisch- 
garsten  is  a  valley  similar  to  Gosau,  of  which,  according  to  the  au- 
thor, it  exhibits  only  the  lower  shelly  beds,  and  amongst  the  conti- 
guous rocks  on  which  these  repose,  are  grits,  fucoid  shales,  Hippu- 
rite limestone,  younger  Alpine  limestone,  &c. 

Formations  of  the  transition-tertiary  age  are  then  described  on 
three  sides  of  the  Wand,  a  mountain  of  Alpine  limestone  at  the 
eastern  extremity  of  the  Alps,  where  the  author  made  various  sec- 
tions assisted  by  Mr.  Partsch  of  Vienna.  At  Piesting  Meyersdorf, 
Dreystetten  and  Griinbach,  they  found  that  the  shelly,  blue  marls 
invariably  occupied  the  same  place  in  the  series  as  at  Gosau.  At 
Griinbach,  the  ascending  order,  as  seen  in  vertical  strata,  is  Alpine 
and  Hippurite  limestones,  green  grit  and  shale,  coal  beds  with 
freshwater  shells,  nummulitic  grit,  marls  with  Gosau  shells  and 
corals.     In  none  of  these  sections  could  Mr.  Partsch  or  the  author 

*  See  former  Memoir,   Proceedings  of  Geological  Society,  p.  154. 


254 

detect  the  trace  of  Belemnites,  said  to  have  been  found  here  by 
Dr.  Boue. 

II.   The  memoir  next  describes  the  valley  of  the  Danube. 

It  is  stated  that  the  phenomena  on  the  flank  of  the  Bohemian 
chain,  even  where  it  approaches  very  near  to  the  Alps,  are  entirely 
different  from  any  that  have  been  previously  described. 

In  a  section  from  Vilshofen,  on  the  Danube,  to  Schaerding,  true 
chalk  with  flints  and  characteristic  fossils  is  seen,  at  Ortenburg,  rest- 
ing horizontally  on  black  granite.  The  surface  of  this  chalk  is  cor- 
roded, and  the  fissures  are  filled  and  covered  by  sands  with  oysters, 
and  these  again  by  blue  marl,  all  wearing  the  aspect  of  the  lower 
tertiaries  in  England.  These  beds  in  the  Inn-kreis,  at  Pielach  near 
Molk,  &c.  &c.  stretch  horizontally  round  promontories  of  gneiss  and 
granite,  and  offer  a  remarkable  contrast  to  the  verticality  and  dislo- 
cations of  the  strata  of  the  same  age  in  the  opposite  and  principal 
chain  of  the  Alps. 

These  discrepancies  of  arrangement,  when  coupled  with  the  dif- 
ferences in  the  direction  of  the  two  chains,  are  cited  as  corroborating 
some  of  the  views  of  M.  Elie  de  Beaumont :  for  the  Bohemian 
mountains  trending  from  N.W.  to  S.E.  are  seen  not  to  have  been 
moved  from  a  very  ancient  period  ;  whilst  the  principal  chain  of  the 
Alps  running  from  W.S.W.  to  E.N.E.  is  found  to  have  undergone 
one  of  its  last  convulsions  posterior  to  some  of  the  most  recent  ac- 
cumulations. 

The  tertiary  deposits  in  the  valley  of  the  Danube  and  basin  of 
Vienna  are  cursorily  enumerated.  At  Pielach  and  other  places  near 
Molk,  the  lower  blue  marl  or  Tegel  alternates  with,  and  is  sur- 
mounted by,  yellow  sand  ;  and  the  lowest  beds  of  this  system  are 
presumed  to  be  the  equivalents  of  the  London  clay  and  lower  Sub- 
apennines. 

The  middle  and  higher  tertiary  deposits  are  alone  well  seen  in  the 
basin  of  Vienna,  and  this  the  author  attributes  to  the  gradual  declen- 
sion in  the  height  of  the  Alps  in  their  range  to  the  east,  by  which  the 
older  tertiaries,  which  rest  on  their  edges,  are  not  brought  to  day  in 
that  neighbourhood.  These  lower  beds  have,  however,  been  reach- 
ed by  borings  near  Vienna,  where  300  feet  of  the  inferior  blue 
Tegel  have  been  traversed,  even  to  the  white  sands.  The  lower 
blue  marl  is  covered  by  yellow  sand  containing  many  species  of 
shells,  and  this  again  passes  up  into  upper  blue  marl. 

It  is  from  these  upper  sands  and  marls,  although  of  not  half  the 
thickness  of  the  lower,  that  nearly  all  the  known  shells  of  the  basin 
of  Vienna  have  hitherto  been  collected ;  and  hence  the  author  infers 
that  it  is  impossible  to  decide  upon  the  comparative  age  of  all  the 
formations  in  this  basin  until  the  species  of  the  different  deposits  be 
separately  ascertained, — a  work  which  he  hopes  to  see  accomplished 
by  M.  Partsch. 

The  blue  marls  and  sands  are  proved  to  be  overlaid  by  a  pebbly, 
calcareous  conglomerate,  which  graduates  upwards  into  the  Leitha- 
Kalk  or  great,  white,  coralline  building-stone  of  Vienna,  containing 
bones  of  Tapir,  Mastodon,  &c.  (Loretto,  Margarethen,  Eisenstadt, 


255 

Wollersdorf ) ;  and  this  rock  is  identified,  by  the  author,  with  the 
coral  limestone  of  Lower  Styria,  formerly  described  by  Prof.  Sedg- 
wick, and  himself. 

It  is  stated  that  freshwater  limestone,  with  Lymnaea,  Helix,  and 
Planorbis,  is  seen  in  patches  (Eich  Kogel,  &c),  but  that  where  this 
formation  is  absent,  the  Leitha-Kalk  is  usually  succeeded  by  thick 
accumulations  of  gravel  and  sand,  with  concretions,  and  bones  of 
Tapir,  Mastodon,  Anthracotherium,  &c. ;  these  gravel  beds  being  of 
the  same  age  with  the  superior  deposits  of  Lower  Styria,  through 
which  it  has  been  asserted  in  a  former  memoir,  that  basaltic  and 
trachytic  eruptions  have  penetrated*. 

Lastly.  The  superficial  covering  of  the  low  countries  of  Austria, 
called  Loss,  is  mentioned  as  being  of  great  thickness  and  extent, 
containing  bones  of  extinct  species  of  elephants,  mixed  up  with  ter- 
restrial shells  of  existing  species,  which  character,  combined  with  its 
loamy  structure,  is  considered  to  indicate  a  tranquil  period  of  deposit. 
Recapitulating  the  principal  points  illustrated  in  this  memoir,  the 
author  recurs  to  that  essential  part  of  it,  in  which,  following  up  the 
idea  of  Prof.  Sedgwick  and  himself,  he  endeavours  to  prove  the 
large  development  and  persistence  in  the  eastern  Alps  of  certain 
shelly  deposits,  of  an  age  intermediate  between  the  chalk  and  the 
tertiary  formations  j  and  he  concludes  by  expressing  an  opinion,  that 
with  more  extended  examination,  geologists  may  arrive  at  the  con- 
clusion, that  the  disturbing  forces  which  in  the  West  of  Europe 
have  destroyed  the  formations  succeeding  to  the  chalk,  were  local 
phenomena,  which  operated  through  a  limited  portion  only  of  the 
earth's  surface. 

Feb.  16. — John  Evans,  Esq.  of  Hertford-street,  May  Fair;  John 
McDonnell,  Esq.  of  Upper  Gloucester-place;  James  C.  Somerville, 
Jun.  M.D.  of  Princes-street  j  and  John  Badams,  Esq.  of  Birming- 
ham, were  elected  Fellows  of  this  Society. 

A  letter  was  first  read  from  Peter  Cunningham,  Esq.  dated  New- 
castle on  Hunter's  River,  New  South  Wales,  Oct.  16,  1829;  and 
communicated  by  John  Barrow,  Esq.  F.R.S.  &c. 

This  letter  is  written  with  a  view  to  give  some  insight  into  the 
former  state  of  the  interior  of  New  South  Wales,  and  the  writer 
accompanies  it  with  a  few  organic  remains  ;  amongst  others, 
with  the  second  cervical  vertebra  of  a  large  animal,  found  on  the 
surface.  He  states,  that  a  great  ridge  separates  the  eastern  and 
western  waters,  running  from  N.N.E.  to  S.S.W.  and  that  in  Liver- 
pool Plains  the  oldest  rock  appeared  to  be  a  hard,  blue  granite 
with  red  sandstone  on  its  flanks.  Granite  has  also  been  seen  at  the 
Wallanbai  rivulet,  at  Carrington,  and  at  Waybong,  — distances  of 
35,  55,  and  100  miles  from  the  sea.  In  the  Liverpool  range, 
it  is  said,  there  is  a  slaty,  blue  rock  resembling  grauwacke,  and 
that  this  is  succeeded,  about  26  miles  up  the  Patterson,  by  a 
coarse,  red  sandstone,  and  that  again  by  a  blue  limestone.  Another 
limestone  is  described  as  having  an  oolitic  structure  with  corals  on  its 

*  Proceedings  of  Geological  Society,  p.  213. 


256 

surface.  Most  of  the  alluvial  tracts  in  this  part  of  the  colony  (Liver- 
pool Plains,  &c.)  are  spoken  of  as  consisting  of  rich,  black,  loose  mould, 
formed  by  depositions  from  the  hills,  which  on  the  slopes  arrays  itself 
into  ridges,  and  in  the  plains  into  alternate  hillocks  and  cavities. 

Much  red  sandstone  with  salt  springs  is  stated  to  exist  in  the  inte- 
rior, as  well  as  on  the  coast  of  the  colony,  and  the  red,  loose,  sandy 
soil  is  said  to  be  generally  covered  with  the  "  iron  tree",  and  with 
long,  weak  spikes  of  flaccid  grass.  It  is  to  the  want  of  an  admixture 
of  clay,  or  any  retentive  stratum,  with  the  sands,  that  the  author  attri- 
butes the  great  deficiency  of  water  in  the  colony,  boring  having  been 
found  quite  useless  throughout  the  absorbent  sandstone  country,  al- 
though in  the  immediate  flanks  of  the  primary  ridges  water  gushes 
out  freely,  and  chalybeate  and  saline  springs  occur  at  short  distances 
from  each  other. 

The  coal  of  the  colony  appears  to  be  a  lignite,  and  is  associated 
with  grey  marlstone  containing  impressions  of  leaves  of  dicotyledonous 
plants.  The  secondary  rocks  contain  casts  of  Terebratulse  and  other 
shells  j  but  the  author  does  not  attempt  to  make  out  precisely  the 
order  of  superposition,  or  the  equivalents  of  the  strata. 

A  memoir  was  then  read  "On  the  Geology  of  the  Island  of  Juan 
Fernandez,  in  the  Pacific  Ocean,  by  Alex.  Caldcleugh,  Esq.  F.G.S." 

After  a  sketch  of  the  past  history  and  present  state  of  this  island, 
celebrated  as  the  place  of  exile  of  Alexander  Selkirk,  the  author  pro- 
ceeds to  state  that  it  is  about  twelve  miles  in  length  and  four  in 
breadth,  possessing  three  ports,  and  consisting  of  very  high  land,  the 
culminating  point  of  which  rises  to  about  3005  feet  above  the  sea. 

The  author  could  discover  no  trace  of  a  volcano  said  to  exist  here 
by  former  visitors  5  all  the  rocks,  according  to  him,  consist  of  basaltic 
greenstone  and  trap  of  various  mineralogical  structure,  both  amorphous 
and  vesicular,  together  withtrappean  concretions,  no  other  contained 
minerals  being  observable  except  olivine  and  chaux  cctrbonatee  metas- 
tatique.  It  is  further  mentioned  that  the  basalt  in  parts  is  almost 
columnar,  and  in  others  has  a  peaked  and  serrated  outline,  the  mass 
being,  here  and  there,  traversed  by  dykes. 

Owing  to  the  peculiar  character  of  this  basalt,  and  especially  from 
the  great  quantity  of  olivine,  the  author  compares  its  age  with  that  of 
the  basalt  of  Bohemia,  the  Rhine,  the  Vivarrais,  and  Beaulieu  in 
Provence. 

After  the  ordinary  business  of  the  evening  had  been  concluded,  a 
Special  General  Meeting  was  held,  when  it  was  unanimously  resolved, 
that  the  Session  should  terminate,  for  the  future,  on  the  first  evening 
of  Meeting  in  June. 


PROCEEDINGS 

OF 

THE  GEOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OP  LONDON. 

1831.  No.  20. 


AT  THE 

ANNUAL  GENERAL  MEETING, 
18th  February  1831, 

The  following  Report  from  the  Council  was  read  : — ■ 

The  Council,  in  making  their  Annual  Report,  feel  great  pleasure  in 
being  able  to  present  a  series  of  Returns,  by  which  the  continued 
prosperity  of  the  Society,  and  its  increasing  interest  in  public  opinion, 
are  clearly  proved. 

The  Council  beg,  in  the  first  place,  to  call  the  attention  of  the  So- 
ciety to  the  Report  of  a  Select  Committee,  appointed  to  examine  the 
state  of  the  Museums  and  Library ;  by  which  it  will  be  seen  that  many 
important  additions  were  made  during  the  past  year. 

It  is  with  great  satisfaction  that  the  Council  call  attention  to  the 
Treasurer's  Reports.  On  referring  to  these  documents  it  will  be  seen 
that  the  estimated  Receipts  for  the  ensuing  year  exceed  the  estimated 
Expenditure,  including  the  cost  of  the  publication  of  a  new  Part  of 
the  Society's  Transactions. 

By  the  returns  connected  with  the  numerical  strength  of  the  So- 
ciety, the  Council  have  the  satisfaction  of  showing,  that  the  loss  by 
deaths  and  resignations  during  the  past  year  amounted  to  only  Six 
while  the  accession  of  new  Fellows  amounted  to  Fifty-one ;  making 
an  actual  increase  on  the  Books  of  the  Society  of  Forty-five. 

The  Council,  ever  anxious  to  promote  the  circulation  of  the  Society's 
Transactions,  have  directed  much  of  their  attention  since  the  last  anni- 
versary to  this  important  subject;  and  they  have  made  arrangements 
with  Messrs.  Treuttel  and  Wiirtz,  by  which  they  hope  that  the  hi- 
therto accumulating  stock  will  be  speedily  reduced,  and  the  know- 
ledge of  the  Transactions  themselves  be  widely  diffused  both  at  home 
and  abroad. 

Finally,  the  Council  are  anxious  to  concur  in  the  sentiments  ex- 
pressed in  the  concluding  sentence  of  the  Report  on  the  state  of  the 
Museum,  and  to  record  their  testimony  of  the  great  talents  and  self- 
devotion  manifested  by  Mr.  Lonsdale  ever  since  his  first  connection 
with  the  Society. 

Report  upon  the  Museums  and  Library. 
I.  English  Collection.    The  additions  to  this  part  of  the  collec- 
tion consist  of  bones  of  Elephas  Primigenius,  of  Rhinoceros  and  other 

A 


258 

bones  usually  found  in  the  gravel,  presented  by  Mr.  Hobson ;  and  of 
bones  of  Palseotherium,  Anoplotherium,  and  of  a  new  species  of  Deer 
from  Binstead  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  presented  by  S.  P.  Pratt,  Esq. 
The  valuable  collection  from  the  green-sand  and  Wealden  formation 
illustrative  of  all  the  beds  between  the  chalk  and  the  Portland  stone, 
presented  by  Dr.  Fitton,  will  render  complete  a  most  interesting  por- 
tion of  the  series. 

II.  The  Foreign  Collection.  This  has  been  greatly  enriched. 
In  addition  to  the  elephant's  tusks  from  the  frozen  mud  in  the  cliffs 
of  Eschscholtz  Bay,  brought  home  by  Captain  Beechey,  R.N.  and 
presented  by  the  Lords  of  the  Admiralty,  Captain  Belcher,  R.N.  has 
given  the  specimens  obtained  by  him  during  the  late  expedition 
under  the  command  of  Captain  Beechey,  and  illustrative  of  the  geo- 
logical memoir  in  the  Appendix  to  the  Voyage  published  by  the  last- 
mentioned  officer,  drawn  up  by  Dr.  Buckland  from  the  notes  of  Cap- 
tain Belcher  and  Mr.  Colley.  To  the  Philadelphia  Museum  Company 
the  collection  is  indebted  for  some  fine  bones  of  Mastodon  angus- 
tidens?  brought  home  by  Captain  Basil  Hall,  R.N. : — to  Woodbine 
Parish,  Esq.  for  bones  of  a  Mastodon  from  Buenos  Ayres  : — to  Pro- 
fessor Von  Dechen  for  a  collection  of  Rocks  from  the  Siebengebirge  : 
— and  to  Dr.  Fitton  for  a  very  important  collection  illustrative  of  his 
Memoir  on  part  of  the  Low  Countries  and  the  north  of  France,  prin- 
cipally near  Maestricht  and  Aix  la  Chapelle. 

In  the  arrangement  of  this  collection  great  progress  has  been  made 
since  the  last  Report.  The  specimens,  illustrative  of  all  the  European 
countries  north  of  the  Rhine — a  portion  of  those  illustrative  of  Asia, 
(viz.  those  of  all  China  and  of  a  part  of  India) — and  the  whole  African, 
American  and  Australian  collections  are  completely  arranged  and 
partly  labelled. 

III.  Simple  Minerals.  Some  additions  have  been  made  to  this 
part  of  the  collection,  which  has  been  entirely  re-arranged,  and  the 
Curator  has  prepared  an  alphabetical  catalogue  of  the  specimens. 

IV.  Library.  The  number  of  Books  and  Maps  is  considerably 
increased ;  but  the  Committee  regret  to  observe  the  deficiency  of 
works  of  reference,  especially  of  the  more  modern  publications  illus- 
trative of  Fossil  Zoology  and  Botany.  The  geological  map  of  Styria 
laid  down  under  the  immediate  superintendence  of  the  Archduke  John 
of  Austria  is  so  well  executed,  that  the  Committee  cannot  forbear 
calling  the  attention  of  the  Society  to  this  useful  present  from  His 
Imperial  Highness. 

The  Committee,  in  conclusion,  feel  it  their  duty  to  express  their 
entire  approbation  of  the  results  of  the  great  zeal  and  talent  mani- 
fested by  the  Curator  since  the  jast  Report ;  and  they  beg  to  state 
their  conviction,  that  to  the  willing  devotion  of  his  time  and  ability 
the  Society  owes  no  small  part  of  the  advancing  prosperity  of  the 
department  submitted  to  his  care. 

W.  J.  BRODERIP. 
Geological  Society,  EDWARD  TURNER. 

Feb.  2,  1 83 1.  H.  T.  Be  la  BECHE. 


259 

Comparative  Statement  of  the  number  of  the  Society,  at  the  close 
of  the  vears  1829—30. 

Fellows.  31st  Dec.  1829.       31st  Dec.  1830. 

Having  compounded 56 59 

Contributing 164 177 

Non-residents    243 272 

463  508 

Honorary   51 50 

Foreign  Members 55 56 

Personages  of  Royal  Blood   3 3 

Total  572  617 


The  following  Persons  were  elected  Fellows  and  Foreign  Member 
during  the  year  1830. 

January  1st. — Rev.  Henry  Coddington,  of  Trinity  College,  Cam- 
bridge. 

January  15th — William  Parker,  Esq.  Albany  Street,  Regent's  Park  5 
and  the  Rev.  Henry  Parr  Hamilton  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge. 

February  5th. — James  Calder,  Esq.  of  Calcutta;  and  Edward  John- 
stone, Esq.  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge. 

March  5th — Richard  Smith,  Esq.  of  Connaught  Square  ;  Sir  Tho- 
mas Maryon  Wilson,  Bart,  of  Charlton  House,  Kent ;  Aristides 
Franklin  Mornay,  Esq.  of  Ashburton  House,  Putney ;  the  Rev. 
Counop  Thirlwall  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge;  the  Rev  J. 
Philip  Higman  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge  5  and  William  Parry 
Richards,  Esq.  of  Queen  Street,  Bloomsbury. 

March  19th. — Henry  Rowland  Brandreth,  Esq.  of  the  Royal  Engi- 
neers, Woolwich  ;  Sir  Thomas  Phillips,  Bart,  of  Middle  Hill,  Wor- 
cestershire ;  and  Robert  Alfred  Cloyne  Austen,  Esq.  of  Lincoln's 
Inn,  London. 

April  2nd. — William  Hallows  Miller,  Esq.  of  St.  John's  College, 
Cambridge  ;  Lloyd  Baker,  jun.  Esq.  of  Hardwicke,  Gloucester- 
shire; William  Grenville  Eliot,  Esq.  of  Hastings  ;  the  Rev.  Henry 
Engleheart  of  Caius  College,  Cambridge  ;  Josias  Lambert,  Esq.  of 
Liverpool  Street,  London  ;  and  Thomas  Morgan,  Esq.  of  Thames 
Ditton,  Middlesex. 

April  16th. — John  Rennie,  Esq.  and  George  Rennie,  Esq.  of  White- 
hall Place;  Alfred  Thomas,  Esq.  of  Haverfordwest,  Pembrokeshire; 
Charles  Mundy,  jun.  Esq.  of  Burton  Hall,  Loughborough ;  and 
Alexander  Turnbull  Christie,  M.D 

May  7th. — Thomas  England,  Esq.  of  Pembroke  College,  Cambridge; 
Howard  Elphinstone,  Esq.  of  Pembroke  College,  Cambridge  ;  and 
Robert  Edmond  Grant,  M.D.  of  the  London  University. 

May  21 . — Granville  Lonsdale,  Esq.  of  the  Third  Regt.  of  Foot. 

June  4th. — Rev.  Richard  Dawes,  Fellow  of  Downing  College,  Cam- 
bridge ;  the  Rev.  Charles  Currie,  of  Pembroke   College,   Cam- 

a2 


260 

bridge ;  the  Rev.  Thomas  Musgrave,  Fellow  of  Trinity  College, 
Cambridge ;  William  Devonshire  Saull,  Esq.  of  Aldersgate  Street, 
London  ;  and  Francis  Ellis,  Esq.  of  the  Royal  Crescent,  Bath. 

June  iSth. — Robert  Dawson,  Esq.  of  the  Royal  Engineers. 

November  3rd. — The  Rev.  Thomas  Boyles  Murray  of  Hart  Street, 
Crutched  Friars;  James  Edward  Winterbottom,Esq. of  Southampton 
Buildings  ;  William  Taylor,  Esq.  of  Canonbury  Square  ;  Charles 
Shaw  Lefevre,  Esq.  of  Whitehall  Place ;  the  Rev.  Thomas  Arnold, 
D.D.  Head  Master  of  Rugby  School ;  Henry  Ellis,  Esq.  of  Wel- 
beck  Street;  the  Right  Honourable  the  Earl  of  Selkirk  ;  and  Wil- 
liam Joseph  Bayne,  M.D.  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge. 

November  1 7th. — The  Rev.  William  Kirby  of  Barham,  Norfolk ;  John 
Prideaux  Selby,  Esq.  of  Twizell  House,  near  Belford,  Northumber- 
land ;  and  James  Dickson,  Esq.  of  Kidbrooke,  Blackheatb. 

December  1st. — The  Rev.  Daniel  Pettiward,  of  One-House,  near 
Stowmarket ;  and  John  William  Bowden,  Esq.  of  Trinity  College, 
Oxford. 

December  15th. — The  Rev.  Wiilam  Turner  of  Trinity  College,  Cam- 
bridge, and  Christ  Church,  Oxford  ;  Anthony  Todd  Thompson, 
M.D.  of  the  London  University  ;  and  George  Townsend  Fox,  Esq. 
of  Westhoe,  Durham. 

Foreign  Member,  elected  in  1830,  Count  Munster,  of  Bayreuth. 

The  Names  of  the  Fellows  deceased,  within  the  past  year,  are  as 
follow : — 

Compounders (None.) 

Residents    Henry  Hakewill,  Esq. 

Non-residents    (ST*!  ia,T  B°SVile'  Esq' 

[  Richard  Chenevix,  Esq. 

Foreign (None.) 

Honorary    Dr.  James  Miller. 


The  Museum  has  received  many  donations  since  the  last  Anniver- 
sary, among  which  are  included  the  following : — 

British  and  Irish  Specimens. 

Portions  of  four  basaltic  columns  from  the  Giant's  Causeway  5  pre- 
sented by  Henry  Habberley  Price,  Esq.  F.G.S. 

Fossils  from  the  Green-sand,  Lias,  and  Carboniferous  Limestone ; 
presented  by  Henry  Humphrey  Goodhall,  Esq.  F.G.S. 

Specimens  from  the  Coal  Basin  of  South  Wales ;  presented  by  Josias 
Lambert,  Esq.  F.G.S. 

Two  specimens  of  Rostellaria  macropteraj  presented  by  the  Rev. 
John  Ward,  F.G.S. 

A  collection  of  Fossils  from  the  Mountain  Limestone  of  Devonshire ; 
presented  by  Henry  Thomas  De  la  Beche,  Esq.  F.G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 

Fossils  from  the  Lias  and  Oolitic  Coal  Measures  of  Yorkshire ;  pre- 
sented by  Nicholas  Dennys,  Esq.  F.G.S. 


261 

Specimens  of  the  fossil  plant  from  Wideopen ;  presented  by  William 
Hutton,  Esq.  F.G.S. 

Horns  of  Deer  from  the  neighbourhood  of  the  London  Docks  ;  pre- 
sented by  H.  R.  Palmer,  Esq. 

Specimens  from  a  brick-field  and  the  gravel  near  Colchester  j  pre- 
sented by  J.  Brown,  Esq. 

A  collection  of  Fossils  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Farley  Hungerford ; 
presented  by  the  Rev.  Benjamin  Richardson,  Hon.  Mem.  G.S. 

Fossils  from  the  Isle  of  Wight ;  presented  by  John  Willimott,  Esq. 
F.G.S. 

Remains  of  the  Palasotherium,  Anoplotherium,  and  a  new  variety  of 
Deer  and  Turtle,  from  Binstead  in  the  Isle  of  Wight  j  presented 
by  Samuel  Peace  Pratt,  Esq.  F.G.S.  F.L.S. 

Several  new  Fossils  from  the  Crag ;  presented  by  Samuel  Wood- 
ward, Esq. 

Remains  of  the  Elephant,  Rhinoceros,  Horse,  and  Ox,  from  Kings- 
land  ;  presented  by  William  Hobson,  Esq.  F.G.S. 

Vegetable  remains  from  the  South-Staffordshire  Coal  Field,  and  a 
collection  of  Geological  specimens  ;  presented  by  the  Rev.  James 
Yates,  F.G.S.  F.L.S. 

Fossils  from  Milton,  Yorkshire  j  presented  by  Edward  Spencer,  Esq. 
F.G.S. 

Dapedium  politum,  and  other  Fossils,  from  Lyme  Regis  ;  presented 
by  Roderick  Impey  Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 

Specimens  of  Lignite  from  Bovey  Tracey,  and  Minerals  from  Haytor 
Mine  ;  presented  by  Thomas  Hodgson  Holdsworth,  Esq.  F.G.S. 

Foreign  Specimens. 

Tusks  of  an  Elephant  from  the  frozen  mud  in  the  Cliffs  of  Eschscholtz 
Bay,  brought  home  by  Capt.  Beechey,  It.N.j  presented  by  the  Lords 
of  the  Admiralty. 

A  collection  of  specimens  from  Australia ;  presented  by  the  Venerable 
Archdeacon  Scott,  F.G.S. 

A  series  of  Geological  specimens  collected  by  Captain  Belcher 
during  the  expedition  to  Behring's  Straits,  under  the  command  of 
Captain  Beechey,  RN.;  presented  by  Captain  Belcher,  R.N.  F.G.S. 

Native  Platina,  and  native  alloy  of  Iridium  and  Osmium  3  presented 
by  Thomas  Johnson,  Esq.  F.G.S. 

A  collection  of  bones  of  the  Mastodon  ;  and  specimens  of  rocks  and 
simple  minerals  from  North  America  j  presented  by  the  Philadel- 
phia Museum  Company,  and  brought  to  England  by  Captain  Basil 
Hall,  R.N.  F.G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 

Geological  specimens  from  the  South  of  Spain ;  presented  by  Colonel 
Charles  Silvertop,  F.G.S. 

Two  species  of  recent  Tree  Ferns  from  Jamaica}  presented  by  Henry 
Thomas  De  la  Beche,  Esq.  F.G.S.  F.R.S. 

A  collection  of  rocks  from  the  Siebengebirge  j  presented  by  Professor 
Von  Dechen  of  Berlin,  For.  Mem.  G.S. 

Geological  Specimens  from  Nova- Scotia  and  New  Brunswick  ;  pre- 
sented by  Dr.  Ridgway. 


262 

Collections  of  Rocks  and  Fossils  from  Maestricht,  Aix-la-Chapelle, 
&c. ;  presented  by  William  Henry  Fitton,  M.D.  F.G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 

Remains  of  the  Mastodon  found  at  Salta,  in  Buenos  Ayres  ;  pre- 
sented by  Woodbine  Parish,  Esq.  His  Majesty's  Charge"  d'Affaires, 
and  Consul  General  at  Buenos  Ayres. 

Geological  specimens  from  the  Isle  of  Ascension  ;  presented  by  Lieut. 
Fayrer,  R.N. 

A  collection  of  rocks  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Guanaxuato  j  pre- 
sented by  Edward  Hurry/  Esq. 

Specimens  from  the  Island  of  Ascension  ;  presented  by  Charles 
Lyell,  Esq.  For.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S. 

Specimens  from  the  Isthmus  of  Darien  ;  presented  by  John  Augustus 
Lloyd,  Esq.   F.R.S. 

Specimens  of  silicate  of  copper,  sulphate  of  barytes  containing  native 
silver,  limestone,  and  fossils  from  Coquimbo,  in  Chili ;  and  a  series 
of  geological  specimens  from  the  Bay  of  Conception ;  presented 
Alexander  Caldcleugh,  Esq.  F.G.S. 

A  collection  of  Rocks  and  Fossils,  from  Hunter's  River,  New  South 
Wales,  collected  by  Peter  Cunningham,  Esq.,  and  presented  by 
John  Barrow,  Esq.  F.R.S. 

Specimens  from  the  Valleys  of  the  Araja  and  Terek,  in  the  Caucasus; 
presented  by  Lieut.  Col.  Monteith. 


The  Library  has  been  increased  by  the  donation  of  70  volumes 
and  pamphlets. 

The  Second  Part  of  the  Third  Volume  of  the  New  Series  of  the 
Transactions  has  been  put  to  press,  and  it  is  hoped  that  it  will  be 
published  early  in  the  ensuing  summer. 


The  following  List  contains  the  Names  of  all  the  Persons  and 
Societies  from  whom  Donations  to  the  Library  and  Museum  have 
been  received  during  the  past  year. 

Ains worth,  William,  Esq. 
American  Philosophical  Society, 
Philadelphia. 


Asiatic  Society  of  Calcutta. 
Royal  Asiatic  Society  of  Great 
Britain. 

Baddeley,  F.  H.  Esq.  Lieutenant 

Roy.  Eng. 
Barrow,  John,  Esq.  F.R.S. 
Beaumont,  M.  Elie  de,  For.  Mem. 

G.S. 
Belcher,  Edward,  Esq.  Capt.  R.N. 

F.G.S. 
Boue,  Dr.  Ami,  For.  Mem.  G.S. 
Brookes,  Joshua,  Esq.  F.R  S. 


Broderip,   William    John,    Esq. 

V.P.G.S.  F.R.S. 
Brown,  John,  Esq. 


Caldcleugh,     Alexander,      Esq. 

F.G.S. 
Cambridge  Philosophical  Society. 
Caumont,  M.  de. 
Cheek,  Henry,  H.  Esq. 
Chevalier,  Mons. 
Clarke,  James,  M.D. 

Dechen,  Henreich  von,  For. Mem. 

G.S. 
De   la  Beche,    Henry  Thomas, 

Esq.  F.G.S.  F.R.S. 


263 


Dennys,  Nicholas,  Esq.  F.G.S. 
Dufrenoy,  Mons.  For.  Mem.  G.S. 

East  India  Company,   the  Hon. 

the  Board  of  Directors. 
Egerton,    Sir   Philip   de  Malpas 

Grey,  Bart.M.P.  F.G.S.  F.R.S. 
Esmark,Professor,  For.Mem.G.S. 

Fayrer,  Lieut.  R.N. 

Fischer,  Gotthelf,  For.  Mem.  G.S. 

Fitton,    William    Henry,    M.D. 

F.G.S.  F.R.S. 
Frazer's  Magazine,  Editor  of. 

Geological  Society  of  France. 
Godman,  John,  M.D. 
Goodhall,  Henry  Humphrey,  Esq. 
F.G.S. 

Hall,  Capt.  Basil,  R.N.  F.G.S. 
F.R.S. 

Hansteen,  Professor. 

Hardwicke,  Major  General. 

Hays,  Isaac,  M.D. 

Heathfield,  Richard,  jun.  Esq. 
F.G.S. 

His  Imperial  Highness  The  Arch- 
duke John  of  Austria,  For.  Fel- 
low G.S. 

Hceninghaus,  F.  W. 

Hoff,  Karl  Ernest  Adolf  von. 

Hogg,  I.  Esq.  F.L.S. 

Hobson,  William,  Esq.  F.G.S. 

Holdsworth,  Thomas  Hodgson, 
Esq.  F.G.S. 

Henry,  Edward,  Esq. 

Hurry,  Edward,  Esq. 

Hutton,  William,  Esq.  F.G.S. 

Johnson,  Thomas,  Esq.  F.G.S. 
Joubert,  Mons. 

Kleinschrod,  Mons. 
Klipstein,  Dr.  A. 

Lambert,  Josias,  Esq.  F.G.S. 
Lea,  IsaaCj  Esq. 
Leeds  Philosophical  Society. 
Lilienbach,  Mons.  Lill  von. 
Lindley,  John,  Esq.  F.G.S.  F.R.S. 


Linnaean  Society. 

Literary  and  Historical  Society  of 

Quebec. 
Lloyd,     John     Augustus,     Esq. 

F.R.S. 
London  Institution. 
Loudon,  John,  Esq.  F.G.S. 
Lyell,    Charles,   Esq.  For.   Sec. 

G.S.  F.R.S. 

Medico- Botanical  Society. 
Monteith,  Lieut.  Col. 
Murchison,  Mrs. 
Murchison,  Roderick  Impey,  Esq. 
Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S. 

Palmer,  H.  R.  Esq. 

Parish,     Woodbine,    Esq.      His 

Majesty's  Charge  d'Affaires  at 

Buenos  Ay  res. 
Plymouth  Institution. 
Pratt,  Samuel  Peace,  Esq.  F.G.S. 

F.L.S. 
Price,    Henry    Habberlev,    Esq. 

F.G.S. 

Richardson,  Rev.  Benjamin,  Hon. 
M.G.S: 

Ridgway,  Dr.  F.L.S. 

Robnet,  Mons. 

Royal  Astronomical  Society. 

Royal  Academy  of  Sciences,  Paris. 

Royal  College  of  Surgeons. 

Royal  Institution. 

Royal  Irish  Academy. 

Royal  Geological  Society  of  Corn- 
wall. 

Rozet,  Muns. 

Savi,  Professor. 

Scott,  the  Venerable  Archdeacon, 

F.G.S. 
Sedgwick,  Rev.  Professor,  Pres. 

G.S.  F.R.S. 
Silliman,   Professor,  M.  D.  For. 

Mem.  G.S 
Silvertop,  Col.  Charles,  F.G.S. 
Society  of  Arts. 
Spencer,  Edward,  Esq.  F.G.S. 
Stanley,  Rev.  Edward. 
Sturtz,  Mons. 


264 


Taylor,  Richard,  Esq.  F.G.S.  Sec. 

L.S. 
Taylor,  Richard  Cowling,   Esq. 

F.G.S. 
Thomas,  Alfred,  Esq.  F.G.S. 
Thorpe,  Thomas,  Esq. 
Turner,   Edward,    M.D.   F.G.S. 

F.R.S.L.  &  E. 

Voltz,  M.  For.  Mem.  G.S. 

Warburton,    Henry,   Esq.  M.  P. 

F.G.S.  F.R.S. 
Ward,  Rev.  John,  F.G.S. 


Woodward,  Samuel,  Es  . 
Witham,  Henry,  Esq.  Hon. Mem. 

G.S. 
White,   Henry  Campbell,    Esq. 

F.G.S. 
Willimott,  John,  Esq.  F.G.S. 
Winch,  Nathaniel  J.,  Esq.  Hon. 

Mem.  G.S. 

Yates,  Rev.  James,  F.G.S.  F.L.S. 
Yorkshire  Philosophical  Society. 

Zimmerman,  Dr. 
Zoological  Society. 


List  of  Papers  read  since  the  last  Annual  Meeting,  Feb.  19, 1830. 

March  5. — On  the  Tertiary  Deposits  of  Lower  Styria ;  by  the  Rev. 
Adam  Sedgwick,  Pres.  G.S.  F.R.S. ,  Woodwardian  Professor  in  the 
University  of  Cambridge,  &c,  and  Roderick  Impey  Murchison,Esq. 
Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 

March  19. — Reference  to  a  Geological  Map  and  Section  of  Pembroke- 
shire j  by  Alfred  Thomas,  Esq.  F.G.S. 

1  The  first  of  two  Letters  addressed  to  Roderick  Impey  Mur- 

chison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  on  the  Lacustrine  Basins  of  Baza  and  Alhama, 
in  the  Province  of  Grenada,  and  similar  deposits  in  other  parts  of 
Spain  ;  by  Col.  Charles  Silvertop,  F.G.S. 

April  2  and  1 6. — On  the  Geology  of  Weymouth  and  the  neighbouring 
coasts  of  Dorsetshire  ;  by  the  Rev.  William  Buckland,  D.D.  F.G.S. 
F.R.S.  Professor  of  Geology  and  Mineralogy  in  the  University  of 
Oxford,  &c.  and  Henry  Thomas  De  laBeche,Esq.  F.G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 

April  1 6. — Description  of  a  new  species  of  Ichthyosaurus  j  by  Daniel 
Sharpe,  Esq.  F.G.S. 

May  7. — Sketches  explanatory  of  a  Geological  Map  of  the  Arch- 
duchy of  Austria  and  of  the  South  of  Bavariaj  bv  Dr.  Ami  Boue,  For. 
Mem.  G.S.  &c. 

May  21. — Sketch  of  the  Structure  of  the  Austrian  Alps  ;  by  the  Rev. 
Adam  Sedgwick,  Pres.  G.S.  F.R  S.,  Woodwardian  Professor  in  the 
University  of  Cambridge,  &c,  and  Roderick  Impey  Murchison, 
Esq.  Sec.'G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 

June  4. — On  the  Geological  Relations  of  the  South  of  Ireland  ;  by 
Thomas  Weaver,  Esq.  F.G.S.  F.R.S.  M.R.I. A.  &c. 

June  18. — The  second  of  two  Letters  addressed  to  Roderick  Impey 
Murchison,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  on  the  Lacustrine  Basins  of  Baza  and 
Alhama,  and  similar  deposits  in  other  parts  of  Spain  j  by  Col. 
Charles  Silvertop,  F.G.S. 

November  3  and  17. — Remarks  on  the  Formation  of  Alluvial  Depo- 
sits }  by  the  Rev.  James  Yates,  F.G.S.  F.L.S.  &c. 

December  I. —An  explanatory  sketch  of  a  Geological  Map  of  Mo- 


265 

ravia  and  the  West  of  Hungary ;  by  Dr.  Ami  Boue"  For.  Mem. 

G.S.  &c. 
December  15. — An  explanatory  sketch  of  a  Geological  Map  of  Tran- 
sylvania ;  by  Dr.  Ami  Bou^,  For.  Mem.  G.S.  &c. 
— — On    the  Astronomical    Causes   which  may   influence 

Geological  Phenomena;  by  John  Frederick  William  Herschel,  Esq. 

F.G.S.  F.R.S.  &c. 
January  5,  1831. — On  the  general  structure  of  the  Lake  Mountains 

of  the  North  of  England,  and  on  the  great  dislocations  by  which 

they  have  been  separated  from  the  neighbouring  Chains  ;  by  the 

Rev.  Adam  Sedgwick,  Pres.  G.S.  F.R.S.,  Woodwardian  Professor 

in  the  University  of  Cambridge. 
Jan.  19  and  Feb  2. — Supplementary  Observations  on   the  Structure 

of  the  Austrian  and  Bavarian  Alps ;  by  Roderick  Impey  Murchi- 

son,  Esq.  Sec.  G.S.  F.R.S. 
Feb.  16. — On  the  Geology  of  the  Island  of  Juan  Fernandez  in  the 

Pacific  j  by  Alexander  Caldcleugh,  Esq.  F.G.S. 
■ A  Letter  from  Peter  Cunningham,  Esq.,  to  John  Barrow, 

Esq.,  F.R.S.,  on  the  Geology  of  Hunter's  River,  New  South  Wales  j 

and  communicated  bv  Mr.  Barrow. 


266 

Sums  actually  Received  and  Expended, 

Receipts. 

Balances  in  hand  Jan.  1,  1830 :  £.      s.    d.  £.     s.     d. 

Banker 419     4     6 

Accountant 43     5     0 

462     9     6 

Arrears :  £.      s.     d. 

Admission  Fees  92     8     0 

Annual  Contributions 79   11      6 

Repairing  Fund 12     2     0 

184      I      6 


Ordinary  Income :  £.     s.      d. 

Annual  Contributions 468  1 1     6 

Admission  Fees  :  £.     s.  d. 

Residents J 19   14  0 

Non -Residents  ......    252     00 

371    14  0 

840     5     6 


Compositions,  three    94   10  0 

Transactions    418     5  0 

Proceedings     .., 3    11  0 

Wollaston  Fund 32  10  4 


£2035   12  10 


267 

during  the  year  1830. 

Payments. 

Bills  outstanding  from  last  year  :  £.    s.  d. 

General  Expenditure   23  4  O 

Salaries  and  Wages 79  4  6 

Stationery  and  Miscellaneous  Printing 30  18  6 

Tea  and  Waiters  5  4  6 

Taxes,  Parochial 14  10  O 

,  King's 42  16  5 

Repairs  of  House 15  19  1 

Publications,  Transactions  519  8  8 

; .Proceedings 37  0  6 

Scientific  Expenditure 67  8  2 


Salaries  and  Wages  :                         £.  s.  d. 

Curator 200  0     0 

Porter  and  Servant  90  0     0 

Collector's  Poundage  14  6     0 


Scientific  Expenditure  :  £.  s.  d. 

Books,  Glass  Cases,  &c 55  11  0 

Stationery    and     Miscellaneous 

Printing    43     3  2 


835   14     4 


General  Expenditure :  £.  s.  d.    £.      s.    d. 

Repairs  of  House 13  2  9 

Taxes,  Parochial 29  10  6 

■ ,  King's 53  1  4 

Insurance 6  0  O 

House  Expenses  179  8  2 


281      2      9 


304     6     0 


98   14     2 


Tea  for  Meetings 39     0   11 


Cost  of  Publications :  £.   s.  d 

Transactions 64     4     1 

Proceedings  35     3     4 


723     3  10 


99     7     5 


Balances  in  hand  Jan.  1,  1831  :  £.    s.  d. 


Banker  336   13     3 

Accountant    40  14     0 


377     7     3 
£2035   12  10 


268 


© 

CO 


Si 


O 

< 


OTfOH 
(0NO<0 


73  o  rr  <o  o 
«'  O  Tf  o  N 
«J  «1  O)  O)  ^ 

^6  — ■  o* 


NOOOO 


T3 
C 
S 

a  S  £* 


CO 


0) 


s-  CO 


bO  3 

P3   -*-» 

5  a 
£  u 
«°  a. 


0)    _ 

£  -a  oj 
x  c  --. 

ISO 


=         -Q 


CO 


bol  § 

c  •  -    > 

S  °  c 
,o  a  •- 

™    10    u 

03     e 

•*=  «  5 

t/:  :-  „is 
cS  «-  as 
U<CQ 


3 

, 

O 

o     . 

C 

£  tn 
E  Pi 

GO 

<u 

hi 

P4 

CO 

oj  -5 

.-C     oj 

§  s 

53   • 

T3    S 

c  <u 

<S  ■£ 

*e 

CO   n-4 

o  a 

O  «3 

£P 

CQ-o 

CO 

«  5 

13   +J 

4>  a 

is  cu 

s«s 

S  2 

# 

O    C5 

o    "*■* 

eo 

CO 

00 

<u 

>   <o 

SS     w 

o 

■=.s 

'-, 

!U    -u 

-o 

£-5 

% 

GO 
GO 


a  |  s r  u 
?i  B  g  s> 
B  §  s 

-k  £^    §  <" 

i^  -    c  *a 

H  *  „  * 

3  ~  g-§ 

S    c    o    g  ■ 


W 


s.  8-fts, 


,»-  -S3  s 

c-"  3  .. 

oo  ~  -2    ~ 

3  oV§   a 


a  •« 


e  55 


8  o 
■§•« 

.3      4J 


2-^g 


3     % 


Es-s  -a 

8  .5 


O  "2 


S° 


is, 


w 


269 


8 


W 


w 


« 


^  o  ■*  to  o 
oj  o  ■*  ©  ©* 


o 

o 

o  o  o 

oo^x 

© 

to 

o 

©  o  o 

o  ©  ©  CO 

© 

w 

m 

o 

CO 

o  o  © 

— H     ©     lO 

CO   — ' 

oONO 

m 

bJO 
C 

C 


3 

OH 


a   £ 

44 


'3   o  "-3 

=  i=.2i 
3  o  u 
02  UCG 


2  o  i  g 

<u  °  c  W 


fcc 


CCfL, 


00 

C     3 
S3  .ti 

6.  e 

3    OJ 

."£   &■ 

c  W 


<w 


■f  * 

§§ 

Qco 
.£«<!! 

aj    «   o 

0  ~  r 

^  =>  £ 


U] 


"  o  in  tS 


w  S.8 


a 


£  ^  1 1 

*5    o  K  3    « 

W  5  3^     r- 

o   C  Q 


c 

.Si 
CO  S 


.—   o  « 

cs  P-iH 
o 


Ph 


o  '  — 

CO     >-» 

rt  .2 

b  s 

<  H 


«rt 


© 
co 
CM 

f"*->  -^  o 

co  O 


CO  TI< 
00 


©   Tp 

©  © 


©  CM 

CO 


Q 

© 

CO 

H 

GO 

U 

|— i 

w 

Uh 

co 

X 

CO 

w 

o 

W 

a> 

PJ 

« 

O 

>i 

o 

o 

C/J 

o  o 
o  o 


IT)  <B  CM 


cu  o 

CO^ 
00  "^ 


c  o      -a  a 

c  ■-  c  o)  o 


££ 


V 

3 

~ri 

■a 

>.  §T3 

a. 

co 

f=U< 

es 

;r 

C 

<y 

rt 

~3 

o 


CO     0 


o   « 


270 

The  Report  having  been  read,  it  was  Resolved: — 

1 .  That  this  Report  be  received. 

2.  That  the  thanks  of  the  Society  be  given  to  the  Rev.  Professor 
Sedgwick,  retiring  from  the  office  of  President. 

3.  That  the  thanks  of  the  Society  be  given  to  Leonard  Horner, 
Esq.,  and  Henry  Warburton,  Esq.,  retiring  from  the  office  of  Vice 
Presidents. 

4.  That  the  thanks  of  the  Society  be  given  to  Roderick  Impey 
Murchison,  Esq.,  retiring  from  the  office  of  Secretary. 

5.  That  the  thanks  of  the  Society  be  given  to  Arthur  Aikin,  Esq., 
Francis  Chantrey,  Esq.,  Sir  Alexander  Crichton,  K.S.W.  M.D.,  Cap- 
tain Sir  John  Franklin,  R.N.,  John  Lindley,  Esq.,  Dr.  Roget,  and 
Charles  Stokes,  Esq.,  retiring  from  the  Council. 


The  President,  the  Rev.  Professor  Sedgwick,  then  proceeded  to  deliver 
the  following  Address,  on  announcing  the  first  award  of  the  Wol- 
laston  Prize : — 

Before  you  proceed  to  elect  the  Officers  and  Council  for  the  com- 
ing year,  it  remains  for  me  to  announce  from  the  Chair  the  adjudi- 
cation of  the  Wollaston  Prize.  The  affecting  circumstances  under 
which  it  was  founded,  so  short  a  time  before  the  death  of  one  of  the 
most  illustrious  men  who  have  adorned  our  lists,  the  earnest  wishes  he 
expressed,  almost  with  his  dying  breath,  for  the  honour  and  well-being 
of  this  Society,  and  the  peculiar  public  interest  attached  to  a  first 
award,  have  thrown  a  more  than  usual  responsibility  upon  the  Coun- 
cil. We  were  deeply  conscious  of  this  responsibility  ;  we  have  not 
come  to  our  decision  lightly  j  and  in  what  we  have  done  we  look  for 
your  entire  approbation. 

I  am  anxious,  in  the  first  place,  to  recall  to  your  recollection  the 
powers  committed  to  the  Council,  and  the  spirit  of  the  instructions 
by  which  they  were  directed  in  their  award  j  and  I  have  no  means  of 
doing  this  so  effectually  as  by  quoting  a  portion  of  the  communication, 
in  which  Dr.  Wollaston  first  informed  us  of  his  intention  of  establish- 
ing the  "  Donation  Fund."  After  stating  that  he  had  invested  one 
thousand  pounds  in  the  three  per  cent,  reduced  bank  annuities,  in 
the  joint  names  of  himself  and  the  Geological  Society,  he  directed 
that  after  his  decease  "the  Society  should  apply  the  dividends  in  pro- 
moting researches  concerning  the  mineral  structure  of  the  earth,  or 
in  rewarding  those  by  whom  such  researches  might  hereafter  be  made  ; 
or  in  such  manner  as  should  appear  to  the  Council  of  the  said  Society 
for  the  time  being,  conducive  to  the  interests  of  the  Society  in  parti- 
cular, or  the  science  of  geology  in  general,"  &c.  And  he  afterwards 
enjoined  the  Society  "  not  to  hoard  the  dividends  parsimoniously,  but 
to  expend  them  liberally,  and,  as  far  as  might  be,  annually,  in  further- 
ing the  objects  of  the  trust." 

Such,  Gentlemen,  was  the  letter  of  our  instructions  :  and  as  we 
were  enjoined  to  expend  the  proceeds  of  the  Donation  Fund,  as  far 
as  might  be,  annually,  I  will  read  an  extract  from  the  Report  of  the 


271 

Council  at  the  preceding  Anniversary,  in  explanation  of  our  motives 
for  withholding,  on  that  occasion,  the  distribution  of  the  dividends. 

"The  Council  have  not  thought  it  expedient  to  make  as  yet  any 
distribution  of  the  dividends  arising  from  this  fund,  but  have  appro- 
priated the  first  year's  income  to  the  acquisition  of  a  die  for  a  medal 
which  is  to  bear  the  head  of  Dr.  Wollaston  :  and  they  hope  that  the 
Society  will  approve  of  this  endeavour  to  perpetuate  in  the  minds  of 
geologists  the  memory  of  their  illustrious  benefactor.  The  first  an- 
nual distribution,  therefore,  of  the  Wollaston  Medal,  as  well  as  a  cer- 
tain sum  of  money,  will  be  awarded  at  the  next  anniversary  according 
to  the  provision  of  the  bequest." — (Feb.  19th,  1830.) 

Mr.  Chantrey  kindly  undertook  to  carry  the  resolution  of  the 
Council  into  effect ;  and  under  his  directions  Mr.  Wyon  of  the  Royal 
Mint  was  employed  to  execute  a  die,  which  we  hope  before  long  to 
see  finished.  We  met,  therefore,  in  the  early  part  of  this  year  to  act 
upon  the  letter  of  our  instructions,  and  we  recorded  our  award  in 
the  following  Resolutions. 

Extract  from  the  Minute-book  of  the  Council,  Jan.  II,  1831. 

Resolved  unanimously —  1 .  "  That  a  Medal  of  fine  gold,  bearing  the 
impress  of  the  Head  of  Dr.  Wollaston,  and  not  exceeding  the  value 
of  ten  guineas,  be  procured  with  the  least  possible  delay." 

2.  "That  the  first  Wollaston  Medal  be  given  to  Mr.  William 
Smith,  in  consideration  of  his  being  a  great  original  discoverer  in 
English  Geology;  and  especially  for  his  having  been  the  first,  in  this 
country,  to  discover  and  to  teach  the  identification  of  strata,  and  to 
determine  their  succession  by  means  of  their  imbedded  fossils." 

The  first  gold  medal  struck  from  the  die  now  in  progress  will 
therefore  be  sent  to  Mr.  Smith  ;  and  we  have  added  to  it  a  purse  of 
twenty  guineas,  from  the  dividends  of  the  "  Donation  Fund,"  which 
it  is  now  my  duty  publicly  to  present  to  him  in  the  name  of  the  Geo- 
logical Society.  His  great  and  original  works  are  known  to  you  all ; 
and  I  might  well  refer  to  them  for  our  justification,  and  without  any 
further  preface  place  the  prize  in  his  hand,  offering  him  my  hearty 
congratulations.  But  since  his  arrival  in  London,  within  the  last  few 
hours,  he  has  given  me  a  short  account  of  his  early  discoveries,  and 
has  shown  me  a  series  of  documents  of  no  ordinary  interest  to  this 
Society,  and  important  to  the  correct  history  of  European  geology. 
I  should  ill  perform  my  present  task  were  I  to  withhold  this  infor- 
mation from  you;  I  proceed  therefore  to  communicate  it  with  what 
brevity  and  simplicity  1  can. 

Mr.  William  Smith  was  born  at  Churchill  in  Oxfordshire — a  place 
abounding  in  fossils,  the  playthings  of  his  childhood,  and  the  objects 
of  collection  in  his  early  youth.  This  is  one  of  many  instances  where 
things,  in  themselves  inconsiderable,  act  powerfully  on  peculiar  minds, 
so  as  to  influence  the  whole  tenour  of  after-life.  During  his  boyhood 
his  habits  of  observation  became  confirmed  by  lessons  in  practical  sur- 
veying :  he  remarked  the  alternations  of  argillaceous  and  stony  strata, 
and  thence  became  acquainted  with  the  origin  of  springs  and  the 


272 

true  principles  of  draining ;  and  fortunately  many  practical  works  of 
this  kind  were  carried  on  under  his  immediate  inspection. 

In  1787  (when  eighteen  years  of  age)  he  was  employed  in  survey- 
ing and  inclosing  extensive  tracts  of  common-land  :  this  gave  him  a 
further  insight  into  the  minutest  modifications  of  structure  in  his  native 
country  ;  and  within  the  two  next  years  his  surveys  extended  beyond 
the  oolite  hills  into  the  plain  of  the  new  red  sandstone.  The  regular 
stratification  of  the  lias  and  the  peculiarities  of  the  red  ground,  at 
that  time  new  to  him,  made  a  lasting  impression  on  his  mind.  Carry- 
ing with  him  his  acquired  habits  of  accurate  observation,  he  continued 
his  surveys  (during  1790)  to  the  coast  of  Hampshire,  and  to  the 
country  round  Salisbury  and  Bath  ;  and  he  became  gradually  familiar 
with  the  outline  of  the  chalk  downs,  and  the  external  characters  of 
large  agricultural  districts.  In  1791,  while  employed  in  making  ex- 
tensive surveys  in  a  part  of  Somersetshire,  he  remarked  the  identity 
of  the  red  marl  and  lias  of  that  county  with  the  corresponding  for- 
mations of  Gloucestershire,  and  recognized  their  discordant  position 
on  the  coal  measures.  During  the  same  year  he  made  several  detailed 
sections  of  the  coal  strata;  collected  fossil  plants  which  he  found  cha- 
racteristic of  particular  beds  in  his  sections  ;  and  remarked  that  none 
of  the  many  fossils  of  the  lias  were  found  either  in  the  coal  strata  or 
the  red  marl :  and  at  this  time  he  also  began  to  make  practical  obser- 
vations and  inquiries  with  a  view  of  ascertaining  the  range  and  extent 
of  the  successive  deposits,  and  the  reality  of  a  general  line  of  dip  to- 
wards the  east,  of  which  he  had  already  seen  so  many  local  instances. 

I  think  these  facts  of  great  importance,  as  they  contain  the  germ 
of  all  Mr.  Smith's  future  discoveries.  And  we  must  bear  in  mind — that 
his  attention  was  distracted  by  the  duties  of  a  laborious  profession — 
that  he  had  barely  reached  the  age  of  manhood — and  that  he  had  not 
received  a  glimmering  of  direction  in  his  general  speculations. 

In  the  course  of  the  two  following  years,  while  continuing  the  duties 
of  a  surveyor  and  civil  engineer,  he  became  gradually  acquainted  with 
all  the  minute  facts  of  stratification  in  the  country  round  Bath  :  and 
for  the  purpose  of  bringing  to  the  test  the  inquiries  suggested  by  his 
surveys  in  1791,  he  made  two  transverse  sections  along  the  lines  of 
two  parallel  valleys  intersecting  the  oolitic  groups  (determining  the 
actual  elevation  of  these  lines  by  means  of  levels  carried  from  the 
Somerset  Coal  Canal);  and  ascertained  that  the  several  beds,  found 
in  the  high  escarpments  around  Bath,  were  brought  down  by  an 
eastern  dip,  in  regular  succession,  to  the  level  of  his  lines  of  section. 
During  these  two  years  Mr.  Smith  was  in  the  constant  habit  of  ma- 
king collections  of  fossils,  with  strict  indications  of  their  localities  ;  and 
in  completing  the  details  of  his  transverse  sections,  he  found,  where 
the  beds  themselves  were  obscure,  that  he  could  by  organic  remains 
alone  determine  the  true  order  of  succession.  During  this  period  he 
also  extended  his  surveys  through  the  Cotteswold  Hills,  and  became 
acquainted  with  the  general  facts  of  the  range  of  the  oolitic  escarp- 
ment towards  the  North  of  England. 

In  the  year  1794?  he  crossed  the  whole  series  of  formations,  and 
marked  their  escarpments  between  Bath  and  London ;  and  afterwards 


273 

extended  his  surveys  to  the  Durham  and  Northumberland  coal- 
field :  while  on  his  way,  partly  by  actual  sections  and  partly  by  the 
help  of  external  contours,  with  which  his  eye  was  now  familiar,  he 
ascertained  the  range  of  the  chalk  to  Flamborough  Head,  and  of 
the  oolitic  series,  through  a  regular  succession  of  escarpments,  to 
the  Hambleton  Hills  and  the  cliffs  of  Yorkshire.  Combining  the 
facts  discovered  in  this  excursion  with  the  distribution  of  the  for- 
mations in  the  south-western  parts  of  England,  he  began  to  record 
his  observations  by  colouring  geological  maps.  Several  documents 
of  this  kind  are  now  unfortunately  lost :  but  I  have  been  informed 
by  Mr.  Phillips  (Curator  of  the  museum  of  the  Yorkshire  Philo- 
sophical Society),  that  he  possesses  a  valuable  geological  map,  co- 
loured by  Mr.  Smith  in  the  year  1800,  connecting  the  structure  of 
the  North  of  England,  which  at  that  time  he  had  not  again  visited, 
with  the  structure  of  the  South-western  districts;  and  delineating 
the  whole  oolitic  series  through  England,  in  some  places  very  cor- 
rectly, and  in  all  with  a  general  approach  to  accuracy. 

Mr.  Smith  in  1795  became  for  the  first  time  a  housekeeper;  and 
no  sooner  had  he  apartments  of  his  own,  than  he  turned  them  to 
account  by  arranging  his  large  collection  of  organic  fossils  (the 
accumulation  of  several  years)  stratigraphically.  I  am  certain, 
Gentlemen,  that  this  stratigraphical  collection,  preceded  by  many 
years  any  other  similar  collection  formed  in  this  country  :  and  with- 
out pretending  to  any  exact  knowledge  of  the  history  of  Continental 
geology,  I  greatly  doubt  whether  a  stratigraphical  collection  of  or- 
ganic fossils,  derived  from  a  long  series  of  formations,  and  specially 
intended  to  assist  in  identifying  their  subordinate  strata  and  deter- 
mining their  relations,  was  ever  made  before  the  year  1795  in  any 
part  of  Europe. 

Local  collections  of  organic  remains  were  undoubtedly  made  in 
this  country  long  before  the  time  of  Mr.  Smith,  and  in  the  works  of 
our  older  writers  we  may  sometimes  find  the  glimmerings  of  his  dis- 
coveries.— Woodward  formed  a  magnificent  collection  of  organic  re- 
mains ;  and  he  separated  from  the  rest  a  series  of  fossils  of  the  Hamp- 
shire coast,  and  was  aware  that  many  of  the  species  were  the  same 
as  those  of  the  London  clay  :  but  this  fact,  and  many  others  of  like 
kind,  were  with  him  but  sterile  truths  ;  and  being  led  astray  by  his 
theory,  he  knew  nothing  either  of  the  real  structure  of  the  earth, 
or  of  any  law  regulating  the  distribution  of  organic  forms. — Michell 
was  a  man  of  great  talents,  and  undoubtedly  made  out  the  true  rela- 
tions of  the  secondary  deposits  in  one  portion  of  this  island :  but  he 
was,  1  believe,  ignorant  of  the  importance  of  organic  remains,  and  did 
not  use  them  as  a  means  of  identifying  strata. — Lister  is  distinguished 
among  the  writers  of  the  seventeenth  century  as  the  first  to  propose 
the  construction  of  mineralogical  maps,  and  he  had  some  limited  no- 
tions of  the  distribution  of  organic  fossils,  though  he  misunderstood 
both  their  nature  and  importance. 

The  works  of  these  authors  were,  however,  entirely  unknown  to  Mr. 
Smith  during  his  early  life,   and  every  step  of  his  progress  was  made 

B 


274 

without  any  assistance  from  them*.  But  I  will  go  further,  and  affirm, 
that  had  they  all  been  known  to  him,  they  would  take  nothing 
from  the  substantial  merit  of  his  discoveries.  Fortunately  placed  in  a 
country  where  all  our  great  secondary  groups  are  brought  near  toge- 
ther, he  became  acquainted  in  early  life  with  many  of  their  complex 
relations.  He  saw  particular  species  of  fossils  in  particular  groups  of 
strata,  and  in  no  others  ;  and  giving  generalization  to  phenomena, 
which  men  of  less  original  minds  would  have  regarded  as  merely 
local,  he  proved  (so  early  as  1791)  the  continuity  of  certain  groups 
of  strata,  by  their  organic  remains  alone,  where  the  mineral  type  was 
wanting.  He  made  large  collections  of  fossils  ;  and  the  moment  an 
opportunity  presented  itself  he  arranged  them  all  stratigraphically. 
Having  once  succeeded  in  identifying  groups  of  strata  by  means  of  their 
fossils,  he  saw  the  whole  importance  of  the  inference — gave  it  its  ut- 
most extension — seized  upon  it  as  the  master  principle  of  our  science 
— by  help  of  it  disentangled  the  structure  of  a  considerable  part  of 
England — and  never  rested  from  his  labours  till  the  public  was  fairly 
in  possession  of  his  principles.  If  these  be  not  the  advances  of 
an  original  mind,  I  do  not  know  where  we  are  to  find  them  ;  and  I 
affirm  with  confidence,  after  the  facts  already  stated,  that  the  Council 
were  justified  in  the  terms  of  their  award,  and  that  Mr.  William 
Smith  was  "  the  first,  in  this  country,  to  discover  and  to  teach  the 
identification  of  strata,  and  to  determine  their  succession  by  means 
of  their  imbedded  fossils." 

*  I  am  anxious  to  do  no  injustice  to  those  who  preceded  Mr.  Smith.  No  part  of 
Woodward's  collection  was  arranged  stratigraphically — Michell,  who  occupied 
the  Woodwardian  Chair  several  years,  was  of  course  intimately  acquainted  with 
every  part  of  this  collection:  but  I  do  not  think  he  made  any  use  of  it  as  a  means 
of  determining  the  order  of  superposition.  There  is,  however,  one  passage  in 
his  celebrated  paper  "  On  the  Cause  and  Phenomena  of  Earthquakes"  (Phil. 
Trans,  vol.  li.  p.  587),  which  I  am  bound  to  notice.  It  is  as  follows  :  "  These 
inequalities  are  sometimes  so  great,  that  the  strata  are  bent  for  some  small  distance, 
even  the  contrary  way  from  the  general  inclination  of  them.  This  often  makes 
it  difficult  to  trace  the  appearances  I  have  been  relating  ;  which,  without  a  general 
knowledge  of  the  fossil  bodies  of  a  large  tract  of  country,  it  is  hardly  possible  to 
do."  I  am  almost  certain,  that  by  the  term  fossil,  he  did  not  intend  organic  re- 
mains. In  the  works  and  catalogues  of  Dr.  Woodward  (with  which  of  course 
Michell  was  most  familiar),  and  in  the  language  of  naturalists  of  the  last 
century,  every  mineral  substance  was  designated  under  the  general  term  Jvssil  ,• 
and  organic  remains  were  almost  always  distinguished  by  the  name  of  extraneous 
fossils,  organic  fossils,  &c,  &c.  The  memorandum,  by  which  it  is  proved  that 
Michell  had  a  knowledge  of  the  true  relations  of  several  of  our  secondary  groups, 
was  found  by  accident  among  the  papers  of  Sir  Joseph  Banks,  and  published  in 
1810.  It  could  not,  therefore,  have  possibly  been  known  to  Mr.  Smith  during 
the  progress  of  his  discoveries.  (See  Tilloch's  Philosophical  Magazine,  vol.  xxxvi. 
p.  102.) 

Since  the  Anniversary,  I  have  looked  over  the  paper  in  which  Lister  recom- 
mends the  construction  of  mineral  maps  (Phil.  Trans,  vol.  xiv.  p.  730  :  1684). 
It  is  clear  that  he  had  no  correct  notions  on  the  nature  of  stratification ;  and 
his  opinions  on  organic  remains  were,  as  is  well  known,  most  erroneous  and  un- 
philosophical.  All  these  questions  are  discussed  at  considerable  length,  and  with 
great  ability  and  candour,  in  an  article  of  the  Edinburgh  Review  (vol.  xxix. 
p.  311,  &c),  now  known  to  be  from  the  pen  of  Dr.  Fitton.  To  this  article  I  par- 
ticularly wish  to  refer  the  reader. 


275 

After  the  year  1795,  he  turned  his  knowledge  to  effect  in  his  va- 
rious employments  as  civil  engineer.  Works  of  drainage  were  carried 
on  by  him  on  the  principles  of  stratification — his  stratigraphical  col- 
lections were  continually  increased — he  sketched  geological  sections 
on  the  lines  of  local  surveys  (many  of  which  have  been  since  pub- 
lished)— and  traced  geological  lines  of  demarcation  upon  various 
county  maps.  Of  these  I  may  mention  an  excellent  map  of  Somer- 
setshire, coloured  on  the  scale  of  an  inch  to  a  mile,  and  publicly  ex- 
hibited and  explained  at  an  annual  agricultural  meeting  at  Bath,  in 
the  year  1799;  and  another  map  (publicly  exhibited  at  the  same 
time,  and  now,  1  rejoice  to  tell  you,  on  the  table  of  this  Society)  of 
the  country  six  miles  round  Bath  ;  representing  all  the  different 
formations,  and  the  minute  subdivisions  of  the  oolites,  distinguished 
as  they  remain  in  our  geological  maps  to  this  day.  For  eight  or 
nine  years  he  had  been  steadily  and  resolutely  advancing,  but  with- 
out aid,  and  almost  without  sympathy  ;  for  he  was  so  far  before  the 
rest  of  our  geologists,  if  indeed  they  deserved  the  name,  that  they 
could  not  even  comprehend  the  importance  of  what  he  had  done. 
The  public  exhibitions  I  have  alluded  to,  and  the  obvious  practical 
interest  of  the  subject,  seem,  however,  at  length,  to  have  roused  the 
attention  of  the  scientific  gentlemen  near  Bath  :  and  it  appears  to 
have  been  during  the  meeting  of  the  Agricultural  Society,  in  1799, 
that  he  first  became  acquainted  with  the  Rev.  B.  Richardson  of  Far- 
ley, an  excellent  naturalist  and  a  very  extensive  collector  of  fossils; 
and  with  the  Rev.  J.  Townsend  of  Pewsey,  whose  literary  and  philo- 
sophic works  are  well  known  to  you  all.  I  will  not  do  injury  to  this 
part  of  my  narrative,  by  offering  any  comments  upon  these  facts,  but 
I  will  read  you  a  letter  I  have  just  received  from  Mr.  Richardson 
himself. 

Copy  of  Mr.  Richardson's  Letter. 

Farley  Rectory,  near  Bath, 
Sir,  10th  Feb.  1831. 

I  am  requested  to  present  you  the  particulars  of  my  acquaintance 
with  Mr.  William  Smith,  well  known  by  the  appi*opriate  appellation 
of  Strata  Smith. 

At  the  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Bath  Agricultural  Society  in  1799, 
Mr.  Smith  was  introduced  to  my  residence  in  Bath,  when,  on  viewing 
my  collection  of  fossils,  he  told  me  the  beds  to  which  they  exclusively 
belonged,  and  pointed  out  some  peculiar  to  each.  This,  by  attending 
him  in  the  fields,  I  soon  found  to  be  the  fact,  and  also,  that  they  had 
a  general  inclination  to  the  south-east,  following  each  other  in  regu- 
lar succession. 

With  the  open  liberality  peculiar  to  Mr.  Smith,  he  wished  me  to 
communicate  this  to  the  Rev.  J.  Townsend  of  Pewsey  (then  in  Bath), 
who  was  not  less  surprised  at  the  discovery.  But  we  were  soon  much 
more  astonished  by  proofs  of  his  own  collecting,  that  whatever  stra- 
tum was  found  in  any  part  of  England,  the  same  remains  would  be 
found  in  it  and  no  other.  Mr.  Townsend,  who  had  pursued  the  sub- 
ject 40  or  50  years,  and  had  travelled  over  the  greater  part  of  civi- 
le 


276 

lized  Europe,  declared  it  perfectly  unknown  to  all  his  acquaintance, 
and  he  believed  to  all  the  rest  of  the  world. 

In  consequence  of  Mr.  Smith's  desire  to  make  so  valuable  a  disco- 
very universally  known,  I,  without  reserve,  gave  a  card  of  the  English 
strata  to  Baron  Rosencrantz,  Dr.  Muller  of  Christiana,  and  many 
others,  in  the  year  1801. 

I  am  happy  to  hear  that  the  Geological  Society  proposes  to  pay  a 
deserved  compliment  to  his  merits,  to  which  I  most  gratefully  bear 
a  willing  testimony  ;   and  am,  Sir, 

Most  respectfully,  Yours, 

The  Reverend  Professor  Sedgwick,  B.  Richardson. 

Trinity  College,  Cambridge*. 

Mr.  Smith's  views  now  expanded  through  the  influence  of  sym- 
pathy and  the  hopes  of  patronage  (too  feebly  answered  in  the  event); 
and  under  the  advice  of  the  two  gentlemen  I  have  mentioned,  he  be- 
gan to  commit  his  thoughts  to  paper,  and  to  designate  the  great  sub- 
divisions of  our  secondary  series  by  names,  many  of  which  have  been 
since  almost  universally  current,  and  are  adopted  in  our  Society  :  and 
there  now  exists,  in  the  hand-writing  of  Mr.  Richardson,  a  geological 
table  of  our  successive  formations,  dictated  by  Mr.  Smith  in  1799,  for 
the  express  purpose  of  serving  as  the  foundation  of  a  memoir,  to  ac- 
company an  intended  geological  map  of  England.  This  very  curious 
and  important  document  is  now  placed  before  you ;  and  as  it  was  the 
first  tabular  sketch  of  our  formations,  drawn  up  before  he  had,  in 
conjunction  with  Mr.  Richardson,  finally  decided  upon  the  names  by 
which  they  ought  to  be  designated,  you  will  remark,  that  the  succes- 
sive groups,  from  the  coal  measures  to  the  chalk  inclusive,  are  re- 
presented by  a  series  of  numbers,  accompanied  with  explanatory 
notes,  but  without  any  proper  names  affixed  to  them. 

At  a  great  sacrifice,  and  great  personal  expense,  Mr.  Smith 
now  began  to  extend  his  observations  with  a  direct  view  to  publi- 
cation :  and  in  1801  he  printed  a  very  elaborate  prospectus,  of 
which  I  fortunately  possess  a  copy  (now  on  the  table  of  the  So- 
ciety), containing  proposals  for  publishing,  by  subscription,  a  work 
in  4to,  entitled,  "  Accurate  Delineations  and  Descriptions  of  the 
Natural  Order  of  the  various  Strata  that  are  found  in  different  parts 
of  England  and  Wales  ;  with  Practical  Observations  thereon."  The 
tvork  was  to  have  been  accompanied  by  "  a  correct  map  of  the  strata, 
describing  the  general  course  and  width  of  each  stratum  at  the  sur- 
face, and  accompanied  by  a  general  section,  showing  their  proportion, 
dip,  and  direction,  and  referring  to  the  map  by  corresponding  num- 
bers and  general  explanations." 

The  concluding  paragraph  of  the  prospectus  is  so  remarkable,  that 
I  will  extract  it  entire  : 

"  To  attempt  a  complete  history  of  all  the  minutiae  of  strata,  would 
be  an  endless  labour ;  for  along  life  devoted  to  such  a  pursuit,  must 
be  inadequate  to  the  purpose,  considering  the  immense  variety  that  is 

*  The  letter  being  addressed  to  me  at  Cambridge  during  my  absence,  was 
only  received  a  day  or  two  before  the  Anniversary. 


277 

to  be  found  within  this  little  island.  But  should  the  present  Essay 
meet  with  that  liberal  patronage  from  the  public  which  the  author  has 
reason  to  expect,  it  is  his  intention,  in  a  future  work,  to  give  a  particu- 
lar description  of  the  numerous  animal  remains  and  vegetable  impres- 
sions found  in  each  stratum  ;  with  an  accurate  detail  of  every  charac- 
teristic mark  that  has  led  him  to  these  discoveries." 

Why  his  hopes  of  patronage  were  disappointed,  and  why  his 
works  were  so  long  retarded,  not  by  any  want  of  zeal  on  his  part, 
but  by  want  of  assistance  from  the  public,  it  is  not  for  me  now 
to  inquire — The  fact  is  not,  however,  difficult  of  explanation.  At 
the  time  this  prospectus  made  its  first  appearance,  none  of  the 
magnificent  discoveries  of  Cuvier  and  Brongniart  were,  I  believe, 
published*.  The  Geological  Society  of  London  had  no  existence — 
the  branches  of  natural  history  connected  with  secondary  geology 
were  little  cultivated,  and  indeed  almost  unknown  in  this  country — 
and  hence  some  persons  perhaps  doubted  the  reality  of  Mr.  Smith's 
pretensions  on  a  subject  they  had  been  taught  to  regard  as  em- 
pirical, and  the  public  at  large  took  little  interest  in  what  they  did 
not  comprehend.  He  suffered,  therefore,  as  many  men  of  genius 
have  done  before  him,  in  his  peace  and  in  his  fortune,  from  what 
in  our  estimation  constitutes  his  chief  honour — from  outstripping  the 
men  of  his  own  time  in  the  progress  of  discovery. 

The  Geological  Society  was  organized  in  the  year  1807,  and 
its  Transactions  are  the  true  records  of  its  labours  and  opinions. 
In  the  first  volume  of  the  first  series,  published  in  1811,  and  com- 
posed of  papers  read  during  the  four  preceding  years,  there  is 
one  paper,  and  one  only,  containing  any  direct  allusion  to  the 
great  geological  importance  of  organic  remains.  The  allusion 
is  conveyed  in  the  following  words — "  To  derive  any  informa- 
tion of  consequence  from  fossil  organized  remains,  on  these  sub- 
jects, it  is  necessary  that  their  examination  should  be  connected 
with  that  of  the  several  strata  in  which  they  are  found.  Already 
have  these  examinations,  thus  carried  on,  taught  us  the  following 
instructive  facts  : — that  exactly  similar  fossils  are  found  in  distant 
parts  of  the  same  stratum,  not  only  when  it  traverses  this  island, 
but  when  it  appears  again  on  the  opposite  coast :  that  in  strata  of 
considerable  comparative  depth  fossils  are  found,  which  are  not 
discovered  in  any  of  the  superincumbent  beds  :  that  some  fossils, 
which  abound  in  the  lower,  are  found  in  diminishing  numbers 
through  several  of  the  superincumbent,  and  are  entirely  wanting  in 
the  uppermost  strata  f ,"  &c.  &c. 

To  this  passage,  the  author  appends  a  note,  commencing  as  fol- 
lows : — "  This  mode  of  conducting  our  inquiries  was  long  since 
recommended  by  Mr.  W.  Smith,  who  first  noticed  that  certain  fos- 
sils are  peculiar  to,  and  are  only  found  lodged  in,  particular  strata; 
and  who  first  ascertained  the  constancy  in  the  order  of  super- 
position, and  the  continuity  of  the  strata  of  this  island,"  &c.  &c. 

*  The  first  memoir  with  which  I  am  acquainted,  explaining  the  views  of  these 
two  illustrious  authors  respecting  the  phasnomena  of  the  Paris  basin,  was  pub* 
lished  in  the  year  1808,  in  the  Annales  du  Museum,  torn.  xi.  p.  307. 

f  Geol.  Trans,  vol.  i.  1st  series,  p.  325« 


278 

One  quotation  more,  and  I  have  done.  The  Reverend  J.  Town- 
send  of  Pewsey,  in  the  first  volume  of  a  work  published  in  1813 
(entitled  "  The  Character  of  Moses  established  for  Veracity  .as  an 
Historian"),  described  at  considerable  length  the  secondary  strata 
of  England  ;  and  after  referring  nearly  the  whole  of  his  information 
to  Mr.  Smith,  adds  the  following  words  : — "  The  discoveries  of  this 
skilful  engineer  have  been  of  vast  importance  to  geology,  and  will 
be  of  infinite  value  to  the  nation.  To  a  strong  understanding,  a 
retentive  memory,  indefatigable  ardour,  and  a  more  than  common 
sagacity,  this  extraordinary  man  unites  a  perfect  contempt  for 
money,  when  compared  with  science.  Had  he  kept  his  discoveries 
to  himself,  he  might  have  accumulated  wealth  ;  but  with  unparal- 
leled disinterestedness  of  mind,  he  scorned  concealment,  and  made 
known  his  discoveries  to  every  one  who  wished  for  information.  It 
is  now  eleven  years  since  he  conducted  the  Author  in  his  examina- 
tion of  the  strata  which  are  laid  bare  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of 
Bath:  and  subsequent  excursions  in  the  stratified  and  calcareous  por- 
tions of  our  island  have  confirmed  the  information  thus  obtained." 

Knowledge  thus  orally  communicated,  gradually  and  insensibly 
became  a  part  of  the  public  stock  ;  and  beyond  doubt  "  produced 
a  very  important,  though  unobserved  effect  upon  the  labours  of  all 
succeeding  inquirers,  who  have  been,  perhaps  unconsciously,  but 
not  less  really,  indebted  to  Mr.  Smith  for  very  essential  assistance 
in  their  progress." — Edinburgh  Review,  vol.  xxix.  p.  313. 

On  what  Mr.  Smith  has  done  since  1813,  it  is  needless  for  me  to 
dwell,  as  it  is  now  a  matter  of  public  notoriety.  But  I  may  be  par- 
doned for  reminding  you  of  his  great  geological  map  of  England,  pub- 
lished in  1815,  which  forms  one  of  the  decorations  of  this  room — of  a 
work  accompanied  by  plates  (published  by  Mr.  Sowerby,  in  numbers, 
commencing,  I  believe,  in  1816),  entitled  "  Strata  identified  by 
their  Fossils"— of  a  stratigraphical  system,  published  in  1817,  spe- 
cially designed  as  an  accompaniment  to  his  collection  of  fossils 
purchased  by  the  Treasury,  and  deposited  in  the  British  Museum  — 
of  his  instructive  series  of  sections,  published  at  various  times,  and 
intended  to  illustrate  his  other  works — lastly,  of  his  twenty  county 
maps,  the  result  of  incredible  labour,  and  admirable  for  many  of 
their  details ;  and  of  a  value  known  to  every  English  geologist  who 
has  laboured  in  the  field. 

I  for  one  can  speak  with  gratitude  of  the  practical  lessons  I  have 
received  from  Mr.  Smith  :  it  was  by  tracking  his  footsteps,  with 
his  maps  in  my  hand,  through  Wiltshire  and  the  neighbouring  coun- 
ties, where  he  had  trodden  nearly  thirty  years  before,  that  I.  first 
learnt  the  subdivisions  of  our  oolitic  series,  and  apprehended  the 
meaning  of  those  arbitrary  and  somewhat  uncouth  terms,  which  we 
derive  from  him  as  our  master,  which  have  long  become  engrafted 
into  the  conventional  language  of  English  geologists,  and,  through 
their  influence,  have  been,  in  part,  also  adopted  by  the  naturalists 
of  the  Continent. 

After  such  a  statement,  Gentlemen,  I  have  a  right  to  speak 
boldly,  and  to  demand. your  approbation  of  the  Council's  award — 
I  could  almost  dare  to  wish,  that  stern  lover  of  truth,  to  whose 


279 

bounty  we  owe  the  u  Donation  Fund" — that  dark  eye,  before  the 
glance  of  which  all  false  pretensions  withered,  were  once  more 
amongst  us.  And  if  it  be  denied  us  to  hope,  that  a  spirit  like 
that  of  Wollaston  should  often  be  embodied  on  the  earth,  I  would 
appeal  to  those  intelligent  men  who  form  the  strength  and  ornament 
of  this  Society,  whether  there  was  any  place  for  doubt  or  hesitation  ? 
whether  we  were  not  compelled,  by  every  motive  which  the  judg- 
ment can  approve,  and  the  heart  can  sanction,  to  perform  this  act  of 
filial  duty,  before  we  thought  of  the  claims  of  any  other  man,  and  to 
place  our  first  honour  on  the  brow  of  the  Father  of  English  Geology. 

If,  in  the  pride  of  our  present  strength,  we  were  disposed  to  for- 
get our  origin,  our  very  speech  would  bewray  us  ;  for  we  use  the 
language  which  he  taught  us  in  the  infancy  of  our  science.  If 
we,  by  our  united  efforts,  are  chiseling  the  ornaments,  and  slowly 
raising  up  the  pinnacles  of  one  of  the  temples  of  Nature,  it  was  he 
that  gave  the  plan,  and  laid  the  foundations,  and  erected  a  portion 
of  the  solid  walls,  by  the  unassisted  labour  of  his  hands. 

The  men  who  have  led  the  way  in  useful  discoveries,  have  ever 
held  the  first  place  of  honour  in  the  estimation  of  all  who,  in 
aftertimes,  have  understood  their  works,  or  trodden  in  their  steps. 
It  is  upon  this  abiding  principle  that  we  have  acted  ;  and  in  award- 
ing our  first  prize  to  Mr.  Smith,  we  believe  that  we  have  done 
honour  to  our  own  body,  and  are  sanctioned  by  the  highest  feel- 
ings which  bind  societies  together. 

I  think  it  a  high  privilege  to  fill  this  Chair,  on  an  occasion  when 
we  are  met,  not  coldly  to  deliberate  on  the  balance  of  conflicting 
claims  ;  in  which,  after  all,  we  might  go  wrong,  and  give  the  prize 
to  one  man  by  injustice  to  another ;  but  to  perform  a  sacred  duty 
where  there  is  no  room  for  doubt  or  error,  and  to  record  an  act  of 
public  gratitude,  in  which  the  judgment  and  the  feelings  are  united. 

Gentlemen,  I  will  detain  you  no  longer  :  Mr.  Smith  is  now  pre- 
sent, and  though  become  grey  in  the  service  of  science,  you  will  re- 
joice to  see  that  he  still  has  the  lineaments  of  vigorous  health  ;  and 
I  cannot  refrain,  before  I  sit  down,  from  expressing  a  fervent  hope 
(in  which  you  all  will  join  me),  that  God  may  long  preserve  that 
life  he  has  employed  so  much  to  his  own  honour,  and  the  advan- 
tage of  his  country. 

The  President  then  presented,  in  the  name  of  the  Society,  a  purse 
of  twenty  guineas  to  Mr.  Smith,  being  a  portion  of  the  proceeds  of 
the  Wollaston  Fund ;  and  promised  to  forward  to  him  the  first  gold 
medal  struck  from  the  die  above  mentioned.  Mr.  Smith,  in  a 
short  and  manly  speech,  returned  thanks  for  the  honour  conferred 
upon  him  ;  expressed  his  anxiety  to  be  still  a  useful  servant  of  the 
public  as  a  practical  geologist ;  and,  finally,  presented  to  the  Society 
some  documents  referred  to  in  the  President's  address*. 

It  was  then  proposed  by  Dr.  Fitton,  and  seconded  by  George 

*  Various  papers  detailing  the  history  of  Mr.  Smith's  researches  will  be 
found  Mi  the  former  series  of  the  Philosophical  Magazine ;  in  vol.  xxxv. 
p.  113,  vol.  xlii.  p.  249,  vol.  liii.  p.  112;  &c. 


280 

Bellas  Greenough,  Esq.,  That  the  foregoing  Address  of  the  Rev.  Pro- 
fessor Sedgwick  be  printed  with  the  Annual  Report. 

The  meeting  next  proceeded  to  ballot  for  the  Officers  and  Council 
for  the  ensuing  year;  and  on  the  glasses  being  closed,  the  scrutineers 
announced  that  the  following  gentlemen  had  been  duly  elected  :— 

OFFICERS. 


PRESIDENT. 
Roderick  Impey  Murchison,  Esq.  F.R.S.  L.S. 

VICE-  PRESIDENTS. 

William  John  Broderip,  Esq.  B.A.  F.R.S.  L.S.  &  H.S. 

Rev.  William  Buckland,   D.D.  F.R.S.  &  L.S.  Professor  of  Geology 

and  Mineralogy  in  the  University  of  Oxford. 
Rev.  William  Conybeare,  M.A.  F.R.S.  Instit.  Reg.  Soc.  Paris. 'Cor- 

resp. 
Davies  Gilbert,  Esq.  M.P.  M.A.  V.P.R.S.  Hon.  M.R.S.  Ed.  F.S.A. 

L.S.  &  H.S.  M.R.l.A. 

SECRETARIES. 
Edward  Turner,  M.D.  F.R.S.  L.  &  E.  Professor  of  Chemistry  in  the 

University  of  London. 
Henry  Thomas  De  la  Beche,  Esq.  F.R.S.  &  L.S. 

FOREIGN  SECRETARY. 
Charles  Lyell,  Esq.  M.A.  F.R.S.  &  L.S. 

TREASURER. 
John  Taylor,  Esq.  F.R.S. 


COUNCIL. 


William  Clift,  Esq.  F.R.S. 

Sir  Philip  de  Malpas  Grey  Eger- 

ton,  Bart.  M.P.  F.R.S. 
William     Henry     Fitton,    M.D. 

F.R.S.  &  L.S. 
George  Bellas  Greenough,  Esq. 

F.R.S.  L.S.  &  H.S.  M.R.A.S. 
Basil  Hall,  Esq.  Capt.  R.N.  F.R.S. 

L.  &  E.  M.R.A.S. 
J.   F.  W.  Herschel,    Esq.   M.A. 

F.R.S.  L.  &  E.  M.R.l.A. 
Leonard  Horner,  Esq.  F.R.S.  L. 

&  E.  Warden  of  the  University 

of  London. 
J.  W.  Pringle,  Esq.  Capt.  R.E. 


Rev.  J.  Honywood  Randolph,  M.A. 
Rev.  Adam  Sedgwick,  M.A.  F.R.S. 

Woodwardian  Professor  in  the 

University  of  Cambridge. 
James   Vetch,   Esq.    Capt.   R.E. 

M.W.S. 
Nicholas   Aylward   Vigors,    Esq. 

M.A.  Sec.  Z.S.  F.R.S.  S.A.  L.S. 

H.S.  &  M.R.l.A. 
Henrv    Warburton,    Esq.    M.P. 

F.R.S.  L.S.  &  H.S. 
Rev.  W.  Whewell,  M.A.  F.R.S. 

Professor  of  Mineralogy  in  the 

University  of  Cambridge. 


281 

Address  to  the  Geological  Society,  delivered  on  the  Evening  ofthelSth 
of  February  1831,  by  the  Rev.  Professor  Sedgwick,  M.J.  F.R.S. 
fyc.  on  retiring  from  the  President's  Chair. 

I  congratulate  you,  Gentlemen,  on  the  general  Report  of  the 
Council  laid  before  the  Society  this  morning.  The  number  of  names 
on  our  lists  has  increased  by  45  since  our  last  anniversary;  and  after 
discharging  all  the  expenses  of  the  past  year,  besides  paying  off  835/. 
of  arrears,  there  remains  a  balance  of  more  than  450/.  to  meet  the 
ordinary  expenses  of  the  current  year.  We  have  now  a  clear  pro- 
perty amounting  in  value  to  1200/.,  without  including  in  this  estimate 
our  books,  cabinets,  and  collections.  Our  Library  has  been  enriched 
with  many  valuable  works,  and  our  Museum  with  large  suites  both  of 
English  and  Foreign  specimens.  But  it  is  not  so  much  to  the  in- 
crease of  our  various  collections  as  to  the  great  progress  made  in 
arranging  them,  that  I  rejoice  to  call  your  attention.  They  have 
received  an  immense  accession  of  value  from  the  labour  bestowed  on 
them  by  Mr.  Lonsdale,  whose  zeal,  self-devotion,  and  great  talents  are 
now  well  known  to  you  all.  I  heartily  concur  in  the  sentiments  recorded 
by  the  Committee,  and  am  convinced  that  no  small  part  of  our  present 
prosperity  is  derived  from  our  official  connexion  with  that  gentleman. 

As  a  duty  imposed  on  me  by  the  office  I  have  had  the  honour  to 
fill,  I  now  proceed  to  throw  a  retrospective  glance  over  the  memoirs 
which  have  come  before  us  during  the  past  year.  To  introduce  them 
in  chronological  order  would  be  attended  by  no  advantage,  and  would 
deprive  me  of  the  power  of  showing  their  relations  to  each  other, 
and  of  making  such  general  comments  as  are  compatible  with  the 
limits  of  this  address.  I  shall  commence,  therefore,  with  the  memoirs 
relating  to  the  older  formations,  and  pass  on  to  those  connected  with 
the  great  secondary  and  tertiary  groups ;  and  in  this  way,  without 
mingling  matters  of  fact  and  speculation,  I  hope  to  lead  you  to  the 
consideration  of  one  or  two  great  questions  which  have  lately  been 
pressed  upon  our  attention. 

A  paper  by  Mr.  Weaver  on  the  physical  structure  of  the  South  of 
Ireland  demands  our  first  notice.  It  is  accompanied  with  a  geolo- 
gical map,  extending  to  the  limits  of  a  similar  map  of  the  East  of 
Ireland,  published  by  him  in  a  former  volume  of  our  Transactions; 
and  we  have  thus  obtained  from  his  unassisted  labours  an  accurate 
geographical  distribution  of  the  formations  spread  over  more  than 
half  that  island.  But  great  as  they  are,  these  are  not  the  only 
obligations  we  owe  to  that  excellent  observer.  He  has  described  with 
the  clearest  details  the  various  formations  of  the  South  of  Ireland, 
commencing  with  the  contorted  and  highly  inclined  groups  of  the 
older  transition  rocks,  and  ending  with  the  unconformable  deposits 
of  old  red  sandstone  and  carboniferous  limestone. 

The  order  of  succession,  as  far  as  it  goes,  is  in  exact  accordance 
with  that  of  our  island,  and  the  beds  of  transition  limestone  subor- 
dinate to  the  greywacke  contain  nearly  the  same  series  of  organic 
remains  as  the  corresponding  beds  of  Gloucestershire,  Cumberland, 
and  South  Wales.     Amidst  the  uncertainty  of  some  of  our  conclu- 


282 

sions  derived  from  the  organic  types  of  deposits  remote  from  each 
other,  we  seem  in  these  transition  fossils  to  have  a  secure  starting 
point ;  and  whether  derived  from  the  flanks  of  the  Austrian  Alps,  the 
eastern  plains  of  Gallicia,  the  central  regions  of  Russia,  or  the  grey- 
wacke chains  of  northern  Germany  or  North  America,  they  have  at 
least  a  family  resemblance  not  easily  mistaken. 

In  the  limestone  of  Cork  Mr.  Weaver  observed  impressions  of  the 
vertebras  of  fishes  associated  with  the  fossils  abounding  in  the  grey- 
wacke slate  of  the  neighbouring  country.     The  fact  is  in  perfect  ac- 
cord with   our  present  knowledge.     Impressions  of  fish  have  long 
been  known  of  in  some  varieties  of  transition  slate  ;  certain  families  of 
Crustacea  are  eminently  characteristic  of  formations  of  the  same  agej 
remains  of  fish  are  commonly  found  in  the  mountain  limestone  of 
Bristol ;  shark's  teeth  occur  in  the  mountain  limestone  of  Northum- 
berland ;  and  I  need  not  perhaps  remind  you  that  impressions  of  fish 
(sometimes  accompanied  with  Crustacea)  are  found  in  incredible  abun- 
dance among  the  bituminous  schists  associated  with  the  old  red  con- 
glomerates of  Caithness.     Yet  such  is  the  inveteracy  of  our  preju- 
dices in  favour  of  the  hypothesis  which  admits  nothing  but  what  we 
suppose  the  simplest  forms  of  animal  life  into  the  older  strata,  that 
even  now  we  receive  the  facts  opposed  to  it  with  doubt  and  hesitation. 
What  above  all  distinguishes  the  greywacke  series  of  the  South  of 
Ireland  from  the  corresponding  deposits  in  this  country,  is  the  occur- 
rence of  beds  of  pyritous  shale  abounding  in  impressions  of  Equiseta, 
Calamites,  &c,  and  containing  beds  of  coal   (whence  many  thou- 
sand tons  are  annually  extracted)   interlaced  with,  and  partaking  of, 
all  the  flexures  of  the  transition  system*.   This  fact,  rendered  doubly 
striking  by  the  horizontal  and  discordant  position  of  the  true  carbo- 
niferous limestone  of  the  neighbouring  districts,  was  an  important 
addition  to  our  information,  and  was  heard  with  no  small  surprise 
by  many  members  of  this   Society.     It  gives  us,  however,  a  new 
term  of  comparison  with  the  phsenomena  of  distant  countries.     The 
greywacke  chain  of  Magdeburg  contains  innumerable  impressions  of 
true  coal  plants,  and  some  of  the  carboniferous  deposits  on  the  con- 
fines of  Westphalia  partake  (like  the  deposits  in  the  South  of  Ireland) 
of  all  the  contortions  of  the  older  transition  series. 

On  the  descriptions  of  the  old  red  sandstone  and  the  carboniferous 
limestone  I  shall  make  no  comments  ;  but  I  think  it  right  to  recall  your 
attention  to  some  valuable  details  respecting  the  metalliferous  depo- 
sits in  the  counties  of  Cork  and  Kerry.  The  copper  ore  of  Ross 
Island,  on  the  lake  of  Killarney,  does  not  constitute  either  metalli- 
ferous beds  or  true  veins,  but  is  distributed  in  the  form  of  branches 
or  strings,  contemporaneous,  like  those  of  calcareous  spar,  with  the 

*  Small  quantities  of  anthracite  have  been  found  here  and  there  among 
the  old  slate  rocks  of  Cornwall ;  and  some  portions  of  the  oldest  division  of 
the  slate  series  of  Cumberland  are  so  carbonaceous  as  to  have  given  rise  to 
borings  and  other  works  in  search  of  coal.  I  have  been  informed  that 
similar  unsuccessful  attempts  were  formerly  made  in  North  Devon.  But  in 
none  of  these  instances,  I  believe,  were  true  coal  beds  and  plants,  like 
those  described  by  Mr.  Weaver)  ever  discovered. 


283 

limestone  rocks  they  traverse.  At  Mucruss  mine,  in  the  same  neigh- 
bourhood, copper  ore  was  obtained  from  a  true  metalliferous  bed. 
In  Kenmare  the  deposits  of  lead  ore  are  shown  to  be  discontinuous 
masses,  nearly  parallel  in  range  and  dip  to  the  regular  strata. 

In  the  county  of  Cork  the  most  valuable  mine  of  copper  is  opened 
in  a  true  vein  :  but  the  author  remarks  that  in  some  parts  of  this 
county  there  is  a  very  general  diffusion  of  cupreous  matter,  some- 
times appearing  in  separate  particles,  and  sometimes  in  strings 
veins  or  filaments  more  or  less  connected  with  each  other,  but  not 
continuous,  and  therefore  contemporaneous  with  the  rocks  to  which 
they  are  subordinate.  Such  repositories  of  metals  might  not  inaptly 
be  termed  "veins  of  segregation,"  as  they  seem  to  have  been  formed 
by  a  separation  of  parts  during  the  gradual  passage  of  the  mineral 
masses  into  a  solid  state. 

In  England  we  have  almost  every  variety  of  metalliferous  deposits. 
Near  Whitehaven  in  Cumberland  great  masses  of  reniform  hematite 
alternate  with  red  beds  of  mountain  limestone.  At  Nosterfield,  near 
Bedale,  a  true  bed  charged  with  sulphuret  of  lead  alternates  with  the 
upper  strata  of  magnesian  limestone.  The  great  copper  pipe  veins  of 
Ecton  must  have  been  contemporaneous  with  the  shale  limestone 
to  which  they  are  subordinate.  The  great  lead  veins  of  our  northern 
counties  originated,  if  I  mistake  not,  in  cracks  formed  during  the  ele- 
vation of  the  carboniferous  chain,  before  the  period  of  the  new  red 
sandstone. 

In  Cornwall  we  have,  as  is  well  known,  both  on  the  great  scale 
and  the  small,  every  modification  of  veined  structure.  Tin  is  dis- 
tributed through  some  of  the  granitoid  rocks  where  no  vein  is  visible. 
The  slate  rocks,  near  their  junction  with  the  granite,  are  traversed  by 
veins  of  injection,  and  some  of  these  are  metalliferous,  (for  example, 
an  elvan  or  porphyry  dyke  near  St.  Austell).  The  regular  metallife- 
rous lodes  were  probably  once  but  cracks  and  fissures  produced  du- 
ring some  periods  of  elevation ;  and  how  they  have  been  filled  up  is 
perhaps  a  question  beyond  our  scrutiny.  But  after  the  important  ex- 
periments of  Mr.  Fox,  there  can,  I  think,  be  no  doubt  that  the  great 
vertical  dykes  of  metallic  ore,  which  rake  through  so  many  portions 
of  the  county,  owe  their  existence,  at  least  in  part,  to  some  grand  de- 
velopment of  electro-chemical  power. 

In  all  the  crystalline  granitoid  rocks  of  Cornwall  there  are  also 
many  masses  and  "  veins  of  segregation."  Such  are  the  great  contem- 
poraneous masses  and  veins  of  schorl  rock ;  and  some  of  these  are 
metalliferous.  The  decomposing  granite  of  St.  Austell  Moor  is  tra- 
versed, and  sometimes  entirely  superseded,  by  innumerable  veins  of 
this  description.  Upon  these  lines  of  schorl  rock  there  is  often  aggre- 
gated a  certain  quantity  of  oxide  of  tin,  which  sometimes  diffuses  itself 
laterally  into  the  substance  of  the.  contiguous  granite.  After  examin- 
ing this  district  with  Professor  Whewell  during  the  summer  of  1828, 
we  left  it  in  the  conviction  that  several  of  the  neighbouring  tin  works 
were  opened  not  upon  true  lodes,  but  upon  "veins  of  segregation."  I 
only  throw  out  these  remarks  as  hints  for  future  inquiry ;  as  the  sub- 
jects introduced  by  the  memoir  of  Mr.  Weaver  are  of  vast  importance, 


284 

and  have  been  unfortunately  but  seldom  brought  under  the  conside- 
ration of  this  Society. 

A  paper  by  Mr.  Alfred  Thomas  gives  us  some  new  details  con- 
nected with  the  structure  of  the  northern  parts  of  Pembrokeshire. 
His  descriptions  are  illustrated  by  a  geological  map,  and  a  section 
extending  north  and  south  from  Cardigan  to  St.  Gowan's  Head.  By 
help  of  this  section  we  are  conducted,  in  a  descending  order,  from  the 
higher  "part  of  the  coal  series  with  subordinate  beds  of  anthracite, 
through  the  mountain  limestone,  the  old  red  sandstone  and  conglo- 
merates, and  the  transition  limestone  with  Trilobites,  down  to  grey- 
wacke and  greywacke^  slate.  All  these  formations  are  occasionally 
traversed  by  masses  of  trap  producing  contortions  and  changes  of 
structure  among  the  rocks  with  which  they  are  in  contact. 

In  a  communication  read  very  recently  to  the  Society,  I  have  en- 
deavoured to  explain  the  structure  of  the  Lake  Mountains  and  the 
period  of  their  first  elevation — the  manner  in  which,  during  a  sub- 
sequent period  of  elevation,  they  were  separated  from  the  great 
calcareous  chain  of  the  north — and  the  relations  they  still  bear  to  it 
through  the  intervention  of  a  carboniferous  zone.  In  conformity  with 
the  system  first  published  by  Mr.  Otley  of  Keswick,  I  have  shown 
that  the  greater  part  of  the  central  region  of  the  Lake  Mountains  is 
occupied  by  three  distinct  groups  of  stratified  rocks  of  a  slaty  texture  : 
and  I  have  further  shown,  that  crystalline  unstratified  masses  form  the 
true  mineralogical  centres  of  these  great  groups — that  by  the  protru- 
sion of  these  masses  the  schistose  formations  have  been  elevated  into 
the  positions  they  now  occupy — and  that  a  true  mineralogical  axis 
may  be  traced  through  the  oldest  division  of  the  slate  rocks,  on  each 
side  of  which  the  several  formations,  as  far  as  they  are  developed,  are 
arranged  symmetrically.  I  have  traced  in  great  detail  the  range  of  a 
band  of  transition  limestone  imbedded  in  the  upper  portion  of  these 
older  formations  :  and  from  the  phenomena  described,  certain  facts 
(important  in  the  physical  history  of  the  mountain  groups)  become 
securely  established. 

1 .  Great  cracks  were  formed  at  a  very  ancient  epoch,  and  probably 
during  the  first  period  of  elevation,  diverging  from  the  central  regions 
of  the  Lake  Mountains;  and  such  enormous  shifts  took  place  in  the 
position  of  the  shattered  strata,  that  in  several  instances  the  broken 
ends  of  the  same  bed  are  more  than  a  mile  apart,  the  distance  being 
measured  in  a  direction  at  right  angles  to  the  lines  of  bearing.  In 
after  periods  many  of  the  existing  valleys  were  scooped  out  upon  the 
lines  of  fracture. 

2;  The  central  schistose  groups  abut  in  succession  against  the  car- 
boniferous zone ;  and  from  this  fact  alone  (independently  of  many 
others  bearing  upon  the  same  point),  the  two  systems  are  proved  to 
be  unconformable. 

3.  The  mean  bearing  of  the  great  central  groups,  notwithstanding 
their  enormous  dislocations,  is,  with  very  slight  deviations,  north-east 
by  east,  and  south-west  by  west.  Now  this  is  nearly  the  mean  bear- 
ing of  the  slate  rocks  of  Cornwall,  of  the  principal  greywacke  chains 
of  Wales  and  of  the  Isle  of  Man,  and  also  of  the  entire  greywacke' 


285 

chain  extending  across  the  South  of  Scotland,  from  St.  Abbs  Head  to 
the  Mull  of  Galloway :  and  it  is,  I  believe,  generally  allowed,  that 
these  several  chains,,  producing  so  great  an  impress  on  the  phy- 
sical character  of  our  island,  are  all  nearly  of  one  age,  and  were  pro- 
bably all  elevated  nearly  at  the  same  period,  before  the  complete  de- 
velopment of  the  old  red  sandstone.  Such  a  parallelism  cannot  surely 
be  regarded  as  accidental,  and  offers,  if  I  mistake  not,  a  beautiful 
confirmation  of  the  great  principle  in  the  late  Essay  of  M.  Elie  de 
Beaumont,  that  mountain  chains  elevated  at  the  same  period  of 
time  have  a  general  parallelism  in  the  bearing  of  their  component 
strata.  In  admitting  such  a  principle,  we  must  not  however  shut  our 
eyes  to  the  exceptions.  Mr.  Weaver  has  shown,  that  the  mean  bear- 
ing of  the  greywacke"  strata  in  the  South  of  Ireland  is  east  and  west ; 
and  from  his  descriptions  they  appear  to  have  been  elevated  before 
the  deposit  of  the  old  red  sandstone.  The  transition  rocks  of  Devon- 
shire and  of  a  small  portion  of  South  Wales  are  nearly  in  the  same 
direction,  and  parallel  to  the  principal  axis  of  the  great  Welsh  coal- 
field. 

I  will  not  detain  you,  Gentlemen,  with  my  speculations  on  the 
original  extent  of  our  carboniferous  formations — on  the  different 
periods  of  elevation  of  the  coal-fields  on  the  Bristol  Channel  and  of 
the  great  carboniferous  chain  of  the  North  of  England — on  the  diffe- 
rent effects  produced  by  the  two  systems  on  the  range  of  the  newer  se- 
condary groups — or  on  the  causes  by  which  the  conflicting  phenomena 
have  been  brought  about. — I  may  however  be  permitted  to  remind  you 
of  the  prevailing  north  and  south  bearings  of  the  great  carboniferous 
chain,  from  the  latitude  of  Derby  to  the  border  of  Scotland — of  the 
great  faults  by  which  its  western  limits  are  tracked  through  the  Peak 
of  Derbyshire — of  its  prolongation  through  an  anticlinal  line  into  the 
high  western  moors  of  Yorkshire — and  of  the  enormous  breaks  accom- 
panying its  escarpment  from  the  heart  of  Craven  to  the  foot  of  Stain- 
moor.  The  range  and  effects  of  one  part  of  the  great  Craven  fault 
have  been  described,  with  excellent  illustrative  sections,by  Mr.  Phillips 
of  York.  Taking  the  subject  up  where  he  had  left  it,  I  have  traced 
a  connected  system  of  breaks  to  the  foot  of  Stainmoor,  and  shown 
that  by  a  prolongation  of  the  great  Craven  fault,  producing  an 
enormous  downcast  on  its  western  side,  the  entire  carboniferous 
zone  of  the  Lake  Mountains  has  been  nearly  cut  off  from  the 
central  chain  with  which  it  must  undoubtedly  have  been  once  con- 
tinuous. 

Another  enormous  break,  passing  under  the  escarpment  of  the 
Cross  Fell  range,  meets  the  prolonged  line  of  the  Craven  fault  near 
the  foot  of  Stainmoor.  The  forces  producing  this  double  system  of 
disruptions  appear  to  have  been  contemporaneous,  and  by  their  joint 
action  have  thrown  whole  mountain  masses  of  the  carboniferous  series 
headlong  into  the  valley  of  the  Eden. 

We  have  direct  proof  that  all  the  fractures  above  mentioned  took 
place  immediately  before  the  formation  of  the  conglomerates  of  the 
new  red  sandstone ;  and  we  have  the  strongest  reasons  for  believing, 
that  they  were  produced  by  an  action  both  violent  and  of  short  dura- 


286 

tion  :  for  we  pass  at  once  from  the  inclined  and  disrupted  masses  to 
the  horizontal  conglomerates  now  resting  upon  them ;  and  there  is 
no  trace  of  any  effect  that  indicates  a  slow  progress  from  one  system 
of  things  to  the  other. 

Lastly,  we  have  the  clearest  evidence  to  show  that  these  vast  dis- 
ruptions were  produced  during  the  elevation  of  the  carboniferous 
chain  ;  and,  if  I  am  not  mistaken,  during  the  same  period  arose  many 
minor  cracks  and  fissures,  forming  the  moulds  into  which  were,  in  after 
times,  cast  some  of  the  richest  lead  veins  of  our  island. 

It  is  well  known  that  the  rich  carboniferous  deposits  of  this  coun- 
try undergo  a  great  change  of  structure  in  their  range  from  the  Bristol 
Channel  to  the  valley  of  the  Tweed  ;  and  I  hope  I  shall  not  be  thought 
to  wander  too  far  from  my  object,  if  I  attempt  shortly  to  explain  in 
what  the  changes  consist,  and  what  are  their  modifications. 

All  our  coal  formations  are  essentially  composed  of  mountain 
limestone,  sandstone,  and  shale  :  they  differ  only  in  the  mode  in 
which  these  constituents  are  aggregated — In  the  various  coal-basins 
on  the  Bristol  Channel,  the  limestone-beds  are  developed  only  in 
the  lower,  and  the  coal-bearing-beds  in  the  upper  part  of  the  series  ; 
and  the  two  members  are  separated  by  nearly  unproductive  deposits 
of  millstone-grit  and  shale. 

Almost  in  the  same  words  we  may  describe  the  carboniferous  series 
of  Derbyshire.  There,  however,  the  millstone-grit  is  more  complex, 
and  of  very  great  thickness  ;  and  subordinate  to  the  great  shale  are, 
here  and  there,  very  thick  masses  of  a  peculiar,  thin-bedded  and  some- 
what argillaceous  limestone. 

On  the  re-appearance  of  the  carboniferous  limestone,  at  the  base 
of  the  Yorkshire  chain,  we  still  find  the  same  general  analogies  of 
structure :  enormous  masses  of  limestone  form  the  lowest  part,  and 
the  rich  coal-fields  the  highest  part  of  the  whole  series  j  and,  as  in 
the  former  instances,  we  also  find  the  millstone-grit  occupying  an 
intermediate  position.  The  millstone-grit,  however,  becomes  a  very 
complex  deposit,  with  several  subordinate  beds  of  coal ;  and  is  sepa- 
rated from  the  great  inferior  calcareous  group  (known  in  the  North 
of  England  by  the  name  of  scar  limestone),  not  merely  by  the  great 
shale  and  shale -limestone,  as  in  Derbyshire,  but  by  a  still  more  com- 
plex deposit,  in  some  places  not  less  than  1000  feet  thick  ;  in  which 
five  groups  of  limestone  strata,  extraordinary  for  their  perfect  con- 
tinuity and  unvarying  thickness,  alternate  with  great  masses  of 
sandstone  and  shale,  containing  innumerable  impressions  of  coal 
plants,  and  three  or  four  thin  beds  of  good  coal  extensively  worked 
for  domestic  use. 

In  the  range  of  the  carboniferous  chain  from  Stainmoor,  through 
the  ridge  of  Cross  Fell,  to  the  confines  of  Northumberland,  we  have 
a  repetition  of  the  same  general  phenomena.  On  its  eastern  flanks, 
and  superior  to  all  its  component  groups,  is  the  rich  coal-field  of 
Durham.  Under  the  coal-field,  we  have,  in  regular  descending  order, 
the  millstone-grit,  the  alternations  of  limestone  and  coal  measures 
nearly  identical  with  those  of  the  Yorkshire  chain,  and  at  the  base  of 
all  is  the  system   of  the  great  scar  limestone.     The  scar  limestone 


287 

begins,  however,  to  be  subdivided  by  thick  masses  of  sandstone  and 
carbonaceous  shale,  of  which  we  had  hardly  a  trace  in  Yorkshire;  and 
gradually  passes  into  a  complex  deposit,  not  distinguishable  from 
the  next  superior  division  of  the  series.  Along  with  this  gradual 
change  is  a  greater  development  of  the  inferior  coal-beds  alternating 
with  the  limestone ;  some  of  which,  on  the  north-eastern  skirts  of  Cum- 
berland, are  three  or  four  feet  in  thickness,  and  are  now  worked 
for  domestic  use,  with  all  the  accompaniments  of  rail-roads  and 
steam-engines. 

The  alternating  beds  of  sandstone  and  shale  expand  more  and 
more,  as  we  advance  towards  the  North,  at  the  expense  of  all  the 
calcareous  groups,  which  gradually  thin  off,  and  cease  to  produce 
any  impress  on  the  features  of  the  country.  And  thus  it  is,  that 
the  lowest  portion  of  the  whole  carboniferous  system,  from  Bevv- 
castle  Forest  along  the  skirts  of  Cheviot  Hills  to  the  valley  of 
the  Tweed,  has  hardly  a  single  feature  in  common  with  the  inferior 
part  of  the  Yorkshire  chain  ;  but,  on  the  contrary,  has  all  the  most 
ordinary  external  characters  of  a  coal  formation.  Corresponding 
to  this  change,  is  also  a  gradual  thickening  of  carbonaceous  matter 
in  some  of  the  lower  groups.  Many  coal  works  have  been  opened 
upon  this  line;  and  near  the  right  bank  of  the  Tweed  (almost  on  a 
parallel  with  the  great  scar  limestone)  is  a  coalfield,  with  five  or  six 
good  seams,  some  of  which  are  worked,  not  merely  for  the  use  of 
the  neighbouring  districts,  but  also  for  the  supply  of  this  capital. 

The  beds  of  sandstone,  shale,  and  limestone,  forming  the  base  of 
the  carboniferous  system  in  the  basin  of  the  Tweed,  are  often  deeply 
tinged  with  red  oxide  of  iron,  and  have  been  sometimes  compared 
with  the  new,  and  sometimes  with  the  old  red  sandstone.  To  the 
new  red  sandstone  they  have  unquestionably  no  relations ;  and  I 
should  rather  compare  them  (especially  as  the  old  red  sandstone  of 
the  North  of  England  seldom  exists  but  as  a  conglomerate,  and  is 
seen  in  that  form  on  the  flanks  of  the  Cheviot  Hills)  with  the  red 
beds  of  mountain-limestone  and  sandstone,  which,  both  in  Cumber- 
land and  Lancashire,  sometimes  form  the  base  of  the  whole  carbo- 
niferous series. 

Such  are  the  remarkable  changes  of  our  carboniferous  system  in 
its  range  from  the  Bristol  Channel  to  the  Scotch  border  :  and  it  re- 
appears on  the  north-side  of  the  great  greywacke  chain  of  that  country 
with  so  many  points  of  analogy,  that  we  must,  I  think,  regard  the 
coal  measures  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Edinburgh  as  part  of  a 
very  ancient  deposit,  nearly  of  the  same  age  with  that  on  the  banks  of 
the  Tweed*. 

Thus  it   appears,  from  what  has  been  stated  above — that  tree 

*  The  general  relations  of  the  various  groups  of  the  carboniferous  system  of 
Northumberland,  are,  on  the  whole,  very  faithfully  represented  in  the  geological 
map  of  that  county,  published  some  years  since  by  Mr.  Smith.  A  very  detailed  de- 
scription of  a  portion  of  the  carboniferous  series  of  the  Tweed  was  read  during  the 
past  year,  by  Mr.  Winch,  before  the  Philosophical  Society  of  Newcastle,  and  has 
been  since  published.  [See  Phil.  Mag.  and  Annals,  N.  S.  vol.  ix.  p.  11.]  Another 
paper,  on  the  same  subject  (which  I  did  not  see  till  these  sheets  were  passing 
through  the  press),  has  been  recently  published  by  Mr.  Witham  of  Edinburgh. 


288 

ferns,  gigantic  equiseta,  and  other  plants  belonging  to  the  herba- 
rium of  the  ancient  coal-fields,  grew  on  the  land,  and  were  some- 
times swept  down  into  the  sea,  before  the  elevation  of  the  grey- 
waeke  chains  of  one  portion  of  the  British  Isles — that  in  after  times, 
the  same  families  of  plants  were  swept  down  into  the  sea,  in  immense 
abundance,  and  spread  out,  here  and  there,  in  beds  alternating 
with  mud,  sand,  and  banks  of  zoophytes  and  sea-shells,  during  the 
whole  period  of  the  deposit  of  mountain-limestone,  from  its  beginning 
to  its  end — lastly,  that  these  mechanical  accumulations  continued 
to  go  on  in  shallow  seas  and  estuaries  (and  perhaps  also  in  inland 
lakes),  till  the  whole  process  of  degradation  was  interrupted  by  the 
elevation  of  the  carboniferous  chain,  producing  the  enormous  breaks 
and  dislocations  above  described,  and  succeeded  by  the  conglomerates 
of  the  new  red  sandstone. 

Before  I  leave  this  subject,  1  may  notice  a  work,  just  published  by 
Mr.  Witham  of  Edinburgh,  containing  many  beautiful  illustrations  of 
the  internal  structure  of  fossil  plants  derived  from  the  old  coal-fields 
of  the  Tweed,  and  from  various  parts  of  Scotland.  By  submitting 
extremely  thin,  polished  slices  of  these  fossils  to  microscopic  observa- 
tion, he  has  been  enabled  to  detect  the  minutest  traces  of  organic 
texture ;  and  he  has  proved  the  existence  of  so  large  a  number  of 
phanerogamic  plants,  in  the  lowest  part  of  the  carboniferous  series, 
as  greatly  to  modify  one  of  the  positions  laid  down  in  the  Prodromus 
of  M.  Adolphe  Brongniart. 

A  paper,  by  Dr.  Buckland  and  Mr.  de  la  Beche,  on  the  Geology  of 
Weymouth  and  the  adjacent  parts  of  the  coast  of  Dorsetshire,  brought 
before  us  all  the  secondary  deposits  of  this  island,  from  the  lower  divi- 
sion of  the  oolites  to  the  chalk.  It  is  so  rich  in  its  details,  and  adorned 
with  such  admirable  illustrations,  that  the  structure  of  the  whole 
region,  though  crowded  with  formations,  dislocated,  contorted,  and 
traversed  by   enormous   and   complicated  faults,    will   hereafter  be 
comprehended   at  a  single  glance ;  and  the  country  will   be  visited 
as  classic  ground,  where  the  most  perfect  types  of  our  newer  secon- 
dary groups  may  be  studied  under   every  variety  of  position   and 
combination.     Without  attempting  to  follow  the  authors  in  their  de- 
scription  of  twelve  of  these  successive  groups,  I  may  be  permitted 
to  remind  you  of  the  extraordinary  bed  between  the  Purbeck  and  Port- 
land formations   (first  noticed  by  Mr.  Webster),  containing  silicified 
trunks  of  coniferous   trees  and  stems  of  Cycadeoidese.     From   this 
paper,  we  learn,  that  these  trunks  lie  partly  sunk  in  black    earth, 
like  fallen  trees  in  a  peat-bog,  and  partly  imbedded  in  the  incum- 
bent limestone  ;  and  that  many  of  the  stumps  remain  erect,  with 
their  roots  in  the  black  soil,  and  their  upper  portions  in  the  lime- 
stone :  and  from  these  facts  the  authors  conclude — that  the  surface 
of  the   Portland   rock  was  once  dry  land — and  that  on  it  grew  a 
forest  containing  plants  of  a   tropical  form — that   this    forest  was 
submerged  under  the  waters  of  an   estuary  or  a  lake,  but  with  a 
movement  so  gentle,  that  neither  the  plants  nor  the  soil  were  swept 
away — that  upon  this  ancient  forest  were   accumulated  the  mixed 
formations  of  the  Wealds,  not  much  less  than  1000  feet  in  thickness — 


289 

and  lastly,  that  the  whole  region  was  again  sunk  under  the  waters  of 
a  deep  ocean,  in  which  were  deposited  the  great  formations  of  green- 
sand  and  chalk.  Continuing  in  the  same  spirit  of  induction,  we  might 
add — that  these  marine  deposits  again  became  dry  land,  upon  which 
lived  great  tribes  of  palaeotherian  animals,  now  become  extinct — 
that  during  this  period  were  formed  the  lacustrine  rocks  of  Hamp- 
shire and  of  the  Isle  of  Wight — that  it  was  succeeded  by  a  sudden 
and  violent  convulsion,  heaving  on  their  edges  the  great  deposits  of 
the  Isles  of  Wight  and  Purbeck,  and  at  the  same  time  producing  the 
anticlinal  axis  and  great  longitudinal  fractures,  so  well  described  in 
this  memoir. 

There  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  same  cause  which  upset  the  Isle  of 
Wight,  also  produced  the  great  breaks  and  fissures  of  the  Weymouth 
district  5  and  that  this  upheaving  force  (for  such  we  must  consider 
it)  came  into  action  at  a  recent  geological  period,  is  proved  by 
the  vertically  of  the  lower  lacustrine  beds  at  the  east  end  of  the  Isle 
of  Wight.  Whether  this  period  was  contemporaneous  with  the  last 
elevation  of  the  Eastern  Alps  may  well  admit  of  doubt :  to  substan- 
tiate a  fact  like  this,  many  links  are  yet  wanting  in  the  chain  of  evi- 
dence; and  England  has,  if  I  mistake  not,  been  acted  upon  by  far  too 
many  local  disturbing  forces,  to  be  ever  brought  rigidly  within  the 
systems  of  the  great  European  chains  considered  in  the  researches 
of  M.  Elie  de  Beaumont. 

The  investigation  of  the  faults  and  dislocations  interrupting  the 
continuity  of  our  secondary  deposits  is  becoming,  daily,  a  sub- 
ject of  increasing  importance  ;  and  we  are  now  called  upon,  not 
to  regard  them  as  solitary  phsenomena,  but  to  trace  them  through 
whole  regions,  and  to  examine  their  relations  to  each  other.  These 
great  theoretical  and  practical  questions  throw  no  common  difficul- 
ties in  the  way  of  a  person  who  is  beginning  the  study  of  Geology : 
and  it  is  especially  on  this  account,  that  I  regard  the  "  Sections 
and  Views  illustrative  of  Geological  Phsenomena,"  recently  published 
by  Mr.  de  la  Beche,  as  a  compendium,  excellently  fitted  to  assist  the 
progress  of  our  science. 

Before  finally  quitting  the  subject  of  British  secondary  formations, 
I  must  mention  a  communication  by  Mr.  Sharpe,  describing  a  speci- 
men of  an  Ichthyosaurus  found  in  the  lias  near  Stratford-upon-Avon. 
From  the  proportions  of  the  vertebree,  the  size  of  the  paddle,  and 
the  circular  or  oval  form  of  its  component  bones,  as  well  as  from 
other  anatomical  peculiarities,  the  author  concludes,  that  this  ani- 
mal belongs  to  a  new  species,  for  which  he  proposes  the  name  of 
Ichthyosaurus  grandipes. 

Facts  illustrating  the  structure  of  distant  regions  of  the  earth 
have  their  value  greatly  enhanced  by  the  difficulty  of  obtaining 
them.  Every  gleaning  of  information  on  the  physical  history  of  Aus- 
tralia  or  the  Isles  of  the  Pacific,  will  be  received  in  this  Society  with 
the  deepest  interest.  I  will  not,  however,  detain  you  with  any  ana- 
lysis of  the  paper  by  Mr.  Cunningham  on  the  Geology  of  Hunter's 
River  in  New  South  Wales,  or  of  that  by  Mr.  Caldcleugh  on   the 

c 


290 

Physical  Structure  of  the  Island  of  Juan  Fernandez,  as  the  im- 
portant parts  of  their  contents  must  be  still  fresh  in  your  recollec- 
tion, and  they  offer  no  materials  from  which  I  can  draw  any  general, 
theoretical  conclusions. 

Connected  with  the  primary  and  secondary  formations  of  Conti- 
nental Europe,  several  communications  have  come  before  the  Society. 
Of  these  1  must  first  notice  two  short  memoirs,  accompanying  geo- 
logical maps  of  Moravia  and  Transylvania,  by  Doctor  Boue' ;  and  a 
longer  and  more  elaborate  memoir,  by  the  same  author,  explanatory 
of  a  geological  map  of  Austria  and  Southern  Bavaria.  I  need  not 
inform  the  gentlemen  whom  I  am  addressing — that  this  indefatigable 
observer  has  spent  many  years  of  his  life  in  disentangling  the  com- 
plex phenomena  of  the  Alps — that  he  has  extended  his  surveys 
through  Moravia  and  the  great  Carpathian  chain,  to  the  province  of 
Transylvania — that  combining  his  own  observations  with  those  of 
De  Lill,  Beudant,  and  others,  who  had  in  part  preceded  him,  he 
has  been  enabled  to  exhibit  the  geological  relations  of  this  vast 
region,  and  through  the  intervention  of  common  deposits  to  bring 
it  into  accordance  with  the  system  of  the  Austrian  Alps.  It  is  ob- 
viously impossible  for  me  to  offer  any  analysis  of  such  labours,  of 
which  the  three  maps  presented  to  the  Society  are  most  honourable 
records. 

It  would  be  equally  impossible  to  give,  with  any  effect,  an  abstract 
of  the  several  memoirs  of  Dr.  Boue  j  for  they  bring  before  us  so  many 
facts,  and  in  so  condensed  a  form,  that  they  seem  to  contain  mate- 
rials hereafter  to  be  expanded  into  works  far  beyond  the  limits  of  any 
ordinary  communication.  On  these  subjects  I  must  therefore  be 
content  to  refer  you  to  the  printed  analysis  of  his  papers,  and  to  his 
various  essays,  published  during  the  past  year,  on  the  structure  of 
the  Alpine  and  Carpathian  chains*. 

In  elucidation  of  the  geology  of  the  Eastern  Alps,  a  paper  was  also 
presented  to  the  Society,  during  the  past  year,  by  Mr.  Murchison 
and  myself.  Our  object  was,  by  help  of  a  transverse  section  along 
the  line  where  we  crossed  the  Chain,  to  bring  together  such  facts 
as  were  seen  by  ourselves,  and  appeared  of  any  real  importance  :  and, 
connecting  them  with  other  facts,  partly  derived  from  oral  informa- 
tion, and  partly  from  a  number  of  scattered  memoirs  little  known  in 
this  country,  to  give  such  an  outline  of  the  general  structure  of 
the  whole  chain,  as  should  be  intelligible  to  an  English  reader. 

As  our  Memoir  has  been  published,  I  should  hardly  have  alluded  to 
it,  had  not  our  views  been  partially  misrepresented  j  and,  what  is  of 
vastly  more  importance,  had  we  not  differed  from  Dr.  Boue'  in  the 
interpretation  of  some  very  singular,  and  we  think  not  unimportant, 
phenomena. 

During  the  past  year,  Mr.  Murchison  again  visited  the  same  region; 
and  the  results  of  his  investigations  have  been  laid  before  us  in  an 
elaborate  paper,  which  I  am  now  called  upon  to  notice.     In  doing 

*  See  especially  several  elaborate  articles  on  these  subjects,  published  by 
Dr.  Boue,  during  the  past  year,  in  the  Journal  de  Geologic 


291 

this  I  am  compelled  so  far  to  retrace  my  own  steps  as  to  bring 
to  your  recollection  the  geological  subdivisions  of  the  Alpine  chain 
adopted  in  our  published  Memoir.  We  stated  that  the  Eastern  Alps, 
considered  in  theirgreatestsimplicity,mightbedescribed  as  amountain 
chain  with  an  axis  of  primary  rocks,  flanked  and  surmounted  by  two 
great  secondary  calcareous  zones,  which  are  in  their  turn  surmounted 
by  vast  tertiary  deposits,  descending  on  one  side  into  the  plains  of 
Italy,  and  on  the  other  into  the  plains  of  the  upper  Danube  ;  and  that 
the  same  great  physical  region,  when  considered  in  more  detail,  might 
be  separated  into  formations  admitting  of  a  general  comparison  with 
those  of  our  own  country  in  the  following  order,  commencing  with 
the  lowest.  1.  Primary  rocks  of  the  central  axis.  2.  Highly  crystal- 
line deposits  graduating  in  the  ascending  order  into  rocks  conforming 
to  the  ordinary  transition  type,  and  containing,  though  very  rarely, 
transition  fossils.  3.  Red  and  variegated  sandstone  and  gypseous 
marls,  sometimes  alternating  with  masses  of  magnesian  limestone. 
4.  Older  Alpine  limestone — a  formation  of  enormous  thickness,  sup- 
posed to  represent  a  part  of  the  oolitic  series,  and  based  upon  fetid 
dark-coloured  limestone  and  other  strata  which  we  endeavoured  to 
identify  with  the  lias.  5.  Limestone  and  sandstone  with  great  masses 
of  saliferous  marls  rolled  up  and  encased  among  the  contorted  strata. 
6.  Younger  Alpine  limestone,  including  all  the  secondary  deposits  of 
the  Alps  superior  to  the  saliferous  system,  and  containing  two  distinct 
groups  ;  the  first  of  which  was  supposed  to  represent  the  highest 
portion  of  our  oolitic  series,  and  the  second  (or  Vienna  sandstone)  the 
whole  system  of  the  green-sand  and  chalk.     7.  Tertiary  deposits. 

Between  the  two  subordinate  groups  of  No.  6.  we  were  not  able  to 
draw  any  precise  line  of  separation  ;  and,  to  our  surprise,  we  were 
still  less  able  to  define  the  limits  of  the  secondary  and  tertiary  series. 
For,  sometimes  resting  unconformably  among  the  serrated  peaks  of 
the  higher  mountains,  and  sometimes  in  a  position  intermediate  be- 
tween the  outer  zorie  of  the  chain  and  the  tertiary  plains  descending 
towards  the  Danube,  we  found  great  complex  deposits,  apparently 
graduating  at  one  extremity  into  the  secondary,  and  at  the  other 
into  the  tertiary  system,  and  abounding  in  fossils,  which  in  a  great 
majority  of  the  species  seemed  to  conform  to  the  tertiary  type. 
Upon  this  mixed  evidence  we  concluded  that  these  singular  deposits 
formed  a  true  connecting  link  between  the  secondary  and  tertiary 
systems  of  the  region;  and,  though  unknown  in  our  own  country  and 
the  North  of  France,  were  to  be  placed  somewhere  between  the  cal- 
caire  grossier  and  the  chalk. 

To  the  clearing  up  of  this  point  (on  which  alone  we  had  any  essen- 
tial disagreement  with  Dr.  Bou6) ,  Mr.  Murchison  has  devoted  the 
most  elaborate  details  of  his  recent  Memoir.  He  first  describes  the 
extension  of  the  primary  axis  into  the  Leitha-gebirge,  which  thus 
seems  to  form  a  connecting  link  between  the  Alpine  and  Hungarian 
chains,  and  notices  some  new  and  interesting  localities  of  the  mag- 
nesian limestone  and  red  marl  series.  He  then  traces  the  reappear- 
ance of  the  gypseous  and  saliferous  marls,  apparently  of  the  age  of 
the  new  red  sandstone,  in  some  longitudinal  valleys  of  the  Salzburg 
Alps  ;  and  by  means  of  detailed  sections,  fixes  the  great  salt  deposits 

c2 


292 

of  Aussee  and  Halstadt  between  the  older  Alpine  limestone  based 
upon  lias,  and  the  newer  limestone  terminating  in  the  Hippurite  rock. 
He  afterwards  gives  various  sections  of  the  Vienna  sandstone  group, 
and  shows  that  it  is  the  equivalent  of  the  green-sand  and  chalk ;  and 
proves,  by  very  elaborate  details,  chiefly  derived  from  the  banks  of  the 
Traun,  that  in  the  enormous  development  of  the  nummulite  series  one 
part  graduates  into  the  secondary,  and  another  into  the  tertiary  sy- 
stem of  the  Eastern  Alps  ;  thus  confirming  by  new  and  uninterrupted 
sections  the  justness  of  our  former  classification. 

Among  the  novel  and  important  observations  in  this  Memoir,  the 
author  describes  a  deposit,  at  Ortenburg  in  the  valley  of  the  Danube, 
composed  of  chalk  with  flints,  supporting  tertiary  sands  and  clays,  and 
resting  horizontally  upon  the  primary  rocks  of  the  Bohemian  chain. 
Arguing  from  this  fact  he  shows,  (agreeably  to  the  system  of  M.  Elie 
de  Beaumont,)  that  the  elevation  of  the  Alpine  and  Bohemian  chains 
took  place  at  two  distinct  periods. 

In  glancing  over  the  various  papers  on  the  structure  of  the  Eastern 
Alps,  it  was  impossible  for  me  entirely  to  separate  the  descriptions 
of  the  older  and  newer  systems ;  but  I  now  proceed  to  notice  some 
communications  almost  exclusively  devoted  to  the  phenomena  of  ter- 
tiary deposits. 

A  paper  was  laid  before  the  Society  by  Mr.  Murchison  and  myself, 
during  the  past  year,  on  the  Tertiary  Formations  of  Lower  Styria. 
In  an  east  and  west  section,  from  the  Styrian  Alps  to  the  confines  of 
Hungary,  we  describe  along  succession  of  marine  strata;  commencing, 
as  we  have  endeavoured  to  prove  by  the  imbedded  fossils,  with  rocks 
of  the  Palseotherian  period,  and  ascending  through  the  middle  Sub- 
Apennine  system  to  a  large  group  of  strata,  apparently  containing 
several  species  of  recent  shells,  and  of  the  same  age  with  the  higher 
deposits  of  the  Vienna  basin.  Yet  in  this  most  recent  group  are  masses 
of  limestone  exhibiting  so  fine  an  oolitic  structure,  that  by  hand  spe- 
cimens alone  we  should  find  it  no  easy  task  to  separate  them  from  the 
great  oolite  of  Bath. 

In  another  section  from  north  to  south,  we  have  shown  the  asso- 
ciation of  the  upper  tertiary  groups  with  the  rugged  volcanic  rocks 
which  start  out  from  the  eastern  plains  of  Styria :  and  from  all  the 
complicated  phenomena  we  conclude,  that  the  volcanic  forces  were 
first  called  into  action  in  this  region  during  the  most  recent  tertiary 
period,  and  were  probably  continued  for  a  long  succession  of  ages, 
during  which  the  sea  was  spread  over  the  lower  portions  of  Styria 
and  Hungary  ;  and  that  no  test  can  be  established  whereby  we  can 
fix  the  ages  of  the  different  igneous  productions  :  inasmuch  as  the 
same  groups  of  strata  are  in  one  place  covered  by  basaltic  lava,  in 
another  by  trachyte,  in  a  third  by  volcanic  conglomerate,  and  in  a 
fourth  alternate  with  volcanic  sand  and  breccia.  Lastly,  we  have  in 
the  discontinuous  masses  of  volcanic  breccia,  and  in  the  rude  and 
interrupted  escarpments  of  trachytic  and  basaltic  rocks,  the  clearest 
and  most  emphatic  proofs  of  enormous  degradation,  within  a  period 
of  time  bounded  by  one  of  the  newest  regular  formations  of  geology. 

"Before  quitting  this  subject  I  may  add,  that  Mr.  Murchison  has,  in 


293 

his  last  Memoir,  identified  all  the  groups  of  the  Vienna  basin  with 
those  of  our  Styrian  sections.  The  inferior  blue  marl  (or  Tegel)  of 
that  basin  is  supposed  to  be  the  equivalent  of  the  London  clay  j  the 
white  coralline  limestone  of  the  Leitha-gebirge  is  placed  on  the  same 
parallel  with  the  limestone  of  Wildon  ;  and  the  higher  accumulations 
of  sand  and  gravel  are  compared  with  the  upper  formations  of  Lower 
Styria,  through  which,  as  stated  above,  the  basaltic  and  trachytic 
eruptions  have  made  their  way. 

The  papers  of  Colonel  Silvertop,  on  two  lacustrine  deposits  in  the 
province  of  Granada,  placed  before  us  an  interesting  sketch  of  the 
structure  of  a  region  little  known  to  the  geologists  of  this  country. 
After  pointing  out  the  primary  formations  of  the  Sierra  Nevada,  and 
the  recent  marine  strata  near  the  southern  base  of  the  chain,  he  de- 
scribes the  large  freshwater  basins  of  Baza  and  Alhama,  occupying 
two  deep  depressions  on  its  northern  declivity.  The  strata  of  the 
former  basin  are  subdivided  into  two  great  groups ;  the  lower  com- 
posed of  marls  with  many  fossils  of  the  genus  Cypris,  and  containing 
brine  springs,  gypsum,  and  sulphur  ;  the  upper  composed  of  light- 
coloured  indurated  marl  and  limestone,  charged  with  innumerable 
Paludince.  The  basin  of  Alhama  gives  very  nearly  a  repetition  of  the 
same  phenomena :  but  among  its  indurated  white  marls  is  a  larger 
number  of  organic  remains,  some  of  which  very  nearly  resemble  those 
of  the  freshwater  limestone  in  the  basins  of  Paris  and  the  Isle  of 
Wight. 

It  is  not  necessary  for  me  to  point  out  the  importance  of  facts  like 
these ;  and  I  am  not  called  upon  to  follow  the  author  through  his  de- 
tails, as  his  communications  are  already  published. 

On  the  subject  of  tertiary  deposits,  I  have  finally  to  notice  a  com- 
munication by  Mr.  Pratt,  who  found,  during  last  summer,  in  the 
lower  freshwater  marls  of  Binstead  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  many  com- 
minuted or  rolled  fragments  of  the  bones  and  teeth  of  several  species 
of  Mammalia,  mingled  with  pulverized  shells,  and  with  the  bones  of 
two  or  three  species  of  freshwater  turtles,  resembling  those  described 
by  M.  Cuvier  from  the  Paris  basin.  Among  the  more  perfect  speci- 
mens of  these  fossils,  the  author  found  a  tooth  of  the  Anoplotherium 
commune,  and  the  teeth  of  two  species  of  Palceotheria ;  thus  confirm- 
ing a  previous  discovery  made  known  by  Mr.  Allen,  and  perfecting 
the  zoological  analogy  between  the  newer  lacustrine  formations  of 
England  and  central  France. 

The  bones  of  the  Binstead  marls  do  not  however  belong  exclu- 
sively to  the  order  of  P  achy  derma  la ;  for  the  author  also  found  the 
jaws  of  a  ruminating  animal  closely  allied  to  the  genus  Moschus,  but 
at  the  same  time  differing  in  some  essential  characters  from  every 
species  hitherto  described ;  and  he  gives  us  reason  for  sanguine  hope, 
that  large  additions  may  be  hereafter  made  to  his  very  important  list 
of  new  fossil  quadrupeds.  All  the  magnificent  generalizations  of 
Cuvier,  as  far  as  they  are  borne  out  by  the  zoological  phenomena  of 
the  Paris  basin,  apply  therefore  literally  to  the  more  recent  physical 
revolutions  of  our  own  country. 

Among  the  papers  published  in  the  early  volumes  of  our  Trans- 


294 

actions,  none  excited  a  greater  or  more  deserved  interest  than 
those  of  Mr.  Webster.  But  first  generalizations  are  almost  always 
pushed  too  far.  After  being  bewildered  with  the  observation  of  un- 
connected facts,  the  first  glimmering  of  general  truth  is  so  delightful, 
that  it  often  leads  us  beyond  the  bounds  of  fair  induction.  We  are  then 
compelled  to  retrace  our  steps,  and  cast  about  for  new  phenomena  ; 
and  it  is  only  after  a  succession  of  trials  and  adjustments,  that  the 
facts  we  had  at  first  partially  misinterpreted  are  seen  at  their  pro- 
per level,  and  with  their  true  bearing  upon  each  other.  The  broad 
conclusions  of  Mr.  Webster,  in  his  comparison  of  the  basins  of  Paris 
and  the  Isle  of  Wight,  are  however  too  firmly  established  to  be  ever 
shaken  ;  and  it  is  only  in  his  estimate  of  the  subordinate  groups  that 
his  early  essays  require  either  revision  or  correction  :  and  surely  it 
is  no  reproach  to  him  that  he  did  not  foresee  the  subsequent  disco- 
veries of  MM.  Cuvier  and  Brongniart. 

The  argile  plastique  of  Paris  is  now  regarded  as  a  mere  local  lacus- 
trine deposit.  The  plastic  clay  of  this  country  is,  on  the  contrary,  an 
arenaceous  formation  of  enormous  thickness,  not  merely  coextensive 
with,  but  often  stretching  far  beyond  the  limits  of,  our  tertiary  basins  ; 
and  containing,  here  and  there,  subordinate  argillaceous  beds,  and 
many  marine  shells  of  the  same  species  with  the  characteristic  fossils 
of  the  London  clay. 

The  deposits  of  the  Isle  of  Wight  above  the  London  clay  are  sub- 
divided (in  all  our  published  works)  into  three  principal  groups, — the 
upper  and  the  lower  composed  of  calcareous  lacustrine  marls  in  diffe- 
rent states  of  induration — the  middle  one  of  argillaceous  marls  sup- 
posed to  be  exclusively  of  marine  origin.  But  it  has  been  long  known 
to  many  of  the  gentlemen  I  am  now  addressing,  and  to  no  one  better 
than  Mr.  Webster — that  in  Headdon  Hill  (which  gave  the  types  of 
all  his  formations  above  the  London  clay),  the  middle  argillaceous 
group  contains  innumerable  freshwater  shells,  greatly  predominating 
over  the  marine,  and  bands  of  lacustrine  marl  differing  in  no  respect 
from  that  of  the  upper  and  lower  groups — that  in  Norton  Cliff  (about 
two  miles  north  of  Headdon  Hill),  the  three  groups  are  mineralogically 
well  developed  without  containing  a  single  marine  fossil — that  at 
Hampstead  Cliff,  where  the  argillaceous  marls  have  four  or  five  times 
their  average  thickness,  no  undoubted  marine  shells  appear  on  the 
true  parallel  of  the  upper  marine  formation* — and  that  in  many  other 
parts  of  the  Isle  of  Wight  the  three  groups  admit  not  either  of  mine- 
ralogical  or  zoological  separation  from  each  other;  but  are  composed, 
from  top  to  bottom,  of  an  indefinite  number  of  alternations  of  argilla- 
ceous and  calcareous  marls,  passing  at  one  extremity  into  soft  unc- 
tuous clay,  and  at  the  other  into  freshwater  limestone  f. 

*  In  the  highest  part  of  the  argillaceous  marls  of  Hampstead  Cliff  (about 
two  miles  east  of  Yarmouth),  there  are,  however,  two  species  of  Corbulee ; 
but  they  occur,  if  I  mistake  not,  far  above  the  parallel  of  the  "upper  marine 
marls"  of  Headdon  Hill. 

f  Anomalies,  similar  to  those  pointed  out  above,  are  stated  also  to  occur 
in  portions  of  the  Paris  basin,  and  may  perhaps  hereafter  be  used  as  terms 
of  comparison  with  the  structure  of  the  Isle  of  Wight. 


295 

Facts  like  these  prove,  if  I  mistake  not,  the  impossibility  of  insti- 
tuting any  rigid  comparison  between  all  the  successive  groups  in  the 
basins  of  Paris  and  the  Isle  of  Wight.  But  discrepancies  in  minute 
details  militate  in  no  respect  against  Mr.  Webster's  leading  gene- 
ralizations, which  have  received  such  a  striking  and  unlooked-for 
illustration  in  the  fossil  mammalia  of  Binstead.  If  the  hints  now 
thrown  out  should  induce  him  to  lay  before  the  public  some  part  of 
his  valuable  observations  on  our  different  tertiary  deposits,  or  to 
hasten  the  publication  of  his  long-promised  work  on  the  Isle  of 
Wight,  my  present  purpose  will  be  completely  answered. 

In  these  papers,  a  brief  analysis  of  which  I  have  now  placed  before 
you,  we  have  some  new  and  striking  proofs  of  the  great  importance 
of  organic  remains  in  determining  the  comparative  age  of  remote 
and  discontinuous  formations.  And  we  have  seen  that  in  cases  where 
we  have  few  examples  of  specific  agreement,  we  can,  from  the  aspect 
of  large  groups  of  fossils  and  the  general  resemblance  of  their  generic 
types,  form  at  least  a  probable  estimate  of  the  age  of  the  deposits  to 
which  they  are  subordinate.  Inferences  of  this  kind  would  be  alto- 
gether worthless  were  they  invalidated  by  the  direct  evidence  of 
geological  sections.  But  we  deny  that  this  is  in  any  respect  the  case ; 
and  our  conclusions  are  the  more  certain,  because  they  are  not  only 
founded  upon  a  wide  induction  of  particulars,  but  are  consistent 
among  themselves. 

There  can  be  no  doubt  that  in  the  ancient  ocean,  as  well  as  in  the 
present,  the  distribution  of  organized  beings  was  affected  by  many 
causes— by  the  temperature  and  depth  of  the  waters — by  the  nature 
of  the  soundings — by  the  action  of  tidal  currents — and  by  other  unap- 
preciable  disturbing  forces.  Even  among  the  old  secondary  groups 
we  can  sometimes  separate  littoral  formations  from  those  of  deep  seas, 
not  merely  by  their  mineral  structure,  but  also  by  their  fossils  :  and 
in  all  geological  periods  of  the  history  of  the  earth,  formations  on  the 
shores  and  formations  in  deep  seas  must  have  gone  on  together. 

Again,  our  great  formations  may  be  subdivided  into  many  dis- 
tinct mineralogical  groups  of  strata  ;  and  the  large  suites  of  organic 
remains,  characteristic  of  the  formations  as  a  whole,  may  also  be  sub- 
divided into  many  groups,  the  species  being  defined  by  the  mineral 
structure  of  the  beds  to  which  they  are  subordinate. 

All  this  is  in  harmony  with  the  distribution  of  the  animal  kingdom 
in  the  existing  seas.  Some  animals  may  be  found  almost  indifferently 
on  a  calcareous,  a  sandy,  or  a  muddy  bottom  (for  example,  the  float- 
ing cephalopods) ;  and  the  remains  of  ancient  animals  of  kindred 
organization  occur  indifferently  in  calcareous,  siliceous,  and  argilla- 
ceous groups  of  strata.  Some  animals  have  lived  and  propagated 
under  the  waters  of  a  muddy  shore ;  the  remains  of  these  occur 
abundantly  in  our  secondary  beds  of  shale.  To  the  very  existence  of 
some  shells  calcareous  rocks  are  necessary ;  and  on  banks  of  mud  or 
moveable  sand,  corals  and  attached  zoophytes  could  find  no  proper 
resting  place.  Hence  it  is  that  many  species  of  shells  and  zoophytes 
are  chiefly  characteristic  of  limestone  strata  j  and  if  they  exist  at  all 


296 

in  other  beds,  have  probably  been  drifted  there  by  the  action  of  marine 
currents. 

It  follows  from  these  remarks,  that  any  great  change  in  the  mine- 
ralogical  character  of  a  formation  must  also  be  accompanied  with  a 
corresponding  change  in  the  accompanying  forms  of  organic  struc- 
ture once  subservient  to  life.  In  this  way  we  may  explain  the  great 
difference  between  the  organic  remains  of  the  lower  oolitic  series  of 
western  and  central  England,  and  of  the  contemporaneous  coal  for- 
mation on  the  Yorkshire  coast.  And  in  the  same  way  we  may  also 
explain  an  opposite  fact,  observed  more  than  once  by  Mr.  Murchison 
and  myself  during  our  traverses  through  the  Eastern  Alps,  that  wher- 
ever a  secondary  deposit  of  that  great  chain  approaches  the  mineral 
type  with  which  we  are  familiar  in  this  country,  it  also  contains  an 
imbedded  group  of  organic  remains  very  nearly  resembling  those  we 
have  been  taught  to  regard  as  characteristic  of  the  formation. 

I  believe  that  the  subject  to  which  I  am  now  pointing  is  one  of  in- 
terest and  importance ;  and  I  know  no  one  who  could  do  so  much 
justice  to  it  as  Mr.  Lonsdale,  whose  admirable  knowledge  of  recent 
and  fossil  species,  and  of  the  minutest  subdivisions  of  our  secondary 
groups  of  strata,  (strengthened  and  improved  as  it  is  by  the  perform- 
ance of  the  great  task  he  has  undertaken  so  much  to  the  advantage 
of  this  Society,)  qualifies  him  to  compose  an  essay  which  will  throw 
the  greatest  light  upon  the  physical  causes  affecting  the  distribution 
of  organized  beings  during  the  long  periods  of  geology. 

In  a  paper  by  Mr.  Yates,  the  last  I  have  to  notice  in  connection 
with  our  ordinary  subjects  of  discussion,  we  have  a  minute  detail 
both  of  the  processes  regulating  the  production  of  alluvial  matter, 
and  of  the  forms  it  assumes  during  its  accumulation.  He  first  con- 
siders the  causes  of  disintegration,  independent  of  the  immediate 
action  of  running  water  ;  among  which  he  principally  enumerates 
earthquakes,  landslips,  the  various  effects  of  oxidation,  and  the  ex- 
pansive powers  of  frost.  He  then  describes  the  distribution  of  the 
comminuted  materials  by  running  water,  the  manner  in  which  they 
become  piled  into  obtuse  cones  in  passing  from  lateral  to  principal 
valleys,  and  the  various  causes  modifying  the  erosive  power  of  rivers. 
From  these  subjects  he  proceeds  to  the  forms  assumed  by  alluvial 
silt  when  carried  down  into  standing  water,  the  manner  in  which 
lakes  become  gradually  filled  up,  and  the  inclination  of  the  stratified 
masses  resulting  from  the  operation.  Lastly,  he  describes  the  effects 
produced  at  the  junction  of  two  streams,  the  depositions  on  the  inter- 
mediate stagnant  points,  and  the  forms  of  alluvial  masses,  whether 
in  rivers  or  lakes,  produced  by  this  compound  action  j  and,  from  the 
observation  of  these  forms,  he  draws  some  practical  conclusions  re- 
specting the  probable  accumulations  at  the  bottom  of  the  sea  by  the 
opposition  or  the  union  of  currents,  whether  flowing  at  the  same  or 
at  different  levels. 

Questions  of  this  kind  are  of  most  obvious  importance  ;  but  they 
admit  of  no  illustration  except  by  details  ill  fitted  for  the  nature  of 
this  address.  I  may  however,  before  I  finally  quit  this  subject,  remind 


297 

you  of  two  opposite  facts  recorded  in  papers  very  lately  read  in  this 
Society,  especially  as  they  strengthen  an  opinion  advanced  at  our 
last  anniversary — that  the  river  drainage  of  every  physical  region 
is  a  complex  result,  always  modified  by  local  conditions,  and  often 
depending  upon  the  action  of  many  successive  causes.  I  have  already 
shown  that  in  a  part  of  Cumberland  and  Westmorland  the  valleys 
are  excavated  upon  the  lines  of  ancient  breaks  or  fissures.  On  the 
contrary,  in  the  neighbouring  carboniferous  chain  of  Yorkshire,  the 
faults  and  dislocations  hardly  ever  range  in  the  directions  of  the 
valleys,  and  do  not  seem  to  have  produced  any  sensible  effect  upon 
the  directions  of  the  erosive  currents. 

Again,  the  valleys  of  the  carboniferous  chain  are  of  great  depth, 
and  the  strata  on  their  opposite  sides  are  generally  horizontal  and  at 
the  same  level ;  yet  within  these  valleys  we  have  in  every  river  and 
every  tributary  torrent,  proofs,  in  my  opinion  the  most  unequivocal, 
that  the  channels  where  the  waters  now  flow  have  only  existed  during 
a  very  recent  period. 

I  mention  these  facts  for  the  purpose  of  urging  upon  you  the 
important  truths,  that  geology  has  little  to  do  with  the  combinations 
of  simple  elements,  and  that  we  are  in  most  cases  called  upon 
sternly  to  reject  such  conclusions  as  are  founded  only  upon  particular 
phenomena. 

Such,  Gentlemen,  are  the  subjects  which  have  come  before  us 
during  the  past  year.  They  are  neither  small  in  number  nor  unim- 
portant in  their  objects ;  and  whatever  may  be  their  other  merils,_ 
they  at  least  prove  that  our  body  has  manifested  the  activity  of 
healthy  life.  As  we  advance  on  our  way,  we  gain  strength  at 
every  step ;  but  new  and  loftier  subjects  of  contemplation  are  con- 
tinually rising  up  before  us ;  so  that  as  yet  we  have  no  glimpse  of 
the  furthest  boundary  to  our  prospects  and  our  labours.  And  in  all 
this  there  is  a  perpetual  motive  for  combination  and  energy  and  hope, 
and  for  the  exercise  of  all  those  faculties  which  are  called  forth  in  the 
great  journey  of  discovery. 

We  have  indeed  neither  the  time  nor  the  power  to  slumber ;  and, 
in  spite  of  ourselves,  we  cannot  but  partake  of  that  forward  move- 
ment by  which  all  our  neighbours  are  borne  along.  The  continental 
press  teems  with  admirable  works  on  every  department  of  natural  hi- 
story ;  and  our  subject  has  obtained,  to  say  the  least,  its  full  share  of 
consideration.  Professor  Hoffman's  map,  alluded  to  in  my  former 
address,  will  soon  be  illustrated  by  a  work  which  promises  fair  to 
make  the  north  of  Germany  once  more  the  classic  land  of  geology. 
The  excellent  Memoirs  of  MM.  de  Beaumont  and  Dufrenoy  will 
soon  be  followed  by  the  Geological  Map  of  France, — a  great  national 
work,  to  appear,  I  hope,  before  the  expiration  of  this  year.  I  select 
these  subjects,  not  merely  on  account  of  their  general  importance, 
but  because  they  have  an  immediate  relation  to  the  structure  of  this 
country,  and  to  the  best  labours  of  our  own  body. 

The  organization  of  the  Geological  Society  of  Paris  belongs  to  the 
history  of  the  preceding  year  :  and  when  we  consider  the  incompa- 


298 

rable  collections  of  that  capital,  and  the  illustrious  naturalists  who 
are  there  assembled,  we  confidently  look  to  this  association  for  results 
which  shall  greatly  affect  the  future  history  of  our  science.  With 
ordinary  fortune  it  can  hardly  fail  to  become  a  great  central  point  of 
union,  where  geologists  from  all  the  nations  of  Europe  may  from  time 
to  time  meet  together  with  no  rivalry  but  in  the  love  of  truth. 

Our  studies,  Gentlemen,  have  no  part  in  those  bad  passions  by 
which  mankind  are  held  asunder;  the  boundaries  of  tribes  and 
nations  are  blotted  out  from  our  maps;  the  latest  revolutions  we  treat 
of  are  anterior  to  the  records  of  our  race,  and  compared  with  the 
least  of  the  monuments  which  we  decipher,  all  the  works  of  man's 
hand  vanish  out  of  sight.  If  we  have  advanced  with  a  vigorous 
step  for  the  last  fifteen  years,  it  has  been  during  the  peace  of  the 
civilized  world.  The  foundations  on  which  we  build  are  so  widely 
parted,  that  we  require  nothing  less  than  a  free  range  through  all 
the  kingdoms  of  the  earth  ;  and  if  anything  should  occur  to 
cloud  our  prospects  or  retard  our  progress,  it  must  be  accom- 
panied by  some  moral  plague  which  will  desolate  the  face  of  Eu- 
rope. Against  the  visitation  of  such  a  calamity,  every  man  whom 
I  now  address  will  join  with  me  in  heartfelt  aspirations. 

Geology  is  a  science  of  observation  :  and  it  is  a  humiliating  fact, 
forced  upon  us  at  every  step  of  our  progress,  that  the  material 
combinations  we  investigate  and  attempt  to  classify  are  too  rude 
and  ill  defined  to  be  regarded  as  the  appreciable  results  of  any 
simple  law  of  nature.  Some  great  and  simple  problems  in  physics 
have  however  so  immediate  a  connexion  with  the  structure  of  the 
earth,  that  we  may  almost  claim  their  solutions  for  our  own. 

The  form  put  on  by  a  fluid  body  in  rotation  is  an  abstract  ques- 
tion, which  might  or  might  not  have  any  real  application  to  the 
bodies  of  our  solar  system.  But  direct  geodesic  observations,  as 
well  as  the  relative  position  of  land  and  water,  prove  that  the  stra- 
tified matter  on  the  crust  of  the  earth  is  deposited  in  near  confor- 
mity to  the  surface  of  a  true  spheroid  of  rotation.  Here  then  we 
have,  in  spite  of  one  of  the  arbitrary  dogmas  of  the  Huttonian 
theory,  an  indication  of  a  primeval  fluidity  before  the  commence* 
ment  of  any  one  phenomenon  coming  within  the  direct  specu- 
lations of  geology.  And  again,  the  direct  phenomena  of  geology 
are  in  the  strictest  harmony  with  this  conclusion.  For,  after  passing 
through  a  few  stages  of  stratified  matter,  formed  by  the  degradation 
of  matter  in  a  prior  state  of  solidity,  we  are  conducted  to  other  un- 
stratified  masses  with  that  crystalline  structure  which  implies  an 
anterior  fluidity — in  some  cases  unequivocally,  and  in  all  cases  pro- 
bably, derived  from  the  solvent  power  of  heat. 

But  if  the  earth  ever  existed  in  any  state  approaching  to  igne- 
ous fusion,  it  must  have  undergone  a  great  diminution  of  tem- 
perature before  it  was  fitted  for  the  habitation  of  any  organized 
being.  And  here  again  geological  facts  are  at  least  in  a  general 
accordance  with  the  hypothesis ;  for  the  forms  of  the  living  beings 
entombed  among  the  ancient  strata,  not  only  seem  to  indicate  a 


299 

high  temperature,  but  also  a  gradual  refrigeration  of  the  surface  of 
the  earth. 

Here  however  we  meet  with  an  unexpected  difficulty.  If  during 
any  period  the  earth  have  undergone  a  sensible  refrigeration,  it 
must  also  have  undergone  a  contraction  of  its  dimensions;  and  also, 
as  a  necessary  consequence  of  a  well  known  mechanical  law,  an  ac- 
celeration round  its  axis  of  rotation.  But  direct  astronomical  ob- 
servations prove  that  there  has  been  no  sensible  diurnal  acceleration 
during  the  last  2000  years ;  and  therefore,  by  inverting  the  steps  of 
the  reasoning,  we  prove — that  during  that  long  period  there  has  been 
no  sensible  diminution  in  the  mean  temperature  of  the  earth.  This 
difficulty  does  not,  however,  entirely  upset  the  previous  hypothesis: 
it  only  proves  that  the  earth  had  reached  an  equilibrium  of  mean 
temperature  before  the  commencement  of  good  astronomical  ob- 
servations. 

But  if,  Gentlemen,  our  speculations  are  thus  limited  and  guided 
by  the  observations  of  astronomy,  we  have  in  part  paid  back  to  that 
exalted  science  the  obligations  we  owe  to  it.  The  great  bodies 
of  our  system  leave  behind  them  no  marks  to  track  their  pro- 
gress through  the  heavens ;  and  the  vast  secular  periods  we  can 
calculate,  reaching  to  ages  long  anterior  to  the  records  of  our 
being,  might  be  mere  fictions  of  the  mind  which  have  never  had  any 
archetype  in  nature.  But  in  the  phenomena  of  geology  we  are 
carried  back,  almost  at  our  first  step,  into  times  unlimited  by  any 
narrow  measures  of  our  own;  and  we  exhibit  and  arrange  the  monu- 
ments of  former  revolutions  requiring  for  their  accomplishment  per- 
haps all  the  secular  periods  of  astronomy.  Nor  is  this  all.  We  show 
by  help  of  records,  not  to  be  misinterpreted,  that  during  this  vast 
lapse  of  time,  in  the  very  contemplation  of  which  our  minds  become 
bewildered,  the  law  of  gravitation  underwent  no  change,  and  the 
powers  of  atomic  combination  were  still  performing  their  office. 

If  the  phenomena  of  geology  be  coeval  with  long  returning  astro- 
nomical periods  (and  it  is  at  least  impossible  to  prove  the  contrary), 
a  question  may  arise,  whether  some  of  the  first  difficulties  we  meet 
with  (such  as  those  connected  with  the  transport  of  diluvial  gravel, 
and  the  gradual  diminution  of  temperature,)  may  not  be  attributed 
rather  to  effects  of  planetary  perturbation  than  to  any  change  in  the 
internal  condition  of  the  earth.  This  question  has  been  admirably 
discussed  in  a  recent  paper  by  Mr.  Herschel. 

Of  all  the  secular  inequalities  produced  by  perturbation,  those  of 
the  moon  alone  can  produce  any  visible  effects  upon  the  tidal  level. 
The  lunar  inequalities  considered  are  of  two  kinds— change  of 
mean  distance,  and  change  of  eccentricity.  Both  are  confined 
within  narrow  determined  limits ;  and  Mr.  Herschel  shows,  by 
actual  calculation,  that  they  could  not  have  produced  any  of  the 
great  movements  contemplated  in  geology. 

The  planetary  perturbations  of  the  orbit  of  the  earth  are  next 
considered,  and  the  influences  they  may  have  produced  on  the 
diffusion  of  light  and  heat.  The  secular  variation  of  obliquity  is 
too  small  to  have  ever  caused  any  sensible  effect  on  our  climates  : 


300 

but  he  proves,  by  direct  calculation,  that  the  mean  annual  diffusion 
of  solar  light  and  heat  varies  inversely  as  the  minor  axis  of  the 
orbit ;  or,  in  other  words,  increases  or  diminishes  with  the  increase 
or  diminution  of  eccentricity.  Now,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  the  eccen- 
tricity of  the  earth's  orbit  has  been  for  many  ages  slowly  diminish- 
ing, and  is  now  very  small ;  but  the  limits  of  its  secular  variation 
have  not  yet  been  calculated.  He  assumes  therefore,  hypotheti- 
cally,  that  the  eccentricity  of  our  orbit  may  once  have  been  as 
great  as  that  of  some  of  the  inferior  and  superior  planets;  and  on 
that  supposition  he  proves,  that  the  slow  diminution  of  eccentricity 
may  have  produced  a  gradual  change  of  climate,  of  the  very  kind 
indicated  by  geological  phenomena. 

Several  other  great  modifications  in  the  diffusion  of  light  and 
heat  are  involved  in  this  hypothesis,  one  only  of  which  I  will  men- 
tion, as  it  can  be  easily  explained.  It  is  well  known  that  the  place 
of  the  apogee  and  the  equinoctial  points  are  both  in  continual 
movement ;  and  after  the  completion  of  a  long  cycle,  these  points 
will  have  travelled  through  the  whole  circumference  of  our  orbit ; 
whence  it  follows — that,  during  one  part  of  the  great  astronomical 
cycle,  our  summers  would  coincide  with  the  greatest,  and  during 
another  with  the  least  distance  from  the  sun.  And  these  con- 
ditions, in  an  orbit  of  considerable  eccentricity,  would  produce, 
at  one  time  a  climate  resembling  perpetual  spring;  at  another, 
the  extreme  vicissitudes  of  a  burning  summer  and  a  rigorous 
winter. 

Whether  influences  of  this  kind  ever  have  caused  any  con- 
siderable changes  in  the  climate  of  different  portions  of  our  globe, 
must,  however,  still  remain  in  doubt,  as  the  calculations  are  only 
founded  on  analogy.  We  rejoice,  however,  to  associate  our  science 
with  these  lofty  speculations,  in  which  man  seems  to  be  no  longer 
a  worshiper  at  the  portal  of  Nature's  temple,  but  is  allowed  to  pass 
within,  and  to  be  so  far  a  partaker  of  her  mysteries,  as  to  see  with 
his  intellectual  eye  both  the  past  and  the  future. 

I  believe  that  the  law  of  gravitation,  the  laws  of  atomic  affinity